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LONDON JOURNAL 



arttl, Scirat(«, itnli itlanufactuceti, 



REPERTORY 



PATENT INVENTIONS. 



CONDUCTED BY 

Ma. W. NEWTON, 

OF THE OFFICE FOR PATENTS, CHANCERY LANS. 
(Juitttd by Kverat Scitntifie GentUmen.) 




VOL. XXXVIII. 

(CONJOINED SERIES.) 



LONDON : 

XIBHED BT W. HXVTOK, AT THE OFFICE FOR PATENTS, 66, CHANCERY- 
.ANE, AND UANCBBSTBR ; T. AND W. FIPER, PATERNOSTER ROV ; 
IMPKIN, HARSHALI., AND CO., STATIONERS' COURT; J. UC COMBE, 
ST., OLASOOW ; AND SALiaNANt's LIBRARY, RUE VITIEKKE, 



R. FOLKARD, PRINTER, DEYONIHIRB 8TRBBT, 
QUEEN SQUARE. 



LIST OF PLATES IN VOL. XXXVIII. 



[conjoined series.] 



I. Westrap's Machinery for Cleaning and Grinding Grain and 
Dressing Flour; and Newton's Apparatus for Making 
Hat-Bodies. 
II. Marbe's Impd. Lamps ; Ritchie's Impts. in Rolling Tubes ; 
Tumw and Hardwiok's Impts. ia Furnaces ; and Pal- 
mer's Wick-making Machinery. 

III. Greenway's Impd. Anchors and Valves ; Cox's Apparatus 

for Manufacturing Aerated Waters ; Brooman's Furnace 
for Smelting Zinc; Harding's Impd. Fastenings; and 
Waterlow's Copying Presses. 

IV. Ashworth & Mitchell's Spinning and Weaving Machinery ; 

and Newton's Impts. in Rotary Engines. 
V. Hurry's Impts. in Lubricating ; Barrans' Axle-boxes ; 
Watson's Apparatus for Preparing Colors; and Hick- 
man's Machinery for Making Tubes. 
VI. Milwain's Impd. Door and Window Fastenings ; Brown's 
Metallic Vessels; Silvester's Apparatus for Flattening 
Steel ; D'Angely's Impd. Urinal, &c. ; and Everitt and 
Glydon's Impts. in Tubes. 
VII. Colegrave's Impts. in Steam-Engines ; Heath and Thomas' 
Apparatus for Manufacturing Iron ; and Waddell's Impts. 
in Steam-Engines. 
VIII. Mac Lardy's Impd. Preparing and Spinning Machinery ; 
Forster's Filter ; Hartas' Motive Power Machinery ; and 
Bell's Impts. in Water-Closets, &c. 

a 



IV LIST OF PLATES. 

IX. Diagrams lUastrating Mechanical Engineers' Transactions ; 
Pirn's Impd. Boiler ; Pratt's Portmanteau ; and Mills' 
Impts. in Pistons. 
X. Saul's Impts. .in Spinning Machinery ; Rotch's Soap 
Boiler ; Christen' s Printing Apparatus ; Helbronner's 
Impts. in Excluding Dust, &c., from Rooms ; Horsfall 
and James' Apparatus for Rolling Metals ; and Diagrams 
Illustrating Mechanical Engineers' Transactions. 

XL Newton's Apparatus for Generating Gases by Electricity ; 

and Price and ^yhitehead's Impd. Filters. 
XII. Cotgreave's Apparatus for Draining Land ; Poole's Punch- 
ing Machinery and Springs ; Longdon and Tabberer's 
Impts. in making Looped Fabrics ; and Newton's Ship- 
Magazine. 

XIII. Cadby's Impts. in Piano-Fortes ; Bernard's Pneumatic 

Apparatus ; and Page's Impts. in Cleansing Sewers. 

XIV. Newton's Impd. Carving Machinery ; Beattie's Steering 

Apparatus ; and Tiffereau's Hydraulic Clocks. 
XV. Newton's Impts. in Carriages ; Browne's Disinfecting Ap- 
paratus; Dunbar's Impts. in Suspending Carriages; 
Harratt's Apparatus for Fagotting Iron; and Howel's 
Gun-Carriage. 
XVL Rogers' Impts. in Preparing Peat; Newton's Apparatus 
for Dyeing Yam ; and Illustrations of Mechanical Engi- 
neers' Transactions. 



LONDON JOURNAL, 

AND 

REPERTORY 

Of 



CONJOINED SERIES. 



No. CCXXIX. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

7b Walter Westritp, of JVapping, in the county of Mid- 
dUeseXy miller and biscuit baker, for improvements in 
cleaning and grinding com or grain, and dressing meal 
or flour • — [Sealed 2^h January^ 1850.] 

This invention relates, in the first place, to an improved con* 
stroctiion of apparatus for cleaning and separating corn or 
grain from dust and other extraneous matters, such as smut- 
balls, the seeds of weeds, and broken or defective grains. The 
wheat or other grain, in passing through the apparatus, is 
also deain^, and polished, and freed from the smut and 
dust which adheres to the beard of the grain, and which it 
has hitherto been so difficult to remove. 

The second improvement relates to machinery for grinding 
com or grain, and consists, in the first place, in making the 
running-stones with conical grinding surfaces, in place of flat 
ones, as is usually the case. In this improved arrangement, 
the bottom stones are the runners, — the upper stones being 
stationary, and made in the form of a ring, with inclined 
inner sur&ces, so as to fit, and, as it were, to surround the 
bottom stones or runners. The runners of both pair of grind- 
ing stones are mounted, one above the other, on the same 
vertical shaft, and are arranged in such a manner that the 
first pairs will break down the corn or grain, and partially 
pulverize it ; the meal then passes from the first pair of stones 
into a kind of short dressing-machine, where the fine flour is 
separated from the unground meal, which passes between the 

VOL. XXXVIII. A 



2 Recent Patents. 

second pair of stones^ where it is completely ground. By 
this means the corn is passed through the mill in much less 
time than usual^ and thereby an increased amount of work, 
in a given time, is effected. The grinding surfaces being 
conical, also facilitate the delivery of the flour therefrom, and 
thus prevent it from being spoilt or damaged by heating 
from friction. 

The third part of the invention relates to an improved con- 
struction of apparatus for dressing meal or flour, or separating 
the flour from the bran or offal. The arrangement of parts 
for effecting the desired object is very similar, in principle of 
construction, to the apparatus employed for cleaning and 
polishing the grain, and included under the first head of the 
invention. 

In Plate I., fig. 1, represents a longitudinal vertical section 
of the cleaning apparatus complete. The corn or grain to be 
operated upon is raised from any receptacle below by means 
of the lifting apparatus seen at a, and is deposited in the in- 
clined spout a, a, down which it passes into the interior of 
the large horizontal cylindrical apparatus. This apparatus is 
composed of a perforated cylinder b, b, mounted on an in- 
clined shaft i, b, b, by means of the arms c, c, c. The per- 
forations of the cylinder b, b, are of two kinds, viz., oblong 
slits and circular holes, through which broken or defective 
grains, dust, smut-balls, and the small seeds of weeds can 
pass with facility ; but which will not allow of the passage of 
sound grains of wheat or com. The axle or shaft b, b, is 
mounted in suitable bearings ; and at one end is a pulley or 
band-wheel d, which, when actuated by any prime mover, 
communicates rotary motion to the cylinder b. This cylinder 
is surrounded by a stationary cylinder or casing e, e, which 
receives all the matters that pass through the perforations of 
the cylinder b. The inner cylinder is slightly incUned, to 
allow the grain from the spout a, to pass slowly along from 
end to end of the cylinder by its own gravity. On the outer 
surface of the cylinder b, are longitudinal ribs/, / f, extending 
from end to end of the cyhnder ; and these ribs are furnished 
with a series of inclined wipers ^, ff, which, as the cylinder 
rotates, gradually push onward, towards the delivery-spout 
A, A, the defective grains, seeds, dust, and other extraneous 
matters which have passed through the perforations of the 
cylinder b. From the spout h, the offal, resulting from the 
cleaning operation, falls into a bin d, from whence it passes 
down a second spout i, into a receptacle below. The corn or 
grain, thus separated from many of the extraneous substances 



Westrup^s^for Cleaning and Orindinff Grain, ^c, 3 

with which it was before commingled^ then falls from the 
end of the cylinder b^ on to an endless travelling-belt or cloth 
y, which conveys it to the hopper or funnel k, of the smat- 
machine, which consists of an upright cylinder c^ c^ made of 
sheet-iron^ and roughened inside^ something like a nutmeg- 
grater, as seen at c*, in the drawing. The corn from the 
travelling-cloth y^ falls on to a conical table or plate I, which 
is secured to the vertical shaft m, near its upper end. The 
surface of this table or plate ly is fluted^ serrated^ or roughened^ 
as shewn in the drawings; and, as the shaft m, is caused to 
rotate by means of the gearing below, the surface of this plate 
ly is made to rub against the under sides of the fixed brushes 
n, n, which, as the com or grain falls on to the table or plate /, 
from the hopper, will rub it with considerable force against 
the roughened surface of the plate. The com, after this 
operation, will fall over the edges of the plate /, on to a flat 
or horizontal circular table o, of which there are several, 
mounted one above another on the vertical shaft m. These 
circular tables are made of wood, and covered with roughened 
sheet-iron, as shewn at fig. 2, (which represents a plan view 
of one of them detached) . Vertical fans or arms p, p, (of which 
there are four between every two tables o, o,) are secured to 
the upright shaft m, m, and are covered with roughened sheet- 
iron, similar to the tables. Immediately below the edges of 
each of the tables o, and inside the cylinder c, is a wooden 
ring or annular rib q, also covered with roughened sheet-iron. 
It will now be seen that the com or grain, upon entering the 
machine, is first operated upon by the brushes n, n, which rub 
it smartly against the rough surface of the conical plate /, 
from which it falls on to the rough surface of the first table o; 
from thence it is thrown, by the centrifugal force produced 
by the rapid rotation of the shaft m, against the rough sides 
of the cylinder c. The grain then falls between the peri- 
phery of the table o, and the inchned edge of the ring or 
annular rib q, where it is again rubbed ; and, when it escapes 
therefrom, it will be struck by the vertical fans p, and be 
again thrown against the roughened surface of the cylinder c ; 
or it will fall on to the second table o, and will pass between 
the periphery of this and the inclined edge of the second ring 
q, to be again rubbed ; and so on until it reaches the bottom 
or stationary floor of the machine. It is then swept by 
the rotary brushes »*, down a spout A*, into a chamber, 
where it is operated upon by a powerful current of air, pro- 
duced by the fan or blower r ; and thus all the dust and offal 
that has been removed from the com during the operations 

A 2 



4 Recent Patents. 

just described is blown away, and conducted by a pipe either 
into the open air or elsewhere. The clean grain will then fall 
on to an inclined sieve or perforated plate b*, through which 
the smaller grains will pass, while the larger and perfect grains 
will slide down the pipe a*, and fall into a suitable receptacle 
below. 

The patentee remarks that, in practice, he has sometimes 
found it desirable to pass the corn through a cylinder, similar 
to that shewn at c, in order to break the smut-balls, and 
partially cleanse the com, before carrying it into the perforated 
cylinder b. In order, however, to avoid complexity, he has 
not thought it necessary to shew this in the drawings, as it 
will be easily understood that, after passing the corn through 
such a machine, it can be raised by the lifting apparatus a, 
to the spout a, of the perforated cylinder b, as already men- 
tioned. 

The improved arrangement of apparatus for grinding corn 
or grain is shewn in several views in Plate I.; — fig. 3, being a 
vertical section, taken through the middle of the machine; 
fig. 4, a plan or partial sectional view, taken in the line i, 2, 
of fig. 3 ; and fig. 5, a sectional plan view of the machine, 
taken in the line 3, 4, of fig. 3. In this arrangement two 
pairs of stones are employed : the lower stones e, e, are the 
runners, and are fixed, one above the other, on a hollow 
vertical shaft f, which turns in bearings made in the frame- 
work. The grinding surface of the stones e, is conical or 
inclined, and lateral holes are made in the stones from the 
eye to the grinding surface (as shewn at fig. 3, and also in 
the sectional plan view, fig. 6,) for the purpose of admitting 
air to the grinding surface, in order to keep it cool. To 
facilitate this operation, the driving-shaft F, is made hollow, 
and is supplied with air by a pipe from above; — the air 
being admitted to the eye of the stone by means of lateral 
holes, communicating with the interior of the shaft. The top 
stones G, G, are stationary, and are of an annular shape ; their 
grinding surfaces being inclined to correspond with the coni- 
cal surface of the runner or bottom stone. For the conveni- 
ence of adjustment, the upper stones are mounted in annular 
frames 5, 5, which are, by means of projecting pieces i, i, i, 
(see figs. 4, 5, and 7,) supported upon a stationary ledge 2, 2, 2, 
which is secured to the framing. The mode of mounting and 
adjusting the top stone will be best understood by referring 
to the detached view, fig. 7, which represents, in elevation, 
the parts in immediate connection with the stones. It will 
be seen, upon referring to this figure, that the parts of the 



Westrup^Sffor Cleaning and Grinding Grain, SfC. B 

ledge 2, 2, 2, upon .which the projecting pieces i, i, i, of the 
annular frames s, s, rest, are inclined ; so that, by merely 
turning the frame 8, s, slightly round horizontally, the stone 
may be adjusted to the surface of the runner with the greatest 
nicety. In order to effect this adjustment, a small toothed 
rack /, is made on the outside or periphery of the annular 
frame s, s ; and this rack gears into an endless screw u; on 
one end of which is mounted a bevil pinion or mitre-wheel. 
This wheel is driven by a similar pinion on the upper end of 
a vertical shaft v, which is actuated by means of a similar 
pair of mitre-wheels and the hand-wheel w. The operation, 
mode of mounting, and adjustment of the lower pair of stones, 
is precisely similar to the upper ; and therefore no separate 
description is required. The apparatus is fed with com to 
be ground by the pipe h ; and the feed is regulated by a slid- 
ing pipe or tube ^, which encloses the bottom of the feed-pipe, 
and may be moved up and down by a lever y, the opposite 
extremity of which is jointed to a long rod z, threaded at its 
lower end, and furnished with a hand-wheel and thumb-screw ; 
whereby the rod z, may be raised or lowered, and the feed 
regulated at pleasure, by bringing the lower edge of the slid- 
ing tube 0?, nearer to or further from the circular plate 3, in 
the feed-box. The amount of feed having been properly ad- 
justed, by the means just described, the corn will pass down 
the pipe x, into the feed-box, and from thence down the pipe 
4, into the box 5, immediately above the eye of the upper 
stone. From this box 5, the com will pass between the 
grinding surfaces of the stones g, and e, and will be broken 
down and partially pulverized. The meal will quickly find 
its way out from between the stones, and will fall down on to 
the conical inclined surface 6, 6 ; from whence it will pass 
into a wire cylinder i, i, in which a number of brushes 7, 7, 
similar to those of a dressing- machine, work. These brushes 
7, 7, are mounted on the main shaft f, and rotate with it ; 
and as the meal falls into the cylinder, they will brush the 
already pulverized flour through the fine meshes of the wire^ 
and allow it to fall down the inclined surface 8, 8, into a 
chamber j, below (shewn best at fig. 7,) ; while the partially- 
ground meal will fall down the inclined surface 9, 9, and pass 
between the second pair of stones (as shewn at fig. 3). By 
this second operation the meal will have become completely 
ground or " softened down ;'^ and when it escapes from the 
second pair of stones it will fall into the chamber J, into which 
the floui', from the previous grinding operation, has already 
fallen. It will be understood that the object of separating 
the flour from the meal^ after the first grinding operation^ is, 



6 Recent Patents. 

that the flour already produced may not be allowed uselessly 
to pass through the second pair of stones. At the bottom of 
the chamber j, is a table k, which is mounted on the vertical 
driving-shaft, and receives a rotary motion therefrom. The 
meal; as it falls on to this revolving table k, is, by the rotation 
of the latter, brought against the arm lo, (see figs. 7, and 8,) 
which sweeps it into the spout ii ; from whence it falls into a 
bin or receptacle below. To the under side of the revolving 
table K, are attached a number of sweeps or curved arms 
(shewn by dots at fig. 8,) whereby any meal that may get 
under the table is swept out into the spout ii, as the table 
K, rotates. It is almost unnecessary to state, that the prin- 
cipal working parts are enclosed by a casing n, made of 
canvas, for the purpose of preventing the flour from being 
blown about. Motion is communicated to the working parts 
by means of the bevil gearing shewn at l, l, fig. 3, which is 
actuated by any prime mover. 

The improvements which relate to machinery for dressing 
meal or flour, and constitute the third part of the invention, 
are applicable to that description of dressing machinery in 
which the cylinder is placed vertically or nearly so. Fig. 9, 
is a horizontal section, and fig. 10, a vertical section of the 
improved construction of dressing-machine. The novelty 
consists in the employment of a series of circular tables o, o, o, 
which are mounted on the vertical shaft m, between the sets 
of brushes. The meal is fed into the machine at top, and 
falls on to the first table o, from which it is thrown by cen- 
trifugal force against the wire-gauze or silk sides of the cy- 
linder c, through which the fine flour is forced by the brushes 
p. Such portion of the meal as escapes the action of the first 
set of brushes falls over the edge of the first table o, on to 
the inclined edge of the ring q, which shoots it on to the 
second table o, when the second set of brushes operate upon 
it ; and so on, during the whole series, until all the flour is 
separated from the meal, and forced through the meshes of 
the cylinder c, — leaving nothing but bran or oflFal inside at the 
bottom of the cylinder. It has been said that the meal, in 
its passage through the machine, falls over the edge of one 
table 0, on to the inclined ring q, and from thence on to the 
next table or that immediately below. In practice, however, 
this is not exactly correct ; as, when the machine is driven at a 
proper speed, the brushes will rotate so fast, that they will 
catch a considerable portion of the meal before it has time to 
reach the second table. A great objection to the vertical 
machines, as at present constructed, is the very great speed at 
which they are obliged to be driven, — thereby occasioning a loss 



WedruffSyfor Cleatdnff and Grinding Grain, SfC. '7 

-ct power. Another objection is the liability of a quantity of 
the meal passing through the machine undressed^ should the 
speed be suddenly slackened from any cause. By the present 
arrangement these inconveniences are obviated^ as there is no 
occasion to drive the machine at a greater speed than the 
ordinary oblique cylinders are driven ; because there is no 
danger of any medi getting through the machine undressed^ 
as it cannot pass the first table even if the machine were to 
stop altogether. The machine is enclosed in an outer casing 
M^ M^ and the fine fiour that is passed through the gauze or 
silk is conveyed away in the ordinary manner. The offal from 
the interior of the cylinder is swept down a pipe or passage 
A*, by means of the rotating brushes «*. 

The patentee claims^ Firstly, — in relation to machinery or 
apparatus for cleaning com or grain, the use of a perforated 
cylinder, such as that shewn at b, b, fig. 1, for the purpose of 
separating the perfect com or grain from the seeds of weeds, and 
from dust, smut-balls, and other extraneous matters. He also 
claims the apparatus for cleaning com or grain shewn at c, c*, 
fig. 1, in so far as regards the employment of a series of hori- 
zontal tables or plates, mounted one above another upon a 
vertical shaft, which is furnished with radial blades or fans 
and revolves within an upright cylinder, provided with annu- 
lar ribs, projecting from the inner side of the cylinder, just 
beneath the edge of each horizontal table; so that when the 
com is fed in at the top of the machine, it will fall on to the 
first horizontal table, from which it will be thrown by centri- 
fugal force against the side of the cylinder ; and, after being 
rubbed between the edge of the table and the inclined edge 
of the first annular rib, will fall on to the second table, from 
which it will in like manner be thrown against the side of the 
cylinder ; and so on, until the corn reaches the bottom of the 
cylinder ; and after being subjected to the action of a fan or 
blower, for the purpose of blowing away and removing the 
dust and other impurities, it will be ultimately delivered into 
a suitable receptacle in a clean state. In reference to ma- 
chinery for grinding com or grain, he claims. Secondly,— 
the use of French buhr mill-stones, formed with conical or 
inclined grinding surfaces, as above described : that is, with 
the runner or lower stone made in the shape of a frustrum qf 
a cone, — the upper stone being stationary, and made in the 
form of a ring, with an inclined grinding surface to correspond 
with the conical surface of the runner. And he also claims 
the general arrangement and combination of parts herein de- 
scribed^ and shewn at fig* 3 ; — particularly the use of two or 



8 Recent Patents. 

more pairs of mill-stones with conical or inclined grinding 
surfaces ; the runner of each pair being mounted on the same 
vertical shaft, and arranged in such a manner, that when the 
meal escapes from the first pair of stones it may be subjected 
to a dressing operation, for the purpose of separating the al- 
ready formed flour from the unground meal, as above described ; 
leaving the unground meal, when freed from the flour, to pass 
through the second pair of stones, to complete the grinding 
operation. Thirdly, — in reference to machinery for dressing 
meal or flour, he claims the use of the horizontal circular 
tables 0, o, and the annular ribs q, — [Inrolled JtUy, 1850.] 



To GusTAVus Palmer Harding, of Bartlett's-buildings, in 
the City of London, artificial florist, for improvements in 
the manufacture of buttons and other fasteninffs, — [Sealed 
12th June, 1850.] 

This invention consists in improvements in manufacturing 
fastenings for buttons, studs, brooches, and such like articles, 
for the purpose of securing the same to garments or fabrics 
without the necessity of sewing. 

In Plate III., figs. 1, shew a back view and transverse 
section of a small button, having one of the improved fasten- 
ings applied thereto ; and figs. 2, exhibit similar views of a 
larger button of a difierent construction. The fastening con- 
sists of a piece of wire a, bent into the form of a spiral or 
volute, attached at its inner end (by soldering, screwing, or 
other means) to the back of the button, but having its outer 
end free. The button is secured to the garment or fabric by 
inserting the outer end of the wire into a small hole formed 
therein, and turning the button round until the whole of the 
curved part of the wire has passed through the hole, as shewn 
at figs. 2, where the dotted lines b, indicate the garment or 
fabric : the hole may be sewn round with thread like an ordi- 
nary button-hole, or it may be lined with metal in the same 
manner as the common metal eyelet-holes. Fig. 3, is a back 
view of a large hook, provided with one of the improved 
fastenings; and fig. 4, represents a back view of a brooch, 
which has one of these fastenings secured to it. Pigs. 5, and 
6, are edge views of a button made with an ordinary metal 
shank, which is to be attached to the garment or fabric by 
means of the fastening c, formed by bending a piece of wire 
or strip of metal in the manner shewn. 

The patentee claims the mode of constructing the fastenings 



Palmer^ 8, for Manufacturing Candles, SfC. 9 

in combination with buttons^ studs^ brooches^ and such like 
articles^ as described in respect to figs. 1^ 2, 3, 4^ 5^ 6 ; and 
he also claims the mode of making fastenings for buttons with 
shanks^ as described in respect to figs. 5^ and 6. — [InroUed 
December, 1850.] 



To William Palmer^ of 14, Cottage-grove, Bow-road, in 
the county of Middlesex, Gent., for improvements in the 
manufacture of candles and candle-vncks, and in the ma" 
chinery applicable to such matters. — [Sealed 22nd May^ 
I860.] 

This invention relates, first, to the manufacture of candles ; 
secondly, to the manufacture or preparation of wicks; and^ 
thirdly, to apparatus for manufacturing or preparing wicks. 

The improvement in the manufacture of candles consists in 
the employment, for that purpose, of wicks which have been 
deprived of all moisture by saturating them with tallow, cnr 
other fatty matter, or oil, in a heated state. The tallow, fatty 
matter, or oil, is heated to from 300** to 350° Fahr., and the 
wicks are kept immersed therein for about ten minutes ; and 
at the expiration of this time they are taken out and permitted 
to cool. Care should be taken to keep the wicks straight 
whilst cooling ; for, whatever be the position in which they 
are allowed to become cool or set, they will turn in a corres- 
ponding manner in the act of burning. 

Several improvements in the manufacture or preparation of 
wicks are described ; — ^the object of each improvement being 
to cause the wick to turn out of the flame whilst burning, and 
thus to render the operation of snuffing unnecessary. The 
first improvement consists m giving such a set to the wick as 
will cause it to turn out of the flame, by winding it helically 
around a cylindrical rod, about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
and then dipping it into hot tallow, fatty matter, or oil. The 
wick may be pulled straight either before or after it has be- 
come cool ; but it will still have the required tendency to 
turn out of the flame. 

The second improvement consists in winding two wicks 
helically, in opposite directions, around two separate rods; 
these rods are to be inserted in two holes, through which 
they will fall as the wicks are unwound therefrom ; and then 
the wicks are to be unwound from the rods and passed to- 
gether through hot tallow, whereby they become combined 
into a double wick. The double wick, when cold, is to be cut 



10 Recent Patents. 

into suitable lengths for making candles; and such lengths 
or wicks^ when intended to be used for making dip candles, 
must be securely held at each end> until, by the process of 
dippings a coat of tallow has been formed thereon of sufficient 
thickness to retain the wicks in an extended state : when the 
wicks are used for making mould candles^ they are^ of course, 
securely held at each end. 

The third improvement consists in making tubular looped 
wicks for candles. The patentee states that the best mode of 

Eerforming this part of his invention is to employ a tube about 
alf an inch in diameter, with pins fastened thereon, as shewn 
in plan and side views at figs. 1, Plate II. This apparatus is 
similar to what has been used in making tubular looped 
fabrics or cords for other purposes: he does not, therefore, 
claim the same, — this part of the invention consisting in 
making cottons in the form of tubular looped fabrics, suitable 
for wicks of candles ; and he prefers to employ pins of different 
sizes, to get an inequality of fabric, so as to cause it to turn 
out of the flame when burning. To form a wick, he takes a 
cotton cord or cotton yam, and forms a slip-loop over each 
pin ; he then passes the cotton round and slips the loops 
already made over the end of each pin, and so forms another 
series of loops. In some cases, such hollow looped fabrics are 
made over an inner wick of cotton, in order to get a larger 
substance of wick. The mode of making hollow looped wicks 
may be varied. 

The apparatus for preparing wicks, which constitutes the 
third part of this invention, is represented at figs. 2, and 3, — 
fig. 2, being a plan view, and fig. 3, a transverse section 
thereof. It consists of a cylindrical rod a, about a quarter of 
an inch in diameter and eighteen inches long, mounted in a 
frame b, in such manner as to be capable of turning freely 
therein, c, is a wire or strip of metal, which is wound heli- 
cally around the rod a, and is fixed at each end, by nuts d, 
to the frame b. e, is a toothed wheel, fixed on the rod a, and 
receiving motion, through other wheels, from any suitable 
first mover. A wick g, is wound around the rod a, between 
the coils of the helix c ; after which the frame is placed in a 
trough (partly shewn at /,) containing melted tallow, so that 
the wick is immersed in the same ; and the rod a, being then 
caused to rotate, will deliver the wick at the end a^, at the 
same rate that it winds on the wick at a^. This operation is 
continued until the whole length of wick has passed through 
the melted tallow and around the rod a, and has thus acquired 
a suitable set or tendency to turn out of the flame. 



Newton^ 8 J for Machinery for Making Hat-bodies, ^e. II 

The patentee claims^ First^< — the improvements in the manu- 
facture of candles above described. Secondly^ — the improve- 
ments in the manufacture of wicks above described. Thirdly^-— 
the improvements in machinery^ above described^ for manu- 
facturing wicks. — \InroUed November, I860.] 



To William Edward Newton, of the Office for Patents, 
66, Chancery-lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engi- 
neer, for an invention of improvements in machinery or 
apparatus for making hat-bodies and other similar articles, 
— being a communication from abroad. — [Sealed 29th Ja- 
nuary, 1850.] 

The improved machinery or apparatus for making hat-bodies 
and other similar articles is shewn in several views in Plate 
I. Pig. 1, is a plan view of the machine, with the " for- 
mer^' removed; fig. 2, is a longitudinal vertical section, 
taken at the line z, z, of fig. 1 ; fig. 3, is a vertical section of 
the former, with a bat on it, wrapped around with a felt cloth, 
and covered with a perforated metal cap, and with a perforated 
metal shield within the former ; and figs. 4, and 5, are sepa- 
rate views of the cap and shield. 

The patentee remarks, that it has long been essayed to make 
bat-bodies by throwing the fibres of fur, wool, or other similar 
materials, by means of a brush or picker cylinder, on to a 
perforated former, which must be exhausted by a fan below, 
so as to carry and hold the fibres on the former by the cur- 
rents of air that rush from all directions towards and through 
the apertures of the former to the interior thereof, and thus 
form a bat of fibres ready for hardening and felting; but, 
from various causes, these attempts have hitherto failed. The 
object of the present improvements is to render this mode of 
procedure successful. 

In the machineiy for forming the bat, or as it is termed, 
" setting up the body,'^ the fur or " stock," after it has been 
properly picked, is evenly spread upon an endless apron, 
which carries it to a pair of feed-rollers, between which it 
passes, and meets with a brush, revolving at a great velocity. 
This brush throws it along a tunnel ; by means of which the 
fur, thrown by the brush, is directed on to the former. The 
tunnel is provided with an aperture immediately under the 
brush, through which a current of air enters, in consequence 
of the rotation of the brush. This rush of air along the tun- 
nel, assisted as it is by the exhaustion of the perforated former, 



12 Recent Patents. 

has the effect of directing the fibres towards the former, on 
which they are deposited and held by the pressure of the 
atmosphere. As the fibres are only held on the former by 
the pressure of the surrounding air, caused by the exhaustion 
of the former, it is necessary, before the suspension of this 
pressure takes place, that some means should be adopted for 
retaining and consolidating the fibres of which the bat is 
composed ; as it will be obvious, that a delicate web, thus 
produced, will not have sufficient tenacity to admit of its being 
removed from the former before the hardening process. This 
is effected by covering the bat (before it is removed from the 
cone or former) with felted cloth, and then employing two 
perforated metallic vessels; one to put over the bat after 
it has been surrounded with the moist cloth, for the purpose 
of pressing on the fibres, and yet allowing of the circulation 
of hot water, when the whole is immersed in a bath to harden 
the bat preparatory to felting ; the other perforated vessel is 
to be placed within the perforated metallic former which 
received the bat (and which is necessarily thin and weak), for 
the purpose of resisting the pressure of the surrounding water, 
consequent upon a partial vacuum produced within the former 
when it is withdrawn from the water-bath. 

The principal part of this invention consists in the employ- 
ment of a tunnel of a peculiar construction, into which the fibres 
of fur are thrown by the rotating brush ; which tunnel guides 
and directs the fur into an exhausted perforated former, placed 
in front of the delivery aperture thereof. The sides of this 
trunk or tunnel are constructed of thin sheet metal, or other 
substance which can be readily bent to the desired shape, 
so that the form of the aperture or mouth of the trunk which 
directs the fur or other material on to the perforated former, 
can be changed at pleasure, and thereby increase or de- 
crease the deposit of fur on any part of the former, as it may 
be required to increase or decrease the thickness of any part 
of the bat. The top of the tunnel is so arranged that the 
end towards the former can be depressed or elevated at pleasure, 
for the purpose of adapting the mouth of the tunnel to any 
size of former. The top of the trunk is made to present an 
unbroken plane, and thereby the catching and retention of 
the fibres, or the formation of eddies in the current of air 
that passes through the trunk, is avoided. At the back of 
the tunnel, and below the feed-rollers and brush, a valve and 
shutter is provided, for the purpose of closing the aperture 
and preventing the passage of a strong current of air through 
the tunnel at the commencement of each operation, or until 



Newton^ 8, for Machinery for MaHng Hat-bodies, ^c. 19 

the perforated former is covered with a film of fibres. By 
this means the formation of welts or air-bubbles in the bat is 
effectually prevented. At the commencement of the operation, 
when the deposit of fibres is just beginning to take place on 
the former^ it will be obvious that the exhausting fan in the 
former will produce a much stronger current of air through 
the trunk than when the perforations are partly closed ; and 
that, therefore^ a tendency will be given to the fibres to fall 
imevenly, and with too great violence, on to the former, at the 
commencement of the operation* This, it is found by experi- 
ence, produces counter currents, which throw up the first film 
of fibres from the sm'face of the former, and thus form welta 
or protuberances, which are very injurious to the bat. But, 
by closing the aperture at the back of the trunk, the fibres 
are, at first, deposited by a gentle current and pressure ; and, 
after a film completely surrounds the former, the opening of 
the valve or shutter will admit the current, so that the fibres 
may be thrown on with more force to complete the bat* Be- 
low the feed-rollers, one, two, or more rollers, covered with 
cloth or like substance, are employed ; the rotation of which, 
in connection with the brush, has the effect of brushing, comb* 
ing, or otherwise straightening the fibres before they are 
thrown by the brush and carried to the former. 

At figs. 1, and 2, a, represents a frame, of the usual or any 
desired construction ; b, is an exhausting fan, with a cham-^ 
ber c; over which is placed the perforated former k^, of any 
desired shape, and which is made of thin metal, perforated 
with fine holes and placed in front of the mouth or aperture d, 
of the tunnel or trunk e. This tunnel is carried back to, 
and is connected with, the case f that surrounds the upper 
part of the rotary brush g; the bottom A, of the tunnel 
is flat, and gradually narrowed from the brush to the mouth ; 
and to the edges of this are properly secured the sides i, i, of 
the tunnel, which are made of sheet-copper, sufficiently thin 
to admit of bending with facility, so that the mouth d, can 
receive any desired shape, and can, at any time, be changed, 
to regulate the deposit of the fibres on to the former h. By 
this means the attendant is enabled, by merely altering the 
shape of the mouth, to increase or decrease, to any desired 
extent, the deposit of the fibres on to any part of the former, 
and thus increase or decrease the strength of any desired 
part of the bat. The curve given to the sides at the mouth c?, 
should be gradually run along the sides i, towards the back, 
until the curves are lost, so as to prevent any sudden curve 
along the sides. The top k, of this tunnel is made flat, likq 



14 Recent Patents. 

the bottom^ and fits within the sides ; the back end rests on 
the top of the case/, of the fan ; and the forward end^ which 
is wedge-formed, extends a Uttle beyond the sides. To the 
end, thus projecting, are attached bars /, /, which pass along 
on the outside of the metal sides t, i, and are connected again 
with the top at the back end ; so that, the sides being thus 
embraced between the edges of the top and these bars, when 
the forward end of the top is depressed or elevated, the flexible 
or pliable sides follow ; so that the upper part of the mouth of 
the trunk will always present the same size : the top is held 
at any desired elevation by means of a cord m, attached to 
any part of the frame. By this means the height, size, and 
form of the mouth may readily be adapted to any size or 
shape of former, or to the deposit of the fibres required on 
any part thereof. The back part of the tunnel, between the 
bottom and the lowest of the rollers behind the brushy is open 
for the admission of a current of air, which flows towards the 
exhausted former, induced by the exhaustion of the latter and 
the rotation of the brush* This aperture is provided with a 
regulating valve or shatter n, for the purpose of shutting ofi*^ 
in whole or in part^ the current of air to the tunnel. The axle 
of this valve is provided with an arm or lever, to which a cord 
is attached, whereby the attendant can adjust the valve to any 
desired position, and thus regulate the force with which the 
fibres will be carried to the former. 

The fibres are fed to the brush from an apron q, by the feed- 
rollers r, r, covered with cloth ; and below these and in the 
curve of the brush are two other similar rollers s, s, also 
covered with cloth, against which the fibres are brushed by 
the rotation of the brushes : the surfaces of these rollers form 
a curved bed, against which the brush acts ; whilst, at the 
same time, they continue to hold the fibres for the brush 
to act on them, after they have been liberated by the feed- 
rollers. One of the feed-rollers receives motion, by means of 
a belt, in the usual manner, and drives the others by means 
of gearing-wheels on one end of the rollers. Motion is com- 
municated, from any first mover, to a main driving-shaft (not 
seen in the drawing), on which a pulley is mounted ; from 
which a belt passes to a pulley on the shaft of the exhaust fan, 
whereby the required velocity is given to the fan for exhaust- 
ing the perforated former. On the main driving-shaft there 
is a bevilled pinion in gear with a bevilled pinion on a shaft 
e^ which carries, at its opposite end, a worm/^. This worm 
f^f works in and drives a worm-wheel g^, on a vertical shaft 
h^f the upper end of which carries, by means of arms i^, a 



Newton^ s, for Machinery for JIdakinff Hai-bodies, i^c, 16 

grooved limj^, to which is fitted the lower edge of the per- 
forated former. The said former should be properly fitted to 
the groove of the rim^ so that it may be set in and removed 
readily, and yet, as near as possible, make an air-tight joint* 
The rotating fan and feed-rollers are driven by belts from 
pulleys on the main driving-shaft. 

In operating the machine, the fur or other fibrous material^ 
after being properly picked, is to be evenly spread upon the 
endless apron g, which gradually supplies it to the feed-rollers 
r, r. On passing between these rollers, it is presented to the 
rotating-brush ff, which, after brushing the ftir on the surface 
of the rollers ^, s, throws it towards the delivery-aperture ; 
the sides of the tunnel guide and direct the fur on to the 
surface of the perforated former, which, being exhausted, re- 
ceives the ftir on its surface, where it is held by the pressure, 
of the atmosphere; and, as the former rotates slowly, the 
fibres are evenly deposited upon every part of its surface, until 
the required thickness has been obtained. 

At the commencement of the operation, the valve or shutter 
n, in the aperture below the brush g, is closed, in order to 
check the force of the current that carries the fibres on to the 
former ; and, when a film of fibres has been laid on the former, 
the valve must be gradually opened, so as to increase the cur- 
rent, and deposit the fibres with more force. If this pre- 
caution be not attended to, welts or protuberances will be 
formed in the bat, and thus render the bat defective. 

So soon as the required thickness of bat has been obtained, 
it is to be surrounded with a moist felt or fulled cloth, for the 
purpose of retaining it on the former ; and this must be done 
before the pressure of air is taken ofi^. The best plan of 
effecting this object is to apply a piece of cloth, of suitable 
shape, to cover the top ; and then to take a strip of cloth, 
rolled on a wooden roller, and apply it to the bat ; so that, as 
the former rotates, the cloth will unwind from the roller and 
wind round the bat. llie former is then taken from the ma- 
chine, to submit the bat to the hardening process; and an- 
other one is put in its place. 

A metal cap k^, (shewn separately at fig. 4,) perforated with 
large holes, and made a little larger than the former, is put 
over the felt-covering ; and a similar perforated metal case l^, 
called a shield, and shewn detached at fig. 5, is inserted within 
the former ; and then the whole, as shewn in section at fig. 3, 
is immersed in hot water, to harden the bat. The holes iur 
the cap and shield admit the water freely to the bat ; whilst^ 
at the same time, the cap prevents the fibres of the bat from 



16 Recent Patents. 

being disturbed by the water ; and the shield prevents the 
former from being collapsed when the whole is being drawn 
out of the water. After immersion in hot water, the bat will 
be sufficiently hardened to admit of its being removed from the 
former. 

The patentee claims. Firstly, — the employment of the ro- 
tating-brush, in combination with the tunnel and an exhausted 
perforated former, placed in front of the delivery-aperture of 
the said tunnel. Secondly, — making the top of the tunnel, 
for directing the deposit of the fibres on to the exhausted 
former, adjustable ; and constructing the sides thereof of thin 
sheet metsd, or other suitable flexible material, which can be 
readily bent, and which will retain the form given to it, — so as 
to admit of changing the form and dimensions of the delivery- 
aperture of the tunnel, when it is desired to vary the thickness 
of the various parts of the bat to be produced. Thirdly, — the 
employment of the valve or shutter n, for the purpose of re- 
gulating the supply of air, which enters and passes along the 
tunnel, and directs the fibres on to the exhausted former, as 
described. And, Fourthly, — combining with the rotating- 
brush and feed-rollers, one, two, or more rollers, covered with 
cloth or other suitable substance, for the purpose of holding 
the fibres whilst being acted upon by the brush, as described. 
—\Inrolled July, 1850.] 



To Abraham Moses Marbe, of Birminghamy in the county 
of Warwicky chemist, for an improved manufacture of 
vegetable fluid, to be used in the production of artificial 
light, — and in lamps or burners for consuming the same ; 
which vegetable fluid is also applicable to the manufacture 
of lacker or varnish. — [Sealed 18th April, 1850.] 

This improved manufacture of vegetable fluid, to be used in 
the production of artificial light, has for its object, firstly, to 
produce a combustible liquid, which shall be highly luminous 
when burned, and yet shall not produce dense smoke, as is 
now frequently the case when the combustible liquids, known 
as hydrocarbons, are burned in lamps for the purpose of illu- 
mination; and, secondly, to remove the liability of lamps 
becoming clogged up when the fluid is burned in the form of 
vapor, or to prevent the formation of a crust at the top of the 
wick, whereby the porosity and capillary action of the wick is 
impaired. 

In the manufacture of the improved vegetable fluid, the 



Marb^8,for Producing Artificial Light, S^c. 17 

hydrocarbons known as wood-tar spirit, oil of turpentine, 
native naphtha (that is, naphtha flowing from the earth), 
naphtha commonly known as coal-tar naphtha, and naphtha 
obtained from bituminous substances, are employed. When 
wood-tar spirit, obtained by the distillation of wood-tar, is the 
hydrocarbon used, the following is the mode of proceeding : — 
Take one gallon of wood-tar spirit, and add thereto a pound 
of sulphuric acid diluted with a quart of water ; mix these 
materials well together; and allow the mixture to remain from 
two to three hours to settle. The clear supernatant liquid is 
then carefully drawn off into a vessel containing clear water, 
in order to wash the greater part of the acid out of it ; and 
the washed part is then further purified by being sprinkled 
upon ground or pulverized lime : the lime is placed on the 
bottom of a suitable vessel, — one quarter of a pound of lime 
being employed for each gallon of the liquid. To ensure the 
beneficial action of the lime, care must be taken that it is not 
made too wet at first. When all the liquid is added to the 
Ume, the contents of the vessel must be well stirred, so as to 
mix the lime intimately with the liquor. The mixture is now 
allowed to rest until the lime has settled at the bottom of the 
vessel ; and the clear liquor is drawn off into another vessel, 
ready to be used in the manner hereafter explained. Other 
alkaline substances will effect the desired object ; but the use 
of lime is preferred. 

In Plate II., fig. I, shews the kind of vessel used for sub- 
mitting the liquor to the action of the lime. The vessel is 
provided with several cocks, at different heights from the 
ground, in order to draw off the supernatant liquor. 

The hydrocarbon, prepared and purified as above described, 
is mixed with a definite proportion of alcohol, or of pyroxylic 
spirit, sometimes called wood naphtha. Previous, however, 
to mixing these materials together, the alcohol, or pyroxylic 
spirit, is deprived of a certain amount of water which it con- 
tains, and which will prevent it from blending properly with 
the hydrocarbon when the two materials are brought together. 
For tnis purpose the patentee takes of the rectified spirit of 
wine or alcohol, or of pyroxylic spirit, one gallon and a half; 
of pulverized lime a quarter of a pound ; and of calcined 
potash half a pound. The two solid matters he places in a 
tub or vat, and the alcohol or pyroxylic spirit he sprinkles 
thereon ; a vapor will then arise ; and when this has in some 
measure subsided, a further quantity of the alcohol, or of the 
pyroxylic spirit, must be sprinkled over it ; taking care that the 

VOL. XXXVIII* B 



18 Recent Patents. 

lime is not at first made too wet, otherwise the action will be 
stopped. When all the spirit is added to the lime and potash, 
the ingredients are occasionally stirred, and then left for about 
one or two hours. To this one gallon of the hydrocarbon 
(purified in the manner above explained) is added, and the 
mixture is then distilled: the product of distillation will 
be a fluid capable of burning with a pure white light, with- 
out smoke, in the lamps hereinafter described. 

When oil of turpentine is the hydrocarbon employed, the 
treatment for purifying it, and for the manufacture of the 
fluid, is the same as that already described in reference to the 
wood-tar spuit. 

When naphtha is the hydrocarbon employed, sulphuric or 
nitric acid is used for its purification from foreign matters ; 
taking in the proportion of sulphuric acid one pound, diluted 
with a quart of water ; or of nitric acid half a pound, diluted 
with a quart of water. The process for drawing oflF the liquor, 
and purifying it from the acid, is the same as already described 
for the purification of wood-tar spirit. The naphtha, so puri- 
fied, is to be mixed with the prepared alcohol or pyroxylic 
spirit, in the proportion of half a gallon of purified naphtha 
to one gallon and a half of prepared alcohol or pyroxylic spirit ; 
and the mixture is to be distilled as before. 

Other acids, as, for instance, the nitrous or the nitro- 
muriatic acid, will produce a similar efiect on the hydrocarbons 
as the nitric or the sulphuric acid ; but it is preferred to employ 
one of the latter. The patentee remarks that the fluid manu- 
factured by the use of the sulphuric acid is colorless, and, by 
the use of the nitric acid, generally brown. 

The hydrocarbons, prepared in the manner and by the pro- 
cesses above set forth, can be used as a substitute for camphine. 
The liquid obtained, in the manner and by the processes above 
described, is also applicable for the manufacture of lacker or 
varnish, in place of the alcohol or pyroxylic spirit usually em- 
ployed for that purpose. The hydrocarbons, purified as above 
described, may be used together, as well as separately, in the 
manufacture of the fluid. 

When it is desired to employ wood- tar spirit and naphtha, 
one quart of the purified naphtha and three quarts of the pu- 
rified wood-tar spirit are mixed together; and to the mixture 
one gallon and a half of the prepared alcohol or pyroxylic 
spirit is added; — the treatment, already described, is then 
pursued. If oil of turpentine and naphtha are employed, one 
quart of the purified naphtha and three quarts of the purified 
oil of turpentine are mixed together ; and to the mixture one 



Morbus, for Producing Artificial Light, ^c. 19 

gallon and a half of the prepared alcohol or pyroxylie spirit is 
added ; after which the treatment described is pursued. 

In employing wood-tar spirit, oil of turpentine, and^naphtha, 
the patentee takes one quart of the purified naphtha, one 
quart of the purified wood-tar spirit, and two quarts of the 
purified oil of turpentine, and, having mixed them together, 
and added one gallon and a half of the prepared alcohol or 
pyroxylie spirit, he treats and distils the mixture as before 
mentioned. 

A fluid, highly combustible, and burning without smoke, 
in an ordinary spirit or camphine lamp, with a glass, may be 
manufactured by combining wood- tar spirit with oil of tnr^- 
pentine, purified as above described, without the addition of 
the prepared alcohol or pyroxylie spirit. Or the following 
plan may be pursued : — Take one gallon of oil of turpentine, 
and add thereto two fluid ounces of nitro-muriate of tin; 
well stir the mixture, and allow it to settle ; then draw ofif the 
clear oil of turpentine, and wash it with water. For the pur- 
pose of neutralizing the acid, sprinkle it on ground or powdered 
Ume or potash ; and, when the mixture has been distilled, a 
pure inflammable fluid will be obtained. 

The hydrocarbon wood-tar spirit may be treated with nitro- 
muriate of tin, in the same manner as lastly above described 
for oil of turpentine, and a fluid obtained therefrom by dis- 
tillation : the fluid so obtained does not burn with so bright 
or pure a flame, but it may be mixed with an equal quantity 
of the purified oil of turpentine, lastly described, when it will 
give a bright flame. 

The oil of turpentine or wood-tar spirit, purified by the use 
of nitro-muriate of tin, as first described, may be mixed with 
the prepared alcohol or pyroxylie spirit j when a very pure and 
highly combustible fluid will be obtained from the mixture by 
distillation. 

The oil of turpentine or wood-tar spirit, purified by the 
nitro-muriate of tin, may also be mixed with purified naphtha^ 
and burnt without alcohol. 

A highly combustible fluid is also manufactured from wood- 
tar spirit and oil of turpentine, by treating each with nitrate 
of iron. For this purpose half a pound of nitrate of iron, di- 
luted with a quart of water, is gradually poured into one 
gallon of oil of spirit of tar, or into one gallon of oil of tur- 
pentine, — ^the mixture being stirred now and then for three or 
four hours ; it is then allowed to settle, and is strained oflF 
from the acid, and sprinkled on to lime, and distilled by itself : 
the clear liquor, when separated from the water carried over by 



20 Recent Patents. 

distillation, will be fit for burning, without alcohol or pyroxy- 
lic spirit, in a common spirit or camphine lamp^ with a glass. 
Instead of treating the wood-tar spirit and oil of turpentine 
separately, they may be mixed together, and the mixture treated 
as lastly above described, when the substances are taken sepa- 
rately. 

A fluid, highly combustible, may also be produced by the 
use of a portion of the naphtha, purified as firstly above de- 
scribed. For this purpose one quart of the pinrified naphtha 
and three quarts either of the purified oil of turpentine or of 
the purified wood-tar spirit, are mixed together : the mix- 
tures will be a liquid, which will bum with a clear white light 
in an ordinary spirit-lamp, — burning either by a wick or as 
vapour. 

A like fluid may also be produced by using the oil of tur- 
pentine or spirit of wood-tar (treated with the nitrate of iron 
or nitrate of copper, run through lime, and distilled) by adding 
to each gallon of oil of turpentine, or to each gallon of wood 
spirit of tar, one and a half gallons of alcohol or nyroxylic 
spirit, treated as already described : this fluid is saia to bum 
without smoke, and without a glass, in the lamps hereinafter 
described. 

The patentee observes, that the relative proportions of the 
different hydrocarbons and spirits, above specified, are those 
which have, in practice, been found most applicable ; but, 
inasmuch as the composition of the several hydrocarbons is 
liable to certain limited variations, and they are sometimes 
more or less dense, it becomes necessary, in such case, to 
modify the proportion of the alcohol, or of the pyroxylic spirit, 
so as to give to the mixture the desired quality. 

The patentee next proceeds to describe his improved ma- 
nufacture of lamps and burners, for consuming such of the 
combustible liquids, above described, as are produced by dis- 
tilling the hydrocarbons, alcohol, or pyroxylic spirit, in com- 
bination. The lamps and burners are shewn, in several views, 
in Plate II. Fig. 2, represents a wall or bracket-lamp, con- 
structed according to the present invention, — the burner part 
of the lamp being drawn in section, in order to shew more 
clearly the interior construction. The burner consists of a 
long brass or other metal tube a, for containing the wick ; 
and on the upper end of this tube is screwed, or otherwise 
fastened, a cover i, which is pierced all round with horizontal 
holes, and is furnished with a button at top, for the purpose 
of directing the flame outwards, as shewn in the drawing. 
The lower end of the tube a, is screwed into the top of a 



Marbe^Syfor Producing Artificial Light, SfC. 21 

small chamber or reservoir c, at the upper end of the supply- 
pipe^ which is furnished with a cock for cutting off the supply 
of liquid when required. 

The wick d, consists of some ordinary cotton wick^ wound 
round the forked end of a wire e, as shewn in figs. 3. The 
wick, wound lightly round the wire, is pushed into the wick- 
tube a, nearly up to the top ; but the lower end is allowed to 
project below the tube a, and dip into the liquid in the reser- 
voir or chamber c. The holes in the upper part of the burner 
must be extremely small, say pin-holes, otherwise the liquid 
will consume too rapidly ; also the cotton or wicking must fit 
loosely in the tube, so as to admit of the free passage of the 
liquor; and the reservoir at the bottom of the tube, into 
which the wick enters, must be of sufficient dimensions to 
keep the wick well supplied with the liquid. 

Fig. 4, represents a similar construction of burner, adapted 
for a table-lamp. In this case the chamber c, is dispensed 
with, as the lower end of the wick is immersed in the liquid 
contained in the large glass reservoir. This lamp is lighted 
by means of the instrument shewn in plan and edge views at 
figs. 5. This instrument consists of a wire handle, at the end 
of which is a forked piece of wire gauze of several thicknesses. 
By dipping this instrument into some inflammable liquid, 
enough of the latter will adhere to the gauze to burn for a 
short time ; the forked end, in an ignited state, must then be 
placed against the upper end of the tube a, (as shewn by dots 
in fig. 4,) and held there sufficiently long to vaporize a portion 
of the liquid with which the wick is saturated : the gas or 
vapor, thus generated, will then issue from the holes at top, 
and will be ignited by the flame. A small cup/, which sur- 
rounds the tube a, serves to receive any drippings that may 
fall from the forked end of the igniting instrument, and will 
prevent it from running down and soiling the lamp. Between 
the burner and reservoir may be placed a box, filled with 
charcoal or other medium not readily conducting heat. 

Fig. 6, is a side elevation of another form of burner, adapted 
to a ship's lamp. The body of the lamp is mounted on gim- 
bles ; and the wicks are composed of threads of cotton, inserted 
in tubes a, a, a : these tubes are made larger at bottom than 
at top ; and the wicks being made to project beyond the top 
of the tubes, may be ignited and made to burn, as shewn in 
the figure, g, g, are small caps or extinguishers, which are 
suspended from the edge of the burner. 

Fig. 7, is a side view of a small glass lamp, suitable for a 
binnacle-lamp, being mounted in gimbles, as at fig. 6. In 



22 Recent Patents. 

this instance^ however^ there is only one wick-tube a ; but 
there is a glass reflector h, which throws the light downwards. 

Fig. 8, is a view of another lamp^ in which only one wick- 
tube is employed. It is intended to represent a small hand 
or portable lamp. The wick is inserted in a wick-tube a, as 
before ; but this tube is surrounded by a second tube i, which 
is adjustable^ and may be moved up and down^ in order to 
regulate the size of the flame. To the lower end of the tube 
i, is attached a spring y^ which passes through a hole in the 
flat plate k, and retains the tube i, at any altitude ; or the 
springy, may be dispensed with, — the tube t, being kept in 
its place by the wick alone : the cap or extinguisher is attached 
to the lamp by a chain. 

Fig. 9, represents a single-wick burner, adapted to a car- 
riage-lamp. It is well known that in carriage-lamps, when 
candles are used, the candles are pressed upwards by a spring, 
placed in the circular socket of the lamp : the candle and its 
spring are dispensed with in this instance, and, in lieu thereof, 
a small cylindrical chamber /, is employed, for containing the 
inflammable Uquid. The lower end of the wick dips into the 
liquid in the chamber, and the upper end passes through a 
short tube above. The cylindrical chamber or vessel /, is 
held steadily in its place, and prevented from shaking about, 
by means of the springs y,y. 

Fig. 10, represents, in sectional view, another construction 
of burner, in which a crescent or half-moon-shaped flame is 
produced ; — ^the wick-tube a, is similar to that shewn at fig.2 ; 
but the cap-piece b, which forms the burner, is of a crescent 
shape, having holes formed in the upper part, and furnished 
with division pieces m, m, between the holes, for the purpose 
of preventing the flame from the different jets from joining. 

At fig. 11, is shewn another form of burner, in which the 
jets consist of two horizontal holes at the side of the cap- 
piece, and one vertical hole in the centre ; — the burner is also 
furnished with two wing-pieces or spreaders, as shewn in the 
drawings. 

Figs. 12, represent plan and vertical sectional views of 
another form of burner. In this instance the cap-piece is 
perforated at top with several holes, whereby the flame is se- 
parated and kept apart. 

Figs. 13, represent similar views of another burner, con- 
structed somewhat upon the principle of an ordinary argand 
gas-burner. It is perforated with a series of holes at top, and 
is furnished with a button or deflector b. 

Fig. 14, shews another form of argand burner, adapted to 



MarMSyfor Prodinmg Artificial Light , SfC. 28 

a table lamp. In this instance the tube a, is screwed on the 
outside^ and carries the gallery n, which supports the glass 
chimney o, o. It will be seen that, by screwing the tube ($, 
the gallery^ and consequently the glass chimney, may be ren- 
dered adjustable^ and the light thereby regulated; as th0 
gallery and glass may be raised or lowered by merely turning 
die gallery on the tube a. This tube passes through a box 
or chamber at p^ filled with pulverized charcoal or other bad 
conductor of heat. It will be seen, that the glass chimney is 
of a peculiar form, so that, as it is raised or lowered, the light 
or flame may be regulated by the quantity and direction of 
the current of air that is admitted to the exterior of the flame^ 

Figs. 15^ represent views of a glass shade and deflector* 
By causing the shade to rest on the upper part of the deflector 
(which, being made of glass, will not prevent the light from 
passing through), the two articles together are made to answer 
the purpose of a chimney, globe, and reflector; they may, 
however, be used separately, or for difierent lamps. 

Fig. 16, is a side elevation of a lamp, with a pair of burners 
and reflectors. The burners are similar in construction to 
some of those already described ; they are screwed into, or 
otherwise attached to, branch pipes, which diverge from a 
reservoir a, mounted on an upright bar d, on which it works ; 
so that the reservoir, and consequently the lamps, may be 
raised or lowered on the bar d, and retained at any required 
altitude by tightening the screw q. 

Fig. 17, is a portable stable or miner^s lamp or lantern^ 
constructed to burn the improved liquid. The burner ia 
made upon the principle shewn in figs. 7, and 9. The lamp 
£, is moveable, and is made of glass, and, when required for 
use, is placed in the socket f, at the lower part of the lantern* 
The upper part of the lantern is made of thick glass, and in 
a conical form, and is connected to the lower part of the lan- 
tern by means of a bayonet-joint. 

Fig. 18, represents another form of lantern. In this in- 
stance the reservoir of the lamp is not removable, but forms 
the bottom part of the lantern, — the only removable part of 
the whole lantern being the glass, which is supported on a 
gallery r, and may be taken off the lamp by lifting it up ver- 
tically. 

In the lamps and burners constructed for the purpose of 
burning the vegetable fluid manufactured according to this 
invention, the wick is to be lightly wound, and inserted loosely 
in the tube ; for if the wick be tightly wound, or be tight in 



24 Recent Patenie. 

the tube^ as in spirit and vapour lamps in ordinary use^ the 
fluid will not pass freely through the cotton^ and the cotton 
will singe. 

The patentee remarks^ that the lamps above described are 
intended to burn the fluid manufactured from the combination 
of the purified hydrocarbons and prepared alcohol or pyroxylic 
spirit^ and not the fluid manufactured from the hydrocarbons 
without the prepared alcohol and pyroxylic spirit. 

He claims^ First, — the manufacture of a fluids suitable for 
illumination, from hydrocarbons, alcohol, and pyroxylic spirit, 
purified and treated with acids, lime, and alkaline substances, 
and distilled together, as above described. Secondly, — the 
manufacture of a fluid, suitable for illumination, from hydro- 
carbons, purified and treated with acids, lime, and alkaline 
substances, as above described. Thirdly, — the manufacture 
of a fluid, suitable for illumination, from hydrocarbons, puri- 
fied and treated with nitro-muriate of tin, as above described. 
Fourthly, — the manufacture of a fluid, suitable for illumina- 
tion, from hydrocarbons, purified and treated with nitrate of 
iron, as above described. Fifthly, — the manufacture of a 
fluid, suitable for illumination, from hydrocarbons, treated 
and purified with nitro-muriate of tin, or nitrate of iron, either 
alone or in combination with naphtha, or with oil of turpen- 
tine, or with wood-tar spirit, or with alcohol, or with pyroxyhc 
spirit, as above described. Sixthly, — the manufacture of 
lacker or varnish by the use of the combustible fluids manu- 
factured, as above described. And, Lastly, — the adaptation 
of lamps and burners, constructed as shewn in the drawings, 
to the burning of the fluid manufactured from the purified 
hydrocarbons and prepared alcohol and pyroxylic spirit, dis- 
tilled in combination, as above described. — [Inrolled October ^ 
1850.] 



To Albert Crakell Waterlow, of London Wall, litho' 
ffrapher, for improvements in the means and apparatus 
for obtaining copies of vrritingSy dramngs, and other de- 
signs, — being a communication. — [Sealed 3rd January, 
1850.] 

This invention consists in certain methods of arranging ap- 
paratus for obtaining copies of writings, such as letters and 
other documents, and impressions from stones or plates of 
drawings or other designs, in like manner to that by which 
lithographic drawings and designs are produced. 



WaterhfufSyfoT Obtaining Copies of Writings y SfC, 25 

In Plate III., fig. 1, is a sectional elevation, and fig. 2, is 
a plan view of a machine, arranged according to one part of 
this invention. a,.is the bed-plate of the machine, along each 
side of which there is a groove or recess b, to receive the 
lower end of the standards c ; and these standards are fur- 
nished with small rollers d, which travel beneath the project- 
ing upper edges of the grooves b. The standards c, are con- 
nected together at the top by a tie-bar (indicated by the dotted 
lines e, in fig. 1, but not shewn in fig. 2,); and they carry 
the pressing-cylinder/. When this apparatus is used to ob- 
tain copies of letters or other documents, the paper to be 
copied is placed on a piece of felt upon the table g, (the felt, 
may, however, be dispensed with) ; upon this paper is laid the 
damp paper, which is to receive the impression, and over it a 
piece of felt is placed ; the frame or carriage c, is then drawn 
backwards and forwards by hand. The pressing-cylinder^ 
in passing over the table g, causes the damp paper to receive 
the impression : the degree of pressure required for this pur- 
pose is obtained by means of the regulating screws A, which 
act upon the bearings of the cylinder/; — springs being in- 
terposed between the screws and the bearings, to admit of 
the cylinder yielding slightly when passing over the papers. 
When the machine is used to obtain copies from a stone or a 
plate, the stone or plate is placed in the position of the table 
g ; and the ink is applied thereto, and the operation con- 
ducted in the manner well understood by persons employed 
in the various departments of lithography and zincography. 
In some cases, instead of using the pressing-cylinder/ the 
patentee uses a bar, with a rounded under edge, which is acted 
upon by levers and springs, so as to vary the pressure when 
required. 

Fig. 3, is a longitudinal section of a modification of the 
above machine. In this instance the bed a, on which the 
stone g, is fixed, is not stationary, but moves upon the rollers 
d, between the two cylinders f, i, which turn in bearings, 
carried by the metal framework /, — suitable screws h, being 
applied to the bearings of either the upper or the lower 
cylinder, for the purpose of regulating the pressure. Upon 
each side of the bed is fixed a rack k, gearing into a pinion, 
fixed on the axis of the cylinder i ; so that when the handle /, 
on the end of the axis, is moved up and down, the axis will 
be caused to perform part of a revolution in either direction, 
and, by means of the pinions, to move the bed a, and stone 
g, to and fro beneath the cylinder/. The patentee states 
that, " instead of a rack and pinion, a spring, placed upon 
the table, and acting upon friction-rollers, would press the 

VOL. xxxviii. c 



26 Recent Patents. 

table or bed upon the lower cylinder, in order to its receiving 
motion from it; but these are not absolutely necessary to 
produce the requisite pressure/' 

Fig. 4, is a plan view, and fig. 5, an edge view of a simple 
apparatus for obtaining copies according to the lithographic 
or zincographic process. It consists of a stone, or a plate, or 
a suitable bed to support autographic paper, on which writing 
is produced in the manner well understood by persons engaged 
in the lithographic and zincographic processes; on this the 
paper to be printed is placed, and is covered with a sheet or 
tympan a, of any suitable material, which is fixed, by pins or 
otherwise, to the stone or plate ; and then pressure is applied, 
by drawing the piece of wood b, (fig. 6,) or a roller, over the 
sheet a, and a copy of the writing is thereby obtained. This 
apparatus may be used for taking copies of letters on damped 
paper. It may, with the inking-roller and the various ma- 
terials required in the process of printing, be arranged in a 
box, so as to be easily carried from one place to another ; and 
it may be readily used on a table or other convenient place, 
without being permanently fixed. 

In conclusion, the patentee states that he does not confine 
himseK to the various modes of working the apparatus, nor 
to the mode of communicating the pressure, so long as the 
peculiar character of the various parts of the invention be re- 
tained. — [Inr oiled July, 1850.] 



To William Cox, of the firm of William Cox §• Co., of Man- 
Chester, cigar merchant, for certain improvetnents in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for manufacturing aerated waters or 
other such liquids. — [Sealed llth June, 1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in an improved arrangement 
of apparatus for manufacturing aerated liquids^ by means of 
which the impregnating gas may be sustained at a pressure 
sufficient to cause its amalgamation with the water or other 
liquid to be aerated, without the aid of force-pumps or other me- 
chanical means of producing the required pressure ; secondly, 
the invention consists in an improved construction of tap or 
cock, to be employed with the above-mentioned apparatus or 
other apparatus of a similar nature. 

In Plate III., fig. 1, is a plan view, and fig. 2, a longitudinal 
section of the apparatus, a, is a vessel, termed the gas gene- 
rator, wherein the gas is generated ; b, is the vessel in which, 
it is purified ; and c, is the vessel that contains the acid to be 
used for producing the gas : the vessels a, d, are made of cop- 



Cox* 8, for Manufacturing Aerated Waiers, ^c. 27 

per^ tinned on the inside; and the vessel c, is also made of 
copper, but is provided with a lining of lead. The vessel c^ 
is fixed on the top of the generator a, and communicates 
therewith by means of the pipes d, and e. The pipe d, is for 
the purpose of introducing the acid into the generator; and 
Uie upper orifice thereof is closed by the conical end of a plug 
/ which is covered with lead, and is furnished at the top 
with a short male screw, taking into a female screw formed in 
the neck of the vessel c; so that when the plug is turned, by 
means of the handle g, it will rise and permit the acid to de- 
scend through the pipe d, into the generator. A communi- 
cation is established between the upper part of the vessel a, 
and the upper part of the vessel c, by means of the pipe e, in 
order to equalize the pressure of the gas above and below the 
acid, when the plug^^ is raised, and thereby to permit the acid 
to descend into the vessel a. The gas generator a, contains 
an agitator, h, which is caused to rotate by means of the handle 
i; the generator is connected with the purifier by a pipe/, 
which is furnished with one of the improved taps, and de- 
scends to the lower part of the vessel b ; and this vessel is 
connected with a pressure-gauge by a pipe k, also provided 
with an improved tap. The gas generator has an opening i, 
for the introduction of lime and water ; a cock 2, through which 
the air is permitted to escape therefrom ; and an opening 3, for 
discharging its contents. The purifier £, has an opening 5, 
for admitting water into it ; a cock 6, which is at first used 
for the escape of air, and is afterwards connected by a tube 
with the vessel containing the liquid to be aerated ; and an 
opening 7, for discharging the water. The vessel c, is pro- 
vided with an opening 4, through which the acid is introduced 
into it. 

The mode of using the apparatus is as follows: — Suppose 
the generator a, to be charged with about four gallons of 
water and about two gallons of chalk, lime, or other suitable 
alkaline substance ; the purifier to be half full of water ; the 
vessel c, to contain about one gallon of sulphuric, hydrochloric, 
or other suitable acid ; and all the taps and openings to be 
closed. The plug^ is raised^ by turning the handle g, so as 
to admit a sufficient quantity of acid into the vessel a, to 
disengage the carbonic acid gas ; and the alkali and water are 
at the same time kept in a state of agitation by means of the 
agitator h. The gas, which is evolved during the neutraliza- 
tion of the acid by the alkali, will compress the atmospheric 
air into the upper part of the vessel a ; and the tap 2, being 
then opened, the air will escape, leaving the vessel filled with 
gas. The tap 2, is then closed, and the taps on the pipes/. 



28 Recent Patents. 

and k, are opened. The gas will then flow into the purifier 
b, and, passing through the water therein, will be purified. 
The atmospheric air, which is compressed into the upper part 
of the purifier by the pressure of the gas, is allowed to escape 
by opening the tap 6 ; and then this tap is closed and is con- 
nected with a pipe which enters the cylinder or receiver con- 
taining the liquid to be aerated, — such pipe extending to 
within two or three inches of the bottom of the receiver. 
When the gas has anived at the desired pressure (which may 
be ascertained by inspecting the pressure-gauge connected 
with the pipe k,) the tap 6, is to be again opened, so as to 
permit the gas to pass into the receiver, the liquid in which 
is to be kept agitated, to facilitate the impregnation of the 
same with the gas. The patentee states that, supposing the 
receiver to contain eighteen gallons of water, the above de- 
scribed apparatus, with the proportions of acid, alkali, and 
water, before mentioned, will be sufficient to charge the water 
with gas in excess under a pressure of from three to four 
hundred pounds per square inch in from fifteen to twenty 
minutes. 

Fig. 3, is a vertical section and fig. 4, an external elevation 
of the improved tap, the construction of which will be readily 
understood on examining these figures. /, is the handle by 
which the central piece m, is moved round in order to open 
or close the tap. 

The patentee claims. First, — the construction and arrange- 
ment of apparatus shewn and above described, or any simUar 
contrivance whereby the impregnating gas may be sustained 
at a pressure sufficient to cause its amalgamation with the 
water or other liquid to be aerated, without the aid of force- 
pumps or other mechanical means of pressure, — without being 
confined to the dimensions of the apparatus, as shewn in the 
drawing, or any suitable modification in the arrangement 
thereof, or to the materials of which the same may be made 
or composed. Secondly, — the peculiar form or construction 
of tap shewn in the drawing, as adapted to such or similar 
apparatus. — [Inr oiled December , 1850.] 



To John Turner, of Birmingham, engineer, and Joseph 
Hardwick, of the sams place, for a certain improvement 
or certain improvements in the construction and setting of 
steam-boilers. — [Sealed 15th April, 1850.] 

The improvements in the construction and setting of steam- 
boilers, which constitute this invention, are represented in 



Ritchie? s, for Manufacturing Tubes or Pipes. 29 

Plate II. I where fig. 1, represents a longitudinal vertical sec- 
tion, fig. 2y a horizontal section, and fig. 3, a transverse section 
of a steam-boiler, a, is the boiler, which is formed with a 
central flue by extending from one end to the other. The 
front part of the flue contains the fire-bars c, and a brick 
fire-bridge d; and the flue is contracted at the part 6^, behind 
the fire-bridge, and directly beneath the man-hole e, — ^the 
object being, to obtain more room for the entrance of a man 
into the boiler, in order to clean the' same. From the central 
flae by the products of combustion pass into the end flue^ 
thence along the side flue g, through the transverse flues A, t, 
in the front end of the boiler, into the side flue^, which com- 
municates with the chimney. The flues A, and t, are made 
of an arched form, so that any matters which may be depo- 
sited therein, by the current of smoke and gases, will fall into 
the side flues. The boiler is set with a space k, beneath it; 
and this is closed by a thin brick wall, which can be readily 
broken through when it is desired to get at the bottom of the 
boiler. 

The patentees claim, as their invention, the construction of 
steam-boilers, in which the current of heated air is made to 
cross the anterior portion of the boiler through one or more 
flues; and also the contraction of the fire-place immediately 
under the man-hole, so as to give greater room for the en- 
trance of a man, for the purpose of cleaning the said boiler. 
They also claim the particular method of setting steam-boilers, 
above described and represented in the accompanying draw- 
ing. — [Inrolled October, 1850.] 



To William Henry Ritchie, of Brixton, in the county o^ 
Surrey, Gent., for improvements in the manufacture of 
copper, brass, and other tubes or pipes, — being a commu- 
nication. — [Sealed 23rd April, 1850.] 

This invention consists in a method of rolling cast tubes or 
pipes, composed of copper, brass, or other suitable metal^ 
whereby they may be elongated, or drawn to various shapes* 
The tubes are subjected to pressure between a pair of rollers, 
having taper grooves ; and these rollers are caused to rotate 
alternately in opposite directions, so as to take in the tubes, 
and deliver them at the same side of the rollers. 

In Plate II., fig. 1, represents, in vertical section, a pair of 
grooved rollers, of the kind used by the inventor. The same 
surface-speed is given to these rollers by gearing them toge- 
ther; and they are caused to rotate alternately in opposite 



30 Recent Patents. 

directions^ as shewn by the arrows, so as to take in a cast 
tube (a mandril being first inserted therein), and press it be- 
tween the grooved surfaces j and then, by the reverse motion, 
carry it back, and release it from their pressure. The return 
motion of the rollers is continued somewhat longer than the 
advancing motion, agreeably to the amount of elongation that 
the tube is supposed to have undergone ; and so on for each 
successive rolling. After the first rolling operation has been 
effected, the tube is again submitted to the rollers, and its 
length is stiU further extended ; and the return motion being 
again somewhat increased beyond the take-in motion, the tube 
will, at every successive take in, be moved forward into a 
narrower portion of the grooves, and thereby become reduced 
in its diameter. The tube, thus gradually submitted to a re- 
duced diameter of the grooves, will ultimately assume a conical 
form, corresponding to the shape of that portion of the grooves 
by which the pressure has been given to the tube. If, how- 
ever, the operation is continued, the tube will gradually assume 
a cylindrical form from the smaller or forward end backwards ; 
the tube being made to protrude through the smallest diam- 
eter of the grooves, and eventually to free itseK of their pres- 
sure. The patentee remarks, that after each backward move- 
ment of the pressing-rollers the tube should be slightly turned, 
so as to cause the principal bite of the rollers to act on differ- 
ent parts of the surface of the tube. It will also be found 
necessary to withdraw the tube occasionally from its man- 
dril during the progress of the rolling operation, and to sub- 
ject it to the annealing process. If thought desirable, the 
rollers may be furnished with grooves of different sizes, so 
that the tube may be passed through them in succession ; or 
&ore than one tube may be operated upon at the same time. 
The tubes to be operated upon are preferred to be cast coni- 
cal, but this is not essential. 

By this process it is stated that not only is a new mode of 
making cylindrical tubes or pipes obtained, but new forms 
may also be made, as shewn at figs. 2, 3, and 4. Fig. 2, it 
will be seen, tapers from the middle towards its ends ; fig. 3, 
shews a tube with an enlargement at its middle, but having a 
cylindrical bore ; and fig. 4, shews a similar tube, with an 
enlargement at one end. These new forms of tubes result 
from the operator being enabled to submit first one end and 
then the other to the action of the rollers. 

The patentee claims, First, — the mode, herein described, of 
elongating cast copper, brass, and other suitable metal tubes 
or pipes, by rolling surfaces caused to alternate in their ro- 
tations, ana to act as above explained. And, Secondly, — 



BrocmaitCs, for Manufactvring Zinc, SfC. 81 

the making of pipes or tubes^ without seams, of the forms 
described, in reference to figs. 2, 3, and 4. — [InroUed October, 
1850.] 

To BicHAKD Abchibald Bbooman, of Fleet-street, London, 
for improvements in the manufacture of zinc, and in the 
apparatus employed therein, — being a communication. — 
[Sealed 20th April, 1850.] 

This invention consists in certain methods of and apparatus 
for reducing zinc direct from ores containing the same, with- 
out resorting to the preparatory processes of assorting, pound- 
ing, and crushing. 

In Plate III., fig. 1, is a vertical section of the furnace 
which the patentee employs in carrying out the invention ; 
and fig. 2, is a transverse section thereof, taken on the line 
1, s, of fig. 1. a, is the hearth of the furnace ; b, b, are the 
tuyeres, three in number ; c, is the " shoot f^ and d, is the 
chamber, which is contracted at e, — so that the charge, as it 
falls from the upper part d^, of the frunace, wiU leave an an- 
nular space at f, between it and the sides, where the volati- 
lixable matters may collect. From this annular space four 
inclined rectangular passages ff, formed of cast or sheet-iron, 
lead off at right angles; the outer part of each passage is 
enclosed in a chamber h, through which cold water circulates 
(entering through the pipe t, and flowing off through the pipe 
J,) ; to the lower end a pipe g^, is attached, in order to carry 
€ff the uncondensed gases ; and the bottom of each passage 
is furnished with a slide or door g^. The upper part of the 
furnace is closed by a cover k. The interior parts of the fur- 
nace are made of fire-brick, with an outer casing /, of ordinary 
brick, — a space l^, being left between the two, and filled with 
some substance tiiat is a bad conductor of heat, m, m, are 
strengthening plates of cast-iron, which are inserted in the 
brickwork over the tuyere openings, n, n, are cast-iron 
frames, which support the passages g, and chambers h. 

After the furnace has been bmlt it is left to dry ; and then 
a fire is kindled on the hearth and kept up for three weeks 
by the introduction of coke or other Aiel through the throat. 
At the end of this time a small charge of quick-lime is thrown 
into the ftimace ; and as soon as this charge has descended 
as far as the tuyeres, a mixture of ore, flux, and ftiel is thrown 
in, the top of the fdmace is closed, and a moderate blast of 
air is applied by means of tuyeres. The fuel, flux, and ore 
should be used in such relative proportions that the whole of 
the sine in the ore may be reduced and then volatilized, while 



82 Recent Patents. 

all the foreign matters shall form with the flax a slag of more 
or less fluidity when in the heated state. The fuel used may 
be coke^ charcoal^ common coal^ anthracite, or turf; the 
quantity used should be greater at the commencement than 
during the subsequent stages ; and it should always be suffi- 
cient, not only to completely reduce the zinc, but also to leave 
such an excess that, when it arrives at the tuyeres, the com- 
bustion thereof will not give rise to any gaseous oxidating 
product — such as carbonic acid. The flux must be employed 
in such a state as not to produce any oxidating matter during 
the formation of the slag ; therefore when lime is used as a 
flux, it should be in a caustic state ; and for the same reason 
a blast of air deprived of aqueous vapor, or perfectly dry, 
should be employed. The products of the furnace are the 
gases produced by the combustion of the fuel, the vapors of 
zinc, and the non-volatilizable matters, consisting of slag and 
of reduced metallic substances of greater density than the 
zinc. The gases produced by the combustion of the fuel pass 
off through the pipes g^, and may be used for heating the 
boiler of the steam-engine that drives the blowing-machine 
or burning the lime which is to be used as a flux, or drying 
and roasting the ores, or for melting the zinc which is carried 
over in a state of vapor. The vapors of zinc are condensed 
in the passages ff ; and, after being removed therefrom W a 
rake, they are reduced and formed into ingots or bars. The 
residual matters, which collect on the hearth of the furnace, 
are run off from time to time. 

When the zinc ores are in the state of oxide (either free or 
combined with carbonic or silicic acid), they are first dried, 
and if they contain a carbonate, they are roasted : the flux 
used for these ores is quick-lime. If the ores contain other 
metals beside zinc (such as lead or iron), these are reduced to 
the metallic state and collect on the sole of the furnace in 
different strata, according to their respective densities, and 
may be drawn off separately. When the ores are of the class 
containing sulphuret of zinc or blende, they are either brought, 
by roasting, into the state of oxide, and then mixed with a 
little damp clay and formed into blocks, which, after being 
dried, are treated as above described ; or else they are mixed 
with a quantity of iron ore, so that, when the metals are fused, 
the iron shall combine with the sulphur and set the zinc free : 
in the latter case, quick-lime is used as the flux ; and if the 
ore contains baryta or gypsum, fluorine [qy. fluor spar] is 
added. The iron ore most suitable to be used is that which 
contains zinc, but not in sufficient qnantity to be treated se- 
parately as a zinc ore. When the iron ore contains water or 



Brooman*»,for Manufacturing Zinc, ^c, 33 

carbonic acid, the same must be expelled by roasting^ in order 
that.no substance capable of oxidizing the zinc may be intro- 
duced into the furnace ; and if it contains too great a quantity 
of oxidating matter, it is preferable to separate the sulphur 
from the zinc ore by the use of cast or malleable iron : in 
either case^ the quantity of iron ore or iron required^ will de« 
pend upon the amount of sulphur contained in the zinc ore (as 
ascertained by assaying it) ; — the iron ore or iron being used 
islightly in excess of the quantity absolutely required for com- 
bining with the sulphur. 

When a sulphuret of zinc containing several other metals, 
ffucb as lead, iron, copper, silver^ &c., is treated in the furnace, 
there collects on the sole or hearth, besides the slag, a stra* 
turn of argentiferous lead ; above which there is a stratum of 
cast-iron, arising from the excess of iron ore or iron used in 
the process ; and above the iron there is a mass composed 
principally of sulphuret of iron, sulphuret of copper, and 
portions of the sulphurets of other metals. In this case the 
metal should be run off more frequently than in the preceding 
cases. The lead, thus obtained, may be cast into pigs ready 
for sale ; or, if it should contain silver, it may be submitted 
to the process of cupel lation. The mass of crude metal may 
be treated according to any of the well-known processes in 
order to extract the copper therefrom. 

If white, grey, or yellowish oxide of zinc should be formed 
accidentally in the passages g^ it can be used at once as a co- 
loring matter ; or it may be mixed with damp clay, made into 
blocks, dried, and again passed through the furnace : in this 
case a sufficient quantity of quick-lime should be added to 
convert all the clay into a fusible slag. 

In conclusion, the patentee states that the distinguishing 
features of the improved apparatus and processes, which con- 
stitute this invention, are as follows : — First, the direct reduc- 
tion of the ores of zinc by means of a smelting furnace and 
blowing apparatus, without any previous assorting, pounding, 
or crushing. Secondly, the employment of a smelting fur- 
nace for this purpose of the peculiar description represented 
and above explained : that is to say, a furnace having a narrow 
neck or passage, by the descent through which of the charge 
an annular space is formed around it in the top or crown of 
the furnace, where the vapors of zinc collect, but are preven- 
ted by the heat from condensing ; having also passages of a 
rectilineal form through which the vapors of zinc pass off to 
be condensed (a form which permits the rake to traverse and 
completely clear the passages from end to end) ; and further 

VOL. XXXVIII. D 



34 Recent Patents, 

provided with condensing chambers^ through which a current 
of cold water is kept continually flowing^ in order to aid the 
process of condensation. Thirdly, avoiding the introduction 
into the furnace of any substance capable of re-oxidizing the 
zinc produced : which is effected by the drying and roasting 
of the hydrated and carbonated ores of zinc and iron ; by the 
drying (in certain cases) by means of hot blast ; and by the 
use of cast or malleable iron for the purpose of combining 
with and extracting the sulphur contained in sulphuretted 
zinc ores. Fourthly, the direct treatment of blende which 
has not been roasted, and the reduction thereof by means of 
the iron employed : that is, either the cast or malleable iron, 
or the iron produced by the ore, which becomes converted 
into cast iron or sulphuret of iron in the furnace itself. Fifthly, 
the peculiar method of treating sulphuretted or arseniuretted 
ores of lead and copper containing zinc, whereby the zinc is 
separated from the other metals and obtained in a metalUc 
state. Sixthly, the method of turning the zinc contained in 
ores of iron to good account, without injuring the latter metal. 
The patentee claims, First, — the direct reduction of zinc 
from its ores by means of the apparatus and processes (all or 
any of them) above described. Secondly, — ^the peculiar con- 
struction of smelting furnace above described. — [InroUed 
October, 1850.] 

To Charles Greenway, of Green-street, Crrovenor-square, 
in the county of Middlesex, for improvements in ship^ 
and other pumps ; in anchors; and in propelling vessels.* 
[Sealed 19th June, 1850.] 

This invention consists, first, in improvements in valves for 
ships and other pumps; and, secondly, in improvements in 
manufacturing anchors. 

The improved construction of valve is represented in Plate 
III., at figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Fig. 1, is a plan view, and 
fig. 2, a vertical section of the valve, a, is the perforated 
seat of the valve, shewn separate in plan view at fig. 3, and 
in section at fig. 4 ; it supports the perforated piece i, which 
is also shewn detached at figs. 5, and 6 ; and the surfaces of 
the two parts o. A, which come in contact, are ground, so as 
to fit accurately. The piece b, has a tubular stem i^, which 

* By a disclaimer and memorandum of amendment, dated December 19, 
1850, the patentee has struck out the words " and in propelling '^ from the 
title of his patent, and inserted the word ** and " after " pumps ;" so that 
the title now reads, " improvements ink ships' and other pumps, and in 
anchors.'' 



Greenway's, for Impts. in Pumps, Anchors, Sfc. 35 

descends throagh the circular part a^, of the seat, and thus 
serves to guide the piece b, in its movements ; and the extent 
of motion of the piece b, is regulated by the nut c, on the 
lower end of the stem, coming in contact with the under side 
of the part a^. The upper part of the valve consists of a disc 
d, ground at its edge to fit tight over the perforated part of 
the piece b, and having a solid stem e, which descends through 
the tubular stem b^, and receives a nntf, at the bottom, by 
which the extent of motion of the disc d, is limited. TVlien 
the valve is acted on by the pressure of water or other fluid, 
the pieces b, and d, rise from their respective seats, and thus 
present two passages for the escape of the fluid. Although 
the patentee has only shewn two moving pieces, he does not 
confine himself thereto : thus the valve might consist of three 
moving pieces ; and, in that case, there would be three pas- 
sages for the escape of water or other fluid. 

The improved mode of manufacturing anchors consists in 
stamping the form of an anchor out of sheet metal, placing a 
number of such forms side by side, so as to obtain the thick- 
ness desired, and then securing the whole together, instead of 
adopting the usual mode of forging anchors out of solid bars 
of iron. Fig. 7, is a side view and fig. 8, an edge view of an 
anchor made of five forms or pieces of sheet iron (but the pa- 
tentee does not restrict himself to this number), which, if the 
anchor is intended to be what is termed a portable one, are 
secured together by screw-bolts and nuts ; so that when the 
anchor is not required for use, the pieces may be separated 
for convenience of stowage or transport ; but if the anchor is . 
to be a solid one, the several pieces are welded together by 
forging or by pressure, at a suitable heat, between dies acted 
on by a steam hammer. In the portable anchors, the patentee 
prefers to insert a form of sheet zinc between the several forms 
of sheet iron, to prevent corrosion. In order to form the 
flukes, the ends of the forms of sheet iron are made as shewn 
at figs. 9, where a, indicates the centre-piece, b, the shape of 
two adjacent ones, and c, the shape of the two outer ones : 
the pieces b, and c, are stamped out of the sheet metal as 
represented by the dotted lines, and then those parts are 
turned over to form the flukes. If preferred, however, the 
flukes may be made separately and rivetted or otherwise 
attached to the anchor. 

The patentee claims. First, — the mode, above described, of 
constructing ships^ and other pumps. Secondly, — the mode^ 
above described, of constructing anchors. — [Inrolled De- 
cember, 1850.] 



[ 36 ] 

AcirntiCc fiot(cri>« 



Patentable Invention and Scientific Evidence, with an Intro^ 
ductory Preface. By William Spbnce.* 

Not the least Btriking feature of the present times is the 
general desire which exists for the perfecting of our system of 
jurisprudence. Scarcely had that vicious system, which until 
lately prevailed, for proving and enforcing the payment of 
small debts, been swept away, and the New County Courts 
become fairly established, than their jurisdiction (which was 
at first limited to the adjustment of debts of twenty pounds 
and under) received an extension, despite the opposition of the 
government, so as to take cognizance of debts of fifty pounds; 
and thus was a means of obtaining justice put within the 
power of a large class of suitors, who, for the most part, had 
been compelled to forego their rights, and quietly submit to 
be defrauded, because of the costliness of law proceedings. 
It is needless to go so far back as the period when Lord 
Brougham occupied the woolsack, for instances of a marked 
progress towards a more simple and efficient administration 
of equity ; for the recent " orders " of the present Lord Chan- 
cellor will shew, that advance in this desirable direction is the 
order of the day. But, by far the most satisfactory indication 
of a desire to meet the wants of the times and the wishes of 
the people, in matters of jurisprudence, is to be seen in the 
fact, that an association, recently established for the reform of 
our laws, has not merely been countenanced by men of the first 
standing in both the courts of law and equity, but has received 
their active and zealous support. This fact would shew, if 
Sir Bulwer Lytton's theory — ^that opinions travel upward — 
be correct, that the inadequacy of our system of judicature is 
pretty universally felt by the people : it is not, therefore, to 
be wondered at, that the mode of administering justice, in 
cases of infringements of patents, should have received the 
maledictions of patentees, more especially as their attention 
has of late been so earnestly called, by the whole press of the 
couiitry, to the anomalies of the patent laws. The uncertainty 
of the law, in respect of the validity and infringements of 
patents for inventions, coupled with tne cost of legal proceed- 
ings, seems to be a theme on which all patentees and inven- 
tors are at harmony. It is not in litigation as in the granting 
of patents, that exceptions are taken to the policy of reducing 
the cost ; and yet we think that nothing reasonable has been 
advanced towards the attainment of this object, or for render- 
ing decisions more satisfactory. In a former paper we oflFered 

* Stevens and Norton, Bell-yard. 



ScierUific Notices. 37 

a suggestion^ which mighty perhaps^ had it been acted upon^ 
have, in great part, prevented the necessity for instituting 
proceedings in the courts of law to settle questions of disputed 
patent rights. This was to establish a Court of Appeal, whicbj 
although possessed of no legal authority, should, through its^ 
constitution, have the prestige for wisdom, as well as ipfipar- 
tiality, in its judgments ; and thereby be enabled to throw 
obloquy on any infringer who acted in defiance of its award. 
It does not, however, appear that men, well versed in mat* 
ters of science, are easily to be found, who also possess the 
quality of mind necessary for seizing upon the points at 
issue in cases of infringement of inventioi^s. Of this we 
are the more convinced by the many suggestions which have 
emanated from quarters where the ability might fairly be 
supposed to exist, for remedying the uncertainty which hangs 
over the decisions of patent cases. One reformer will have it 
that the subject-matter for a patent should be properly defined, 
so that an inventor might know when he is entitled by law to 
a patent. Another proposes that a patent, when once granted, 
shall be imas^ailable. A third, finding the difficulty so great 
in getting justice from the courts in which patent cases are 
now tried, wo^ild transfer the consideration of such matters 
from special juries, directed by the most eminent men on the 
bench, to county and stipendiary magistrates^ courts, as a 
more fitting kind of tribunal. That great hardships are oc- 
casionally experienced, from the incompetency of the present 
tribunals to try patent causes, we cannot deny ; for we could 
point to cases where the judge, jury, and counsel, were all alike 
at fault, and incapable, the one party of raising, and the others 
of understanding, the points really at issue ; and it is upon 
these points, which, to discover and elucidate, require a min- 
gled knowledge of law and science, that men of eminence in 
any given art that may be brought into question will in general 
be found unable to decide. The most rational suggestion, 
therefore, which has been made respecting the mode of trying 
patent cases, viz., that a jury, composed of men practically ac- 
quainted with the manufacture to which the disputed patent 
right referred, should be called, to decide upon the matter, is 
open to grave objections, and will, we fear, be impracticablcj 
until mankind has forpaed the habit of resolving every ques- 
tion of moment by reference to first principles. 

It may be thought that we are throwing a halo of mist around 
a subject already sufficiently involved ; but what we would desire 
to enunciate is simply this — that however complex a question 
may at first sight appear, it is capable of being stripped of much 
extrinsie matter (which alone will frequently create the appa- 
rent difficulty) and resolved^ as the chemist would say, into its 



88 Scientific Notices. 

simple elements. Now^ with respect to inventions^ we think 
this may always be done ; and certainly no specification can 
be properly drawn^ without the invention being (so to speak) 
individualized in the writer^s mind. It does not^ however, 
necessarily follow that it is advisable to frame the specification 
in a manner that the elements, which go to make up the in- 
vention, shall be set forth as patent to the world ; and yet we 
affirm that, without such an insight into the nature of the 
invention, no question as to its validity with respect to other 
patents, or of any alleged infringement upon it, can be satis- 
factorily decided. A patentee will frequently feel that his 
neighbour is working a machine which ought to be considered 
an infringement of his rights; and yet he cannot tell you 
why; for his neighbour's machine is, perhaps, much more 
efficient than his own ; and the construction of the two, as 
respects their parts, is totally different. His conclusion will 
be — ^that '^ I started the idea, and he has robbed me of it ''* 
and yet this first inventor will do nothing to defend himself; 
for he will be advised that he has no legal claim for redress. 
But how is this ? Can the law be so defective that an original 
invention may be thus easily set aside ? The defect, we would 
answer, is not in the law, but in the practice ; for, had his 
specification been drawn under a clear perception of the nature 
of the invention, a definite step in advance of the prior exist- 
ing stock of public knowledge would have been made apparent 
to the world : but, as it is, he claims, we will suppose, merely 
the construction of the parts as shewn and described, which 
may be varied ad infinitum. Thus, on carefully examining 
any case, in which a patentee's rights in a new and useful 
invention are virtually voided by the skilful re-adaptation of 
his own idea, or are left unrecognized by the courts of law, 
although appealed to for redress, we shall find that the essen- 
tial features, or peculiar characteristics of his invention, have 
been lost sight of; and it is in consequence of this remiss- 
ness, either in the preparation of the specification, or in the 
getting up of the case for trial, that the law is held to be 
unjust and oppressive. 

In the work which forms the title of the present paper, the 
following passage occurs, which supports our position — that 
questions relating to the voidability of patents can only be 
determined by reference to first principles. Mr. Spence, in 
speaking of patentable invention, says, — '' An abstract phy- 
sical principle is not patentable, because it is not, in any sense, 
a manufacture. The discovery of it may be useful, and very 
meritorious; but it must be rewarded in some other way. 
Still a manufacture may embody a principle ; and I affirm 
that it does so universally, — that, in point of fact, no result 



Scientific Notices, 39 

comes out from its use concept as an effect of the working of 
its essential principled' And, again, — " Patentable invention 
is not here said to be a principle of any kind, but only of a 
particular kind — an embodied principle. It must be one 
which actuates a body existing in some material form, and 
constitutes, when thus embodied, a manufacture/^ Now, if 
this be true — and we think that, had our space permitted, we 
could have instanced sufficient examples from our own pages 
to prove the case — it follows that, in the absence of minds 
properly constituted to discern the " embodied principle '' (or, 
as it is more generally expressed, to ascertain the nature of 
the invention), a feeling of uncertainty must continue to pre- 
vail respecting the result of legal investigations of patent mat- 
ters; but, whenever legal advisers, counsel, and judges, are 
found capable, on the one hand, of ascertaining, and, on the 
other, of comprehending, the grounds on which the contending 
parties ought to rely, there is comparatively little difficulty in 
coming to a just decision. The constitution of our courts, 
for the trial of patent causes, should not, therefore, be com- 
plained of, merely because incompetent parties are occasionally 
called upon to advocate and adjudicate upon this peculiar 
class of questions ; for, under no other form of judicature that 
might be devised, would the means exist of ensuring that com- 
petent parties should invariably preside over and conduct the 
proceedings. It should be also remembered that, when men 
can be found, who, from their occupation or natural bent of 
mind, are capacitated to examine analytically matters of this 
nature, their powers, under the present system of judicature, 
may be brought to bear, as scientific witnesses ; and it not 
unfrequently happens, that upon the evidence obtained from 
such channels the decisions of the courts are based. This is 
a fact of considerable importance, and deserving of serious 
consideration, as the biassed opinions of a scientific witness, 
when looked up to as an authority, are calculated to go far 
towards frustrating the ends of justice. On this point, the 
author, whom we have already quoted, seems to possess a 
wholesome fear. He says, — " It is well known that there is 
a kind of scientific witness that is most adapted for the plain- 
tiff^ and another for the defendant, in a patent case^ The 
man skilled in the power of expanding narrow points suits 
the plaintiff; and he who can multiply plausible objections 
to the invention, as a substantive thing, suits the defendant. 
Now, the state of things which fosters the growth of two rival 
theories systematically called into exercise, has a tendency to 
substitute an art or science of giving evidence for a plain dis- 
closure of facts.'^ He, therefore, s^ter defining the kind of 
scientific evidence that should be receivable in patent cases by 



40 Scientific Notices. 

reference to the law of extrinsic evidence (as expounded by 
Wigram & Jarman), proposes — as a remedy to the evils which 
obtain under the present practice of receiving scientific evi- 
dence — that the examination of witnesses shall commence with 
" those witnesses called ' practical/ who can^ by their testi- 
mony as to facts, lay a foundation, upon which may be built 
the superstructure of theoretical opinion derived from the 
higher class of scientific witnesses/' In this manner, the 
author conceives " that the judge will be more effectually as- 
sisted than at present in obtaining materials for forming an 
accurate judgment upon the points in issue before him ; and 
this plan is also likely to obviate, in a great measure, the 
chance of the recurrence of such conflicting scientific testi- 
mony as has been frequent, by enabling counsel to test the 
opinions of the scientific men in a much more searching 
manner/' The value of this suggestion, we think, is some- 
what doubtful ; for it would seem, at the first blush, to indi- 
cate that the scientific witness must come into court in pro- 
found ignorance of the points at issue — ^that during the pro- 
gress of the trial he is to collect the facts on which to found 
an opinion of the merits of the case — and, without having had 
time for reflection, he is to deliver his opinion just prior to 
the judge's summing up, which is tQ be, more or less, an echo 
of the extrinsic evidence given by the scientific witness. We 
will not say this is the intended bearing of Mr. Spence's sug- 
gestion ; but we think, without any straining of his words, 
the meaning we have assigned to them might be fairly deduced. 
From the above extracts, it will be seen that our author is 
strongly impressed, and most justly so, with the importance 
of properly receiving the evidence of scientific witnesses in 
patent cases; for an undue jrielding to, or a disregard of, 
their opinions would be alike injudicious ; and it is frequently 
impossible to steer a middle course. So long as men of 
scientific attainments will condescend to act as partisans, and 
counsel will confine their studies to the law^ we see no remedy 
for existing inconveniences ; for, if the scientific witness (who 
is often the only man capable of fully appreciating the merits 
of the case) were banished from the courts, we should have 
judgments more frequently pronounced in ignorance of the 
real points at issue than at present, although his biassed views 
do not unfrequently give a wrong turn to the whole proceed- 
ings. Gould we be certain that, from amongst this class, men 
might be found of the right calibre of mind for stripping a 
question of its complexities, and referring it to first principles, 
— and therefore qualified to act as a kind of judicial commit- 
tee, — ^we might be disposed to advocate the establishment of a 
court similar to that described by Mr. Dudley Field, as re- 



SdaU^ Notices. 41 

eendy institated in the State ot New York for the hearing of 
cases of libd ; wh^cby all questions of infiringement would be 
aabjected to a £ur discossion^ with a view to their amicable 
ad|iistine&ty before the a^;rieYed parties ooold avail them- 
adves of the ooorta at law. This would, doubtless, if properly 
cfHidncted, dJHfwwie oi a great number of cases, and yet leave 
the present eoorta as a dernier ressori ; but the ultimate ex« 
pcnses o( a trial would be thereby considerably increased. 
Hrhidierer way, therefore, we turn, we find inconveniences ; 
but as an inquiry into the subject is of great moment to pa- 
tentees, it may be well at a future opportunity to give it fur« 



KEW MSTHOD OF OCAXTITATIYBLT ESTIMATING TIN IN 

ANALYSIS. 



BT X. CH. MEMB. 



[Ti ■■ Jill il Car the Umiam Jot—l of Arte and Scieaeaa.] 

Uf to the present time fin has always been qoaotitatively estimated 
in chemical analyaiB under the form of peroxide of tin, or stannic 
add. The difficulty, or rather the minute care, necessary in 
separating this substance — the time required in its washing and 
dcaccation, and, at the same time, the unavoidable inaccuracy of 
the process, have made it an obstacle to exact analyses of com- 
pounds in whidi tin is present. 

The new method, which has been employed with success, is 
founded upon the employment of a certain test solution, of a stan- 
dard strength. The process possesses a simplicity, rigidity, and 
eevtainty, which are unattunable by the old method. The 
fhnniraJ action upon which the estimation of tin, by the method 
■nder eonsideration, is based, is the property possessed by proto- 
chloride of tin to take dilorine firom certain other salte in whidi 
it cxistB ; — dius, if a solution of perchloride of iron (Fe^Tl^, an 
Qfunge-coiored fluid, be poured into a solution of protochloride 
of tin (Sn . CI), a perfectiy-cc^rkss fluid, the salt of iron will 
give up to the tin one atom of its chlorine ; passing into the 
ttate of protochloride (Fe,Cl,), a colorless compound, raising the 
protochloride of tin to the state of perchloride (SnCl^), a salt 
likewise eokniess. The decoloration of the salt of iron will thus 
take i^aee;, so long as any tin remains in the state of protochlo- 
ride ; but, as soon as the whole of the tin is brou^t into the 
rtate of perdiloride, the slightest addition of the test-solution of 
perchloride of iron will color the solution to be tested with a 
more or leas Im^t mange-yellow tint. Hiis would mark the end 
of the toleration; and, as the test-solution is of a known or 
standard strength, the quantity of tin can at once be known by 



This method of analysis is already so generally employed in 
Ubontoriea^ that it will not be requisite to enter into any detaila 

TOI.. XXXYIU. B 



42 Scientific Notices. 

besides those necessary in the examination for tin itself. In 
performing an analysis by this means, one or two grammes of 
the matter to be examined must be introduced into a flask or 
mattrass, of the capacity of about a pint ; — a mixture of one part 
of nitric acid, with six of hydrochloric acid, is to be added ; heat 
must be applied until the mixture has boiled sharply for a short 
time ; or, better, until the fluid becomes yellow, and smells strongly 
of chlorine : — at this time the tin is in the state of perchloride. 
Zinc is now put into the mattrass, until the liquor becomes clear 
and colorless. In dissolving, the zinc reduces the tin to the state 
of protochloride, — that is to say, the zinc precipitates the tin in 
the metallic state ; but the excess of hydrochloric acid re-dis- 
solves it, immediately bringing it into the condition of protochlo- 
ride ; in which state it exists in the fluid to be tested. When 
the solution is thus prepared, it is ready for the addition of the 
standard test-solution of perchloride of iron ; — this is added by 
means of a graduated pipette, from which the test-solution is 
poured into the fluid containing the zinc, until a certain deter- 
minate efi^ect is produced. The quantity of tin present in the 
original compound is determined by a simple calculation from the 
quantity of perchloride of iron added. 

It is advisable to dilute the solution to be tested, particularly 
when it contains copper. 

When the examination is to be made upon a compound of tin 
and other metals, such as copper, lead, &c. (substances which are 
insoluble, or, at least, very sparingly soluble, in hydrochloric acid), 
the zinc, as described above, decolorizes the fluid, and precipitates 
these metals in the metallic state ; their particles collect at the 
bottom of the flask, and do not in anywise prevent the action 
of the solution of iron from being perfectly seen. When, on the 
contrary, metab are present which are soluble in hydrochloric 
acid, such as iron, they are brought into the state of protochloride, 
and, similarly to those which are insoluble, oflier no impediment 
to the operation of the test ; as their affinity for chlorine is less 
than that of tin and protochloride of iron for the same substance. 
Arsenic affords the only exception to the above rule : when this 
substance is present with the tin, the compound must be sub- 
jected to a preliminary experiment before dissolving it, for the 
purpose of applying the iron test. The object of the preliminary 
treatment is to get rid of the arsenic. This is effected by heating 
the compound for some time in a crucible lined with charcoal : 
the arsenic is volatilized ; but the tin, and other (not volatile) 
metals, remain unchanged. This mixture is dissolved in the acid, 
and the process passed through, which has been already described. 

The earthy bases, such as lime, baryta, and alumina, do not 
present any difficulty in the application of this method of analysis. 

Before bringing to a termination the account of the operation 
of the new process, it will perhaps be desirable to point out a 
convenient and easy method of procuring the perchloride of iron. 
It is important, in making this test-solution, to employ a salt 
quite free from nitric acid ; for, otherwise, in the analysis of 



Scientific Notices. 43 

alloys of tin, it would act n^n the other metals present, uid, 
oxitming them, produce senous and unavoidable eirora. To 
make the perchloride of iron, precipitated peroxide of iron, or 
colcothar, may be very advantageously used; — this should be 
boiled for about teu minutes with pure hydrochloric acid, and 
then filtered : the liquor thus produced does not change spon- 
taneously, but may be kept for an indefinite period. Perchloride 
of iron may be made to cryBtallize by concentration or coohng ; 
but the loss which occurs in the process — the variable and acci- 
dental nature of the products formed — the inutility of taking the 
necessary pains — are so many reasons why the crystallized per- 
chloride ought not to be employed. 

To make the standard test-solution, it appears scarcely neces- 
sary to p.ye any instructions. The plan is, nowever, to weigh out 
exactly one gramme cf pure tin ; remark accurately the number 
of measures of solution of perchloride of iron &om the graduated 
pipette required to bring the tin to the state of perchloride, 
judging by the color, as already described i then compare it, by 
calculation, to the results of the analysis. The employment of 
this method of estimating tin is so simple and familiar to chemists, 
that any further details seem to be quite unnecessary. — [Comptet 
Rmdu4.'] 

OH THE KED COLOBINQ 

Hasueb contains two peculiar red coloring principles, which 
were long since named by MM. Bobiquet and Colin, alizarine and 
purpunne : these are the substances which M. Runge has described 
under the name of krapproth and krappurpur. M. Debris has 
termed them lizaric and oxylizaric adds. The composition of aU- 
■ariue is expressed by the formula 

C„.H..O, 
which corresponds exactly with the resultsof the analysis of MM. 
Schunck and Debris. Alizarine is a feeble acid, and is capable of 
uniting with bases in numerous proportions. The following is a 
liat of the salts of this substance, which have been analyzed, and 
the atomic constitution calculated : — 

Hydrate of alizarine. ... C„ . H, . 0,+4H0. 

Alizarate of lead 2(C,. H,. Oa+3{PbO). 

Ditto ditto SiC^.E, . 05)-l-l(PbO). 

Ditto of hme 2(C„ . H, . 0«) -l-3{CnO-HO), 

Ditto of baryta C„. H,.0,+2(BaO). 

Ditto ditto 2(C„ . H, . Os)+3{BaO-HO). 

Ditto ditto, dried at 1 20°, 2{C„ . H, . O,) + 3(BaO) . 

Ditto ditto 3(C» . H* . 0,) +'i(BaO). 

Chloronaphthalic acid, C» . Ht+CI . 0„ discovered by M, Laurent, 
GonsiBts, as is demonstrated in the formula of alizarine, given above, 
of that substance combined with chlorine : this acid, it is well 
known, forms with metalhc oxides salta of a red or yellow color. 
It has hidierto been sought, in vain, to transform chloronaphthalic 
wad into aliiaiine, either by means of the amalgam of potassium. 



44 Scientific Notices. 

or by an electric current acting under the influence of an alkaline 
solution. There cannot, however, be much doubt but that, alti' 
mately, chemical research will point out a means of producing 
practically a reaction, which theory shews to be perfectly possible. 
Alizarine, treated with nitric acid, produces oxalic acid, — and 
also a volatile acid, termed by M. Shunck olizaric acid, and in 
which MM. Gerhardt and Laurent have recognized phthalic acid : 
indeed it has been proved, by the elementary analysis of the salt 
of silver, which has given the composition 0^ . H4 . Ags . Og, that 
alizarine is partially converted by nitric acid into phthalic acid. 
The following formula shews the nature of this transformation : — 

Aliaarine. Pljthalio Ox^Jio Acid, 

^^^^ Acid. 2 atoms. 

C„H« . 0«+08+2(HO)=C,«HA+C4HA. 

M. Laurent has discovered that chloronaphthalic acid is like- 
wise transformed, under the influence of nitnc acid, into phthalie 
and oxalic acids. This is fresh proof of the intimate connection 
which exists between chloronaphthalic acid and alizarine. 

Purpurine, the second of the red coloring matters of madder, 
has the composition Cig . Hg . O5. It differs from alizarine in con- 
taining two equivalents less of carbon. It gives, as well as ali- 
zarine, all the various tints of color which can be obtained from 
madder by the action of mordants of different kinds. 

Adrianople red, produced by purpurine, has a finer color (less 
blue) than that which can be obtained by the use of alizarine. 
Purpurine is separated from alizarine by a concentrated boiling 
solution of alum, in which it dissolves, leaving the insoluble ali- 
zarine behind. Purpurine gives, with caustic potash, a greenish- 
red solution ; while the color of the potash solution of alizarine 
is of a pure blue, seen by reflected light, — but appears purple 
when the rays of light pass through it to the eye. 

Purpurine, treated with nitric acid, is (like alizarine) converted 
into phthalic and oxalic acids. The nature of the transformation 
is represented in the following formula: — 

^^^«- ^Adf*' Ad? 

CisHe . Oe+HO+06=CieHe . Oa+CjaO^. 
In madder which has been brought into a state of fermentation 
by the addition of yeast, at the temperature of 30® Cent., pur- 
purine alone has been found ; — the alizarine had disappeared, being 
probably converted into purpurine, — a change which may readily 
take place with the disengagement of carbonic acid and free hy- 
drogen gas. — {Ibid,'\ 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, 

Nov, 26«A, and Dec, Srd, 1860. 
WILLIAM CUBITT, Esq., Pbesidbkt,— iw the Chair. 

The discussion on Mr. Struv^'s paper, on " The ventilation of 
collieries^ theoretically and practically considered,^* was continued 
throughout both the evenings, to the exclusion of any other 
subject* 



Scientific Notices. 45 

The principal points of the paper were expkined to the mem' 
bers who were not present at the reading of the paper. Great 
stress was laid on the advantages of splitting the corrent of air, 
so as to redace the velocity of its transit through the mine, and 
to afford a fall supply to the most remote points of the workings. 

The high temperature in the upcast-shaft, necessary to produce 
tlie requisite velocity of current in the galleries of mines, when 
fomaoes were employed, was adduced in favor of the employ- 
ment of Stmv^'s mine ventilator, or other mechanical means of 
drawing out air through shafts which were also used for drawing 
the coal, or raising the men to the surface. 

The wasteful implication of steam, in the form of a jet, was 
insisted on, and contrasted with the small power actually em- 
ployed at the Eaglesbush Colliery, for giving motion to Struv^*s 
mine ventilator. 

These statements were fully confirmed. It was shewn, that 
the speed of the mine ventilator could be regulated to produce 
any requisite velocity of current in the galleries ; and that it was 
an efficient indicator of the occurrence of any stoppage in the air- 
passages, as, on the supply of air being arrested, the machine 
would soon be stopped. 

In the best mines of the North furnace ventilation was found 
to be most efficient ; and the stated danger apprehended from the 
firing of the gas at the furnace was concluded to be more ideal 
than real. Nevertheless, it was admitted, that a good simple 
mode of mechanical ventilation merited the best attention of the 
owners of collieries. Fans for forcing air down into mines had 
been tried ; but were found inefficient, although considerable 
power was consumed in propelling them. 

The difficulties found in using mechanical exhausters were then 
attributed, in a great degree, to the small size of the inlet and 
outlet-valves; and the improvements introduced by Dr. Amott, in 
the apparatus for ventilating the New County Hospital, at York, 
were instanced as examples of the necessity for using curtain- 
valves, of large area, for the machines, as it had been found that, 
as the dimensions of the valves were increased, the power re- 
quired to work the machines diminished. The most beneficial 
dSecta had resulted from the use of ventilating-machines, similar 
in principle to Struv^'s mine ventilator, in hospitals, and on 
board crowded emigrant and convict ships ; and, by proper atten- 
tion to the area of the valves, the power required to work them 
was very small. The application of small water-power engines, 
like those made by Mr. Armstrong, of Newcastle, for giving mo- 
tion to the ventilating-machines, was recommended as very effective 
and most economical. 

The importance of large air-channels, in short lengths, for fur- 
nishing ample supplies of air under ground, was admitted by other 
^leakers, who, however, objected to the application of mechanical 
ventilation, — preferring its being effected by natural means, which 
it was contended could be attained by a judicious system of 
"winmng" anrangements. When^ however^ this was not prao- 



46 Scientific Notices. 

ticable, Struv^'s apparatas was approyed as the best hitherto 
introduced. A somewhat similar but less perfect system had 
been used for some years in Germany, Prussia, Belgium, and in 
some mines in England. 

The system of sinking shafts on the dip, for the advantage of 
collecting water, without considering the tendency of gas to accu- 
mulate in the upper cavities of the workings, was deprecated, and 
the more advantageous plan proposed of having the downcast 
shaft on the dip, and the upcast on the crop ; whereby an easier 
exit would be provided, and a more effective ventilation be esta- 
blished. 

The application of the steam-jet was advocated, and instances 
were given of its efficiency in clearing the after-damp from pits 
where explosions had occurred. It was argued, from experiments, 
that the steam-jet could be rendered much more efficient than the 
furnace ; but no statement of the relative expense of this plan, as 
compared with mechanical ventilation, was entered into. 

The evidence given before the House of Commons in 1835, the 
House of Lords in 1849, and to the South Shields Committee on 
accidents in coal mines in 1843, was carefully analysed, with the 
intention of demonstrating that, beyond certain limits, it was 
useless to force furnace ventilation, as, under certain circum- 
stances, a current of cold air was found to descend the upcast- 
shaft, forming a false brattice, and arresting the ventilation. The 
steam-jet was stated to be capable of such increase of power, and 
of such varied application, as not to be subject to this incon- 
venience. 

It was contended, on the other hand, that, in reality, this na- 
tural brattice was seldom perceived, and that, when it did occur, 
the system of scaling off a portion of air, at some distance up the 
shaft, sufficed to destroy it. 

It was shewn that mechanical ventilation was essential to clear 
away the choke or after-damp, so as to enable a mine to be en- 
tered after an explosion, when it might be dangerous to light the 
furnace at the bottom of the pit ; but by setting the machine at 
work with increased velocity, a much greater circulation of air 
could be caused under any circumstances of barometrical pressure, 
and the mine could be cleared in a short time. Had thu system 
been adopted, the dreadful effects of the choke-damp after ex- 
plosions would have been frequently obviated, and much waste of 
human life might have been avoided. 

The discussion was adjourned until the next meeting. 

Deoehbeb 10th, 1850. 

The discussion on Mr. Struv^'s paper, on " The ventilation of 
collieries f theoretically and practically considered" was continued 
throughout the evening. 

The steam-jet, in its application to the upcast-shaft, was again 
considered ; it was argued, that like the furnace, it did not pro- 
duce any pulsation in the current of air, which was so very waste- 
ful of the power for giving motion to all means of mechanical 



Scientific Notices. 47 

ventilation ; and, therefore, that by the accepted laws of physics, 
the steam-jet set in motion a body of air, which continued to 
flow without intermission through the galleries and the upcast- 
shaft, subject only to the deduction for the pressure of the at- 
mosphere, and the friction of the column of air on the surface 
over which it passed. It was shewn that, to obtain the full and 
eflfective action of the steam-jet, precautions must be adopted, in 
bringing it down a certain distance, so that the jet should act 
conically ; and a variation of the distance between the jet and the 
extremity, or apex of the inverted cone, would produce a corre- 
sponding variation in the degree of rarefaction. The jet was 
stated to act equally efficiently, either at the top or the bottom of 
the shaft, although it was admitted to be more costly in the former 
situation. Its application at the Ebbw Yale Collieries was asserted 
to be very effective ; and, as only the surplus steam was employed, 
it was in that instance the most economical system that could be 
used. 

On the other hand it was contended, that in mechanical venti- 
lation, the pulsation of the air was only perceived where the valves 
were heavy, or were of contracted area ; that, practically, it was 
more to be reUed on than any other system, and that the safety 
afforded by it was superior to the furnace, or the steam-jet ; as, 
under circamstances of danger, or after an explosion, it c^uld be 
brought into immediate action, with increased energy, to meet 
the emergency, and be the means of saving human Ufe. 

In summing up the discussion, the evidence given before the 
House of Lords in 1849 was again minutely analysed, with the 
view of shewing that the deductions previously drawn were not 
correct, inasmuch as the results obtained were owing to tempera- 
ture, and not to the exhaustion created by the steam-jet. The 
published opinion of M. Combes, — " that the useful effect of the 
steam employed to produce the motion of the air, by projecting 
it into a tube, is in all cases much below what it is capable of 
producing when applied to a steam-engine working mechanical 
ventilators of the most imperfect description," was quoted in 
support of these views. 

It was considered, that a current of air in the upcast-shaft of 
at least 18 feet per second was most desirable ; to produce which 
a motive column of air of 137 feet would be requisite ; and this 
could not be attained where ventilation by means of a furnace, or 
of a steam-jet at the bottom of the pit was used, without raising 
the temperature to such a degree as would be impracticable in 
bratticed shafts, or in shafts used for winding coals, or for the 
passage of men. It was then shewn, that the steam-jet appUed 
at the top of the upcast-shaft, and acting merely by rarefaction, 
would be too costly for general adoption ; whereas, if the combined 
area of the pumps of Struv^'s mine ventilator was sufficiently large 
to equal the aggregate amount of the splittings of the colliery, it 
would only require one-sixth of one-horse power for every super- 
ficial foot of the upcast-shaft. It was shewn, that no pulsation 
in the current of idr was perceptible in the Eaglesbush Colliery 



48 Scientific Notices. 

(where Stray6*8 mine ventilator had been in nse for nearly two 
years) at a greater distance than 100 yards from the machine, 
and could not, therefore, extend prejudicially into the workings. 
It was mentioned that two other machines, similar to those in use 
at the Eaglesbnsh colliery, were in progress of construction for 
two collieries in the neighbourhood of Swansea. 

M. Leterety an eminent mining engineer, had asserted that no 
similar machine to Mr. Stniv^'s had ever been used in Belgium, 
and that he thought it, both for utility and economy, superior to 
any mechanical ventilation which had yet been introduced. 

At the close of the regular business, Mr. Beckers exhibited and 
described a self-acting siding-stop, which was now in use on the 
Great- Western Railway. A portion of the ordinary rail was cut, 
so as to admit of the movement of the stop, which was of iron, 
about I \ inches thick, and projected above the rail about 9 inches ; 
this was attached to one end of a shaft, and on the other end 
there was a bent lever, which carried a signal disc above, and a 
counterbalance weight below. The object of this simple and 
inexpensive machine was to remove the liability to accidents from 
carriages, or trucks running out of a siding on the main Une, as 
occurred some time since at Wootton Basset ; for whilst it per- 
mitted a train of waggons to pass into the siding, the wheels 
themselves depressing the stop, it presented an absolute bar to 
any waggon leaving the siding, unless some person held down the 
lever so as to lower and remove the impediment. 



December 17th, 1850. 

The Annual General Meeting for the Election of the President, 
Vice-Presidents, and other Members of Council, for the ensuing 
year, and for receiving the Annual Report of the retiring Council, 
was held on this evening. 

The Report was rather more explicit than usual ; and, whilst 
congratulating the members on the increased attendance at the 
meetings, the high value of the original communications, and the 
practical character of the discussions which ensued on their being 
read, it urged the necessity of organization amongst the great 
body of the civil engineers generally, as well for the purposes of 
professional advancement, as for protection of their interests — 
their rights and privileges, — ^which had of late been invaded by 
persons not regularly brought up to the profession. It was shewn, 
that as this Institution was the most natural, so it was the only 
ready means by which this desirable end could be properly and 
effectively carried out ; and how absolutely essential it was that it 
should receive the cordial support of every civil engineer, who had 
the honor and credit, both of himself and of his calling sincerely 
at heart. The same necessities which had, many years ago, called 
this Institution, the first of its kind, into existence, had lately 
induced the establishment of similar societies in several chief towns 
of Great Britain, and the spirit had even extended to foreign 
countries^ where the evils of the centralization system^ and of the 



Scientific Notices 49 

interference of Grovemment Boards, had been severely felt : all 
these societies had taken this, the parent society, as a model in 
nearly every particular. 

The principal papers which had been read were noticed, and 
their objects and merits explained in a few expressive sentences. 
For these, the following medals and premiums were awarded : — 
Telford Medals, to Messrs. Armstrong, W. H. Barlow, W. Taylor, 
Thorneycroft, the Rev. J. C. Clutterbuck, M.A., Chubb, Turner, 
and Paton, and Lieut.-Col. Lloyd, and Professor Cowper ; and 
Council Premiums of Books to Messrs. Neate, Hood, Mallet, 
Doyne, Paterson, Poingdestre, and Lawrence. 

The finance statement exhibited, in some respects, an improve- 
ment over the last year; the current subscriptions were more 
closely paid up, and an accession of funds, to the extent of nearly 
^63,000 stock, from the division of the residuary estate of the late 
Mr. Telford, the first President and Founder, had been recovered, 
in the month of August last, from the Court of Chancery ; and 
for this the Institution was in a great degree indebted to their 
late President, Mr. Walker, in whose name the suit had been 
carried on, and had finally been brought to a successful issue. 

Though the deceases and resignations were more numerous than 
usual, there had been an increase in the number of members, 
which now amounted to six hundred and eighty-one of all classes. 
The deceases included the names of many gentlemen eminent in 
their profession, and of that great statesmen. Sir Robert Peel, 
whose untimely end, not only this country but the world at large, 
so deeply deplored, and who had shewn a marked desire to ad- 
vance the interests of the Institution, and to bring forward its 
officers on all occasions. Memoirs were read of the Right Hon. 
Sir Robert Peel, Bart., M.P., Honorary Member ; Sir M. I. Brunei, 
J. A. Galloway, J. Gibb, W. Handiside, Colonel Irvine, C.B.B.E., 
G. T. Page, J. Smith (Deanston), and R. Stevenson, Members ; 
and J. Adams, P. N. Brockedon, £. F. Brown, J. Hoof, G. B. 
Maule, and J. Ransome, Associates. 

In conclusion, the Council hoped that the members of all classes 
would consider how best they could serve and advance the interests 
of this Institution, which it was admitted had already been highly 
beneficial, by uniting in the bonds of good fellowship, and for 
mutual advancement, a body of men whose labours were so all- 
important, and had so direct an influence on the common weal. 

The thanks of the Institution were voted unanimously to the 
President, Vice-Presidents, and other Members of Council ; also 
to the Auditors and the Secretary, for their great exertions on 
behalf of the Institution, and to the Scrutineers of the Ballot, for 
the kindness with which they undertook that office. 

The following gentlemen were elected to fill the several offices 
in the Council for the ensuing year: — William Cubitt, President; 
I. K. Brunei, J. M. Rendel, J. Simpson, and R. Stephenson, M.P., 
Fice-Prendents : G. P. Bidder, J. Cubitt, J. B. Brrington, J. 
Fowler, C. H. Gregory, J. Hawkshaw^ J. Locke, M.P., J. R. 

Vol. XXXVIII. f 



60 Scientific Notices. 

M'Clean, C. May, and J. Miller, Members; and J. A. Lloyd and 
F. C. Penrose, Associates of Council. 

Mr. W. Cubitt, President, returned thanks to the members for 
their punctual attendance at the meetings, from which mach 
good had resulted ; and expressed the fervent hope that daring 
the next important year ( 185 1 ), the high character of this Society 
might be fully maintained, and its usefulness be in no degree 
curtailed. 

The meeting was then adjourned until Tuesday, January 14th. 



INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 

BIRMINGHAM. 

(Gontirvued from page 365, Vol. XXXVII.) 

The following paper on railway carrying stock, by Mr. W. A. 
Adams, of Birmingham, was next read : — 

The object of the present paper is to discuss and analyse the 
various descriptions of railway carrying stock, with the purpose 
of suggesting such improvements in the details of form and ma- 
nufacture as will materially reduce the gross or dead weight of 
the vehicles, without affecting their efficiency or strength. 

This matter has been brought prominently under the writer's 
attention, from the fact that, upon leading lines of railway, the 
first-class carriages, for the conveyance of 18 passengers, have 
reached a gross weight of 5 tons, and waggons for the conveyance 
of a maximum load of 5 tons, have reached a gross weight of 4} 
tons. These, it is to be observed, are probably extreme cases; 
but, being modem, they evidence the tendency to increase the 
weight of trailing stock. 

It is scarcely needful to remark that, if a locomotive engine is 
capable of conveying a train of 50 waggons, weighing 200 tons, 
and the load 200 tons (which proportion will not be short of the 
truth, even without taking empties into account), a saving of one 
ton in the weight of each waggon will enable the engine to con- 
vey 50 tons additional of waggons and load, or equal to a saving 
of one-eighth in the cost of haulage. 

In the important matter of inland through coal traffic, the 
waggon averaging 3 tons 15 cwt. carries 5 tons of coal. But, as 
the waggon of course returns empty, for 5 tons of coal conveyed 
one mile, 7 tons 10 cwt. of waggon have been conveyed the same 
distance. In this instance, the saving one ton weight in the 
construction of the waggon would be equivalent to a total saving 
of nearly one-sixth in the cost of haulage ; that is to say, if the 
present rates are remunerative, the prices maybe reduced 16 per 
cent., — inducing a much more extensive traffic, and better enabling 
railways to compete with water conveyance. 

Inland coals are mostly conveyed in waggons belonging to the 
collieries, or rented to the collieries by private individuals ; and 



Scientific Notices. 6 1 

iti either case the tonnage or mileage charges on the railways are 
irrespectiye of the weight of the waggons : the object of the waggon 
owner is to produce such waggons as will be most durable with 
the smallest amount of first cost. The weights of colliery waggons 
have been gradually increasing, — each new lot being made (as 
was recently observed by the manager of an extensive inland col- 
liery) of such a strength and weight that, in the event of a col- 
lision, they may break their neighbours and remain uninjured 
themselves. ^ 

Engine and carriage superintendence are generally distinct 
departments. The carriage superintendant aims at the utmost 
economy of maintainence in his department, and produces car- 
riages and waggons, which, though very lasting and very service- 
able, are meanwhile greatly increasing the expenditure of the 
locomotive department. It would appear that in no case has the 
interest of the parties directly concerned been to decrease the 
weight of the vehicles. 

The heavy trains handed over to the locomotive department to 
haul, induced the construction of more powerful and weightier 
engines, until the maximum was quickly reached and checked by 
the sufferings of the permanent way. It is to be observed, that 
the writer has no desire to carry the question of light vehicles to 
any Utopian extent, but simply to calmly study and elucidate, by 
experience and experiment, the practical means of reducing the 
weight of vehicles within proper bounds. 

At the period of the commencement of railways, passengers 
were mostly conveyed by four- house coaches^ light goods by vans, 
and heavy goods by water. It is the intention of the writer of 
this paper to confine the enquiry to wheel-vehicles. The great 
distinction between road and railway vehicles is, that railway 
vehicles have to sustain longitudinal strains in the direction of 
the buffing, as well as lateral and perpendicular blows. The 
four-horse coach, weighing 19cwt., conveyed 18 persons with 
luggage, weighing in all 1 ton 7 cwt., at a rate of ten miles per 
hour. The four-horse Brighton van, weighing 1 ton 1 1 cwt., 
conveyed 6 tons of goods at a rate of four miles per hour. Every 
pound was carefully saved in weight of construction of the above 
vehicles. The timber was carefully-selected English ash; not 
that ash was the most lasting and durable, but that for strength 
and toughness it was unequalled in lightness, though short in its 
period of duration. The axles and the iron-work were wholly 
made of the best marks of scrap-iron. Skilled and costly labour 
of a high class was employed in the forging and fitting of the 
iron-work and the construction of the wood-work. In all cases 
where extreme strength was required, the timber was carefully 
plated with iron ; whereby the utmost strength, with the smallest 
amount of material, was obtained. Builders competed, not so 
much in price, but, as artists, to produce, by proportion of parts 
and materials, the utmost result with the least weight. The gra- 
dients were bad, the roads imperfect, the motive power limited. 



52 Scientific Notices. 

The wear and tear of the carriage was a secondary consideration 
to the cost of hauling power. The vehicles were probably as 
near perfection as man's ingenuity could produce them. 

Simultaneously with the four-horse coach and yan^ was the 
conveyance of coals upon tramways with horse-power. 

The writer will confine his observations to that district with 
which he is practically acquainted — that of Monmouthshire. The 
Act for the making of the Sirhowyand the Monmouthshire tram- 
ways, a total length, exclusive of branches, of 26 miles from the 
mines and ironworks to the shipping port of Newport, was ob- 
tained in the 42nd of Geoi^e III., and, consequently, 48 years 
since ; and that tramway has been worked until within the last 
twelve mouths by horse-power. 

Originally it was a tramway, with fish-bellied cast-iron plates, 
laid and jointed upon stone blocks, with 6-feet bearings. These 
have gradually given place to rolled plates of malleable iron, 
weighing about SO lbs. to the yard, and laid in chairs upon cross 
wood sleepers, with 2-feet 8-inch bearings. 

The gross weight of the class of waggon (or, as it is locally 
termed, tram) used upon this tramway was 1 6 cwt., and it car- 
ried 3 tons of coals at a rate of three miles per hour, exclusive of 
the time consumed at the various public-houses by the tramway- 
side. The breaking or skidding down the inclines was effected 
in the most complete manner by means of a slipper or shoe, 
similar to that of a stage coach ; as also was the stopping of the 
train, by thrusting a bar of wood through the spokes of the 
wheel, or, as it is locally termed, spragging the wheel. The un- 
loading was effected by means of a gallows and crab, — the tram 
being raised at one end, and the coals discharged by means of the 
swinging tail-board at the other end. No provision was made 
for buffing ; but the train was articulated by the mode of hitching 
the waggons together. The wheels ran loose upon the axles, and 
were, in most instances, dished in the manner of a common road- 
wheel, thereby illustrating the first advance ^m a common road- 
yehicle. 

The tramway is mostly an incline from the mines to the port. 
Six horses brought down 60 tons of coals and 1 6 tons of trams. 
The same power was required to take up the empty trams. Dead 
weight in the trams was consequently of vital importance. This 
tramway is now being worked with locomotive power and perma- 
nent waggons, — the Tramway Company finding power, and the 
freighters waggons. The same care which influenced the private 
hauler, and caused him to equalize his upward to his downward 
load, does not now influence the freighter, and has been lost sight 
of by the company. In the eye of the freighter the waggon which 
is strongest and heaviest is the best ; and the consequence is, that 
waggons weighing 3 tons are conveying but 5 tons of load. The- 
ratio of upward load was in the one case 21 per cent., and in the 
latter 37 per cent., as compared with the downward. The weight 
of waggon conveyed up hiU was in the one case 27 per cent.> and 



SciefUific Noticei. S3 

in the latter 60 per cent., as compared with the coals brought 
down. In place of a perfect horse tram-road heavy engines are 
being hammered, and are hammering to pieces a bad road with 
bad gradients and extremely bad curves. This is wholly true, 
but fortunately an extreme case ; nevertheless, it is questionable 
whether many lines are not also suffering in a lesser degree from 
the incubus of dead weight. 

The Huntingdon and St. Ive's branch of the East Anglian 
Railway, 4} miles in length, is at the present time worked by a 
horse-carriage. This carriage is a composite carriage, consisting 
of three compartments, and carrying 60 passengers in all, inside 
and out. It is to be observed, that the carriage is made from an 
ordinary composite, — the under frame being completely taken 
away, and wheels, guards, and springs of the lightest construction 
substituted. The total weight is 3 tons ; but the weight would 
not exceed 2 tons, if the carriage had been originally built for the 
present purpose. The horse is attached by an outrigger, to which 
the traces are hooked, and he travels by the side of the carriage, 
with his head tied up to the carriage, to prevent him from turning 
round. A brake is applied to the wheels. 

The writer has instanced this carriage to illustrate that, when 
horse-power is brought into use, the weight of vehicle is at once 
considered ; and also that the vehicle, being used singly, does not 
require strength to resist longitudinal buffing. The cost of work- 
ing this carriage is sixpence per mile, including horse and driver, 
and the guard, who is also ticket collector. The pace is ten miles 
per hour ; and it would appear that this application meets all the 
requirements of the limited traffic of a short branch. 

Rapid strides were made by engineers in perfecting the way, 
and the locomotive. The facts relative to the permanent way 
have been discussed and appreciated, and the details greatly per- 
fected. Locomotives have been improved, and the consumption 
of fuel brought probably nearly to the minimum; the details 
have been understood, discussed, and experimented upon by men 
of high talent and experience ; but far different is it in the matter 
of carrying stock. The construction of the carriage and the 
waggon was, in the commencement, left wholly to men of long 
practice in carriage building for the common road, but not expe- 
rienced in mechanical engineering. Those patterns originally 
set, have been copied and re-copied in an almost serrile manner* 
When carriages and waggons have failed in their parts, the sole 
remedy has been increase of strength, by increasing the weight 
and quantity of material. Axles have increased from 3 inches 
diameter to 4 inches ; tyres from 4^ -f 1 J inches to 5 -f 1} inches ; 
and BO on throughout. 

The original London and Birmingham and Grand Junction 
first-class carriages, with three compartments, carrying 18 pas^ 
sengers, had dead weight 3^ tons, cubical contents 504 feet. 

The modem first-class carriage, with 3 compartments, carryin|; 
18 passengers, has dead weight 5 tons> cubicid contents 807 feet* 



64 Scientific Notices^ 

The dead weight of waggon, per ton of load, for the upward 
and downward journey of the old Monmouthshire train was \ ton; 
that of the new Monmouthshire waggon is 1-)- ton ; and that of 
the Derbyshire and Leicestershire coal waggon is 1^ ton. 

The writer presumes that it will be at once admitted, that re- 
ducing the dead weight of railway vehicles is extremely desirable, 
whilst such reduction of weight is e£fected with due regard to 
efficiency and strength to resist the longitudinal strain in buffing. 
Also that reduction in first cost is not the sole object to be at- 
tained, but to produce such vehicles as shall be (all points con- 
•idered) the most economical in first cost, in maintenance, and 
especially in traction ; but, at the same time, it does not follow 
that reducing the dead weight, and improving the quality of the 
materials, will add materially, if any, to the cost. 

Should it be approved by the Institution, the subject of a second 
paper will be to analyse and compare the whole of the modern 
trailing stock with that of an earlier period, and thereby glean 
such information as will enable the writer to prepare and lay 
before the Institution, in a future paper, such improvements in 
the form and manufacture of railway vehicles as may lead to the 
result pointed out at the commencement. 

It is proposed to try all necessary experiments as to the relative 
strength of wood and iron, and the combination thereof, in order 
to obtain the necessary information as to the most eligible and 
economical means of attaining the greatest strength with the least 
weight. 



The Chairman observed, that the paper was one of great im- 
portance ; but, as their time was expired, unless some member 
had any communication to make, it was better that the discussion 
should be adjourned to the next meeting. He might observe, 
that it was principally at his suggestion that the paper had been 
prepared, as he considered that nothing could well exceed the 
importance of getting rid of any unnecessary dead weight ; and 
he hoped that, in the interval between the present time and their 
next meeting, the subject would receive the serious attention and 
consideration of the members. 



Societs tit ^vtg^ 

Me. henry THOMAS HOPE, M.P., Vice-Peesident, in the Chaie, 

Nov. 27th, 1850. 

Mr. Meghi read a paper on the present state of agriculture in 
England, and on his own farming operations at Tiptree Hall, 
Essex. 

Mr. Mechi commenced by adverting to the slow progress made 
by agriculture as compared with that of other industrial occu- 
pations, and to the necessity for still further improvement imposed 



Scientific Notices. 66 

on us by our rapidly-increasing population. His reasons for dis- 
satisfaction are the low annual value of the acreable produce of 
the kingdom. 

The author stated his belief that the very largest estimate per 
acre, taking into account the poor grass and arable lands, and 
leaving out market and other gardens, does not reach £4 per 
acre. A reference to Spackman's Occupations of the People, and 
other statistical works, shew that the rental of the United King- 
dom (excluding towns) does not reach 15^. per acre. Taking, 
therefore, as a gross return, five rents (four would be nearer 
truth), it is clear that £3, lbs, worth of produce per acre is far 
too liberal an estimate. 

But well-known facts shew that, by the use of better cultiva- 
tion, and a better general method of farming, much larger returns 
can be got. 

Even tliis year some of the author's potato land yielded ^15 
per acre, at the low price of Is. per bushel ; and the average of 
80 acres of wheat will not be less (straw and chafif included) than 
d610 per acre, on a very miserable soil. There are in — 

Acres. Bental per Acre. 

England and Wales 36,995,000 21». 8J<i. 

Scotland 18,944,000 6«. lid. 

Ireland 20,177,446 13«. 5id, 

(including the towns, and all the bog and waste lands). 

Now, the mere increase of labour and production to the extent 
of 1 Os. per acre, would afiford us all food and employment, with- 
out recourse to foreign imports. This object must be attained by 
the free will of a free people, stimulated by public discussion, 
comparison, and calculation. 

The author remarked, that he had been forcibly struck with the 
prejudices and inconsistencies of agriculture. Railway-hedges are 
neatly trimmed and annually cultivated, like a crop of turnips ; 
and they are thus rendered effective as well as neat : but farm- 
hedges, diverging at right angles from these, have never caught 
the pleasant infection. They still exhibit their huge, irregular, 
and ungainly proportions ; shading and robbing the land, for the 
mere purpose of growing bushes to stop the gaps caused by their 
untrimmed and neglected condition. Farmers dig their gardens 
two feet deep ; but only plough their land five inches. They take 
especial care of their nag horses in a good warm stable ; but ex- 
pose their farm horses and cattle to all weathers. They deny the 
utility of drainage in strong tenacious clays ; but dare not dig an 
underground cellar in such soils, because the water would get in. 
They waste their liquid manure ; but buy guano from Peru to 
repair the loss ; and some practical men, who are in ecstacies with 
the urine of the sheepfold, have been known seriously to doubt 
the benefit of liquid manure. But, it may be asked, *' Where is 
the capital to come from for all these improvements V The reply 
will be. Where does the capital come from to make railways and 
docks, to build steam^vessels, to erect a whole town of new squares 



66 Scientific Notices. 

and streets, and to carry out every other useful and profitable 
undertaking? Of late, many bankers, merchants, shipowners, 
manufacturers, traders, and professionals, have become owners or 
cultivators of our soil. These, not having the agricultural prece- 
dents or prejudices of their predecessors, are devoting their power- 
ful means and energetic common-sense principles to the amend- 
ment of our agriculture and the increase of employment and of 
food. If you see arising on the ruins of our queer-shaped and 
antiquated farmeries a pile of substantial and convenient erec- 
tions — if you see the smoking shaft and irrigated meadow, depend 
upon it it is the work of some new possessor. The establishment 
of public companies, with ample capital and sufficient legal powers 
to improve settled or encumbered estates, is also a pleasing event. 
The antiquated and semi-barbarous difficulty of transfer is a sad 
and most unjustifiable obstruction to landed investment and 
amendment. It appears a monstrous and intolerable nuisance, 
that the same principles of possession and transfer are not applied 
to land as to the funds. A public registry office, with district 
maps, would at once obviate the difficulty. Land would then 
change hands twenty times for once now, and have a proportion- 
ably increased chance of improvement. 

The moral and physical condition of our labourers must be 
regarded as having a most important influence on our successful 
cultivation of the soil. It seems marvellous that, with the exam- 
ple of America before us, we should still leave this great question 
to the mere chance of individual or local beneficence. Our Scotch 
friends manage this matter better, and with economy too ; and, 
as a consequence, supply us with bailiffs and gardeners. 

The author recommends, as an advantageous arrangement, both 
for farmers and their labourers, to let every job at task or piece- 
work. The work is more quickly and cheaply done ; the men 
earn more money ; — are, consequently, in a better physical and 
social condition, and larger consumers of the farmers' and manu- 
facturers' produce. Every man who values the working condition 
of his horses will naturally extend the same consideration to his 
labourers. The social and physical pestilences resulting from the 
wretched hovels in which they are compelled to live, should make 
us wiser in this respect. Honor be to his Grace the Duke of 
Bedford, and to others, who have set a brilliant example, by pro- 
viding ample and convenient residences for the peasantry on their 
estates. 

The necessity for facilitating the carriage of farm produce is 
very obvious. In the good old times, which it is by no means 
desired to resuscitate, the father of a friend of the author's, when 
a farmer in Surrey, had to send his wheat to market twenty miles 
on pack horses, and sell it at 20«. per quarter ! Our parish and 
farm roads are, many of them, at present sadly managed; — they 
should always be kept slightly rounding, so as to shoot off the 
water ; scraped, repaired, and drained, like our turnpike roads. 

In speakiqg of farm horses, the author said they should be 



Scientific Notices, 67 

clipped early and gradaally, piece by piece. They should never 
be tamed oat, but treated exactly as nag horses, — especial care 
being taken tliat there is ventilation at the highest point in the 
stable. All their hay and straw should be cut up into chaff, the 
com ground into meal, and mixed with it. Two-thirds hay-chaff 
and one-third straw-chaff is the right proportion ; but cut hay 
alone does not answer, being apt to ball in the stomach. If their 
water could always be warm, as at the London breweries, they 
might drink at any time. Animals never do well under slated 
roofs, unless you interpose a lining of boards or thick woollen 
felt. Slates conduct heat to the animal in summer, and from it 
in winter. Thatching under slate is useful, though apt to en- 
courage vermin. 

Deep cultivation after drainage is essential to profitable farming 
on heavy lands. This the author effects by removing the breast 
from a plough, and letting it follow, drawn by a pair of horses, 
in the track of the first plough. In summer he uses a very large 
plough, with four horses, to open the work, and follows with 
another plough and four horses in the same track. This brings 
up immense clods and blocks of the nasty undisturbed subsoil. 
When dried by the sun, the Crosskill roller, with 5 cwt. added, 
cracks them, the scarifier operates, and again the Crosskill renews 
the attack (all in dry hot weather), until you have a perfect gar- 
den, — yellow-looking, it is true, but aerated, and deprived of 
many noxious properties, and ready for mixing with abundant 
manure and calcareous matter. You thus bid adieu to root-weeds 
that have tormented you for years ; you facilitate the percolation 
of water, air, manure, and roots. Your crops do not dry up in 
summer, or freeze in winter ; for it is the drying or freezing of 
the roots that destroys the plant. This dry summer, all the ma- 
nure for our root crops being within five or six inches of the sur- 
£Eu:e, got dried, and the root crop failed. Not so where it was 
buried deeper, like garden cultivation, below the solar influences. 
Our root crops send down their roots many feet in summer, pro- 
vided the manure is there, as has been proved by examination. 

In referring to the potato question, the author remarked, that 
bad farmers, who do not keep much stock, or buy much manure, 
dare not grow potatoes with the ordinary mode of farming. He 
has heard them say a potato crop exhausts their land for years. 
But a heavy exhausting crop implies a heavy return, with means 
for restoring the deficiency occasioned by it. Miserable crops, 
occasioned by the save-all and cheese-paring principle, cause us 
to feel severely the pressure of our rent, tithes, and rates. They 
re-act on the landlord, labourer, tenant, and community at large. 

As respects drainage, little need now be said, as, on all wet 
lands, good draining is generally considered indispensable as an 
agricultural basis. 

In rearing much stock with cut or ground food, steam-power 
is indispensable. The author, when stopping his steam-engine 

VOL. XXXVIII. G. 



58 Scientific Notices, 

at any time for repairs, finds himself involved in a daily expense 
.of nearly 20s, No doubt engines will be used to force water and 
liquid manure for irrigating the soil, as is done advantageously 
by Mr. Kennedy, of Myremill, Ayrshire. 

The construction of farm buildings is a matter of considerable 
importance. The waste steam from the steam-engine, after pass- 
ing under and boiling the necessary number of iron tubs or cook- 
ing coppers, should, in iron pipes, warm all the feeding-houses, 
keeping their temperature at a profitable heat for cheap fattening. 
In the passages (which should be rectangular, with a turn-table 
in the centre) might be placed a light cheap iron tramway, on 
which the feeding-carriage would work with facility, having on 
it the baskets of turnips or other food. This would economise 
much labour ; and the feeder would no longer be in the position 
of the man who had to pick up a hundred eggs at intervals of a 
yard, having each time to return and multiply his labour. 

Perhaps the feediitg on open boarded floors is one of the most 
interesting questions of the present day. Experience will teach 
us that, in order to succeed in farming, we must produce a much 
larger quantity of meat on our farms than at present, and at less 
cost. In order to do this advantageously, it becomes necessary 
to consume a large portion of the straw of the farm, cut into 
cha£P, and cook it with meal or ground oil-cake. We are thus 
deprived of the usual cattle beddmg, and must find a substitute. 
The author having practised the system rather extensively, and 
found the balance of benefit sufficiently considerable to induce 
him to continue and extend it, recommended the consideration of 
his plan to cattle breeders ; and, with this view, gave the follow- 
ing details: — He says, the quantity of stock I now have on 
boards is — 

100 lambs 60 calves 50 cows 

50 sheep 40 bullocks 200 pigs. 

We are indebted to the worthy and Rev. A. Huxtable for the 
idea ; but I found his space of three-quarters of an inch between 
the planks insufficient. I therefore measured the hoofs of the 
yariouB animals, and arranged my openings accordingly. Thus — 

Inches thick. Inches wide. Inches space. 

For bullocks 3 4 Vk 

„ sheep IJ 3 l| 

n pigs IJ 3 \\ 

,, small pigs and lambs 1} 3 1 

„ calves 2 3 If 

On heavy lands, the area allowed for each animal and its feed- 
ing apparatus is— 

Superficial feet. 
Small sheep 8 

Larffe ditto 10 

Smiul bullocks 30 to 40 

Large ditto 50 to 60 

Small pigs 6 to 8 

Large ditto 9 to 11 

But very much depends on the season and weather. In cold 



Scientific Notices, 59 

weather pigs and bullocks can scarcely be packed too close, so 
long as there is room for them to lie down comfortably. Sheep 
require a little more room or ventilation. In fact, it requires a 
nice observation to adjust the ventilation and temperature. This 
is best done by a thermometer ; because our own feelings are not 
always a sufficient criterion. Every cattle-shed should feel as 
comfortably warm as a drawing-room ; for cold, stopping the cir- 
culation in the skin, drives the blood to the internal organs, and 
causes inflammation. The opening for ventilation should be at 
the highest point. Fine bred pigs, having little hair, must have 
a much warmer temperature than sheep. When pigs huddle 
together, it is a sure sign that they are not warm enough. I 
have often been struck on seeing how soon my groom will get a 
horse into condition by warmth, cleanliness, and food. My 
bullocks are all groomed daily by a boy, whose sole occupation it 
is. The cost is about one farthmg per head per week ; and I am 
sure it pays. Before I leave the open boards, I should say that 
the planks may be either of straight yellow deals, or of straight- 
drained hard woods. The latter are to be preferred for heavy 
animals, as they wear off the edges of the deals. The depth of 
the pits may be from two to four feet. It is necessary, once in a 
way, to level the manure, to prevent its touching the boards ; as 
it would soften them, and cause them to break. We never sweep 
the floor ; but the animals are perfectly clean. The manure is 
taken at once from under the boards to the field, without the 
interventional expense of a double carting, shooting, or turning 
over of a dungheap. The effect on the crops is unmistakeable. 
The cost of erecting covered homestalls, complete with boarded 
floors, will not exceed Is, to Is. 3d. per superficial foot ; and, in 
order to pay you 10 per cent, on your investment for the builchng 
complete, you would charge your bullocks l^d. per week; sheep 
and pigs, one farthing per week. One man on my farm feeds 
and entirely attends to 250 pigs. It would require two men on 
the old straw-bed system. Our pigs are never cramped now. 
Formerly they used to be ; owing to the manure heating under 
them, and the cold air giving those parts rheumatism. One stout 
lad, at 3s. 6d. per week, will feed and attend to 30 bullocks ; 
another attends to 60 growing calves. 

There is a very powerful development of the muscles on boards 
— so much so, that with fattening pigs, not bred on the boards, 
I have found some of them get capped hocks. It is surprising 
how quickly you may fatten young pigs on these floors. They 
find it inconvenient to run about, so divide their time between 
eating and sleeping, — a most agreeable operation for the account- 
book. I think the time is coming when farmers will consider the 
question of how much meat a ton of turnips or hay will make 
under various circumstances. If so, the turning-out system will 
be given up. My old-fashioned bailiff admits that, on the turning- 
out system, two-thirds of my farm would be required to feed my 
animals. Now they make shift with one-third. If you desire a 



60 Scientific Notices. 

good appetite in your aDimals, turn them oat for exercise in the 
cold. I tried the turning-out system with some calves. On 
asking the boy ho^ they got on, he replied, ' Oh, sir, they get on 
properly well now ; they come in so hungry,* An answer which 
settled the question in ray mind. 

The animals are perfectly healthy on these boards. Considering 
the confinement and heat, this rather surprises me,— especially with 
the pigs, fed entirely on meal ; for the ammonia, or efflavia, from 
under them, certainly is powerful enough to discolor the paint. 
The great difficulty, I find, is in getting a proper fixer for the 
ammonia ; to waste which is an act of agricultural insanity. I 
have used sulphuric acid, ashes, and various matters, with a 
certain effect. I hope the Irish peat-charcoal will not be too dear. 
I have a ton coming on trial. After all, I am inclined to think 
common salt, or the common dried clay, are the best and cheapest 
fixers ; and I have used a great deal. I can buy the salt here for 
dO«. a ton, and when mixed with the manure, it gives us muriate 
of ammonia and carbonate of soda— most valuable salts. 

Another question connected with the boarded system is the fly 
question. Where you have plenty of food, warmth, and stock, 
you will have abundance of flies. My bullocks could never He 
down in the daytime, owing to their attacks ; and, of course, the 
continued lifting of their feet prevented fattening. By darkening 
the feeding-houses, I entirely removed this nuisance, and had the 
gratification of putting my animals in a most profitable state of 
repose ; for if you have ten millions of flies, not one will bite in 
the dark. I find that some of my friends have long practised 
this system with their horses. It is essential to the successful 
honse-feeding of bullocks with green crops during summer. 

To those who are not prepared to go with me in boarded floors, 
I would say, by all means, then, have covered homesteads, such 
as may be seen at the Rev. Mr. Cooke's, of Semer, near Hadleigh, 
Suffolk; and at Mr. James Beadel's, Broomfield Lodge, near 
Chelmsford, Essex ; and I am quite sure a visit to them will bring 
home conviction to the most resolute defender of the old and 
unprofitable open yards. 

It is his great quantity of stock that enables the Lothian farmer 
to compete, at so great a distance, with the south-country farmer; 
and I believe it is the still greater quantity kept by Mr. M'CuUoch, 
of AuchuesB, that enabled him to surpass the Lothian farmers. 
Mr. Lawes has shewn, most indisputably, in his admirable papers 
in the journals of the Royal Agricultural Society, that we can 
produce manure cheaper and better by feeding stock than even 
by purchasing guano. I mean, not feeding on turnips alone, but 
using the productions of the farm in conjunction with purchased 
food. 

The author, whilst searching for facts to guide him to the most 
profitable mode of proceeding, met with the accounts of two farms, 
variously managed, which confirm, by comparison, his impression 
that on the quantity and management of live stock depends much 



ScierUific Notices. 61 

of the success in farming. Annexed to his paper was a com- 
parison of Mr. M'Cullocli's, Auchness Farm, with a similar one in 
Suffolk, which afforded some very striking and instructive con- 
clusions. 

The Suffolk Farm — of a superior quality, employing an equal 
capital but less labour than the Auchness Farm — shewed a con- 
siderable loss ; whilst the latter produced an ample profit. Now, 
neither Free Trade nor Protection can have anything to do with 
this comparison. Nor are there any '' peculiar advantages " to 
object with ; because, if the Auchness Farm had superior and 
convenient buikhngs for stock, the Suffolk land was naturally 
superior and in previous good cultivation ; whilst the Auchness 
Farm, much of it naturally poor, had to be improved at the' 
tenant's cost. In the Suffolk Farm there was no purchased ma- 
nure or imported food: on the Auchness Farm S7\9 were so 
expended. On the Auchness Farm the amount of meat made 
was ^884, being the produce of ninety-one acres and the pur- 
chased food : on the Suffolk Farm only ^352 was received for 
meat, although one hundred and eleven acres were used for that 
purpose. On the Auchness Farm ^1680 worth of com and po- 
tatoes was sold : on the Suffolk Farm the value of the grain crops 
was only ^793. 

The explanation of the causes of success and failure was this : — 
In one case the animals were housed, warmed, ventilated, groomed, 
their food cooked, and the utmost made of it, chemically and 
physiologically: in the other, the usual mode of turning out, 
with its consequent waste and misapplication of food, was adopted. 
Here was a dependence on the natural production of the soil, 
unaided by imported food or manure, and, consequently, a mini- 
mum production, with almost a maximum expense : there, a con- 
stant addition to the productive powers of the soil, with a maximum 
produce, and consequent diminished per-centage of expense. 

Our success as farmers evidently depends, in a great measure, 
says the author, on making the most of our root and green crops. 
The great question of the value of a ton of turnips in its meat- 
making powers can only be solved by the variety of modes in 
which it is applied to nutrition. The estimate of value by dif- 
ferent persons is from 2«. 6(/. to 12«. per ton. In Norfolk, where 
house-feeding with oil-cake is extensively practised, its estimate . 
is about 7s,f varying, of course, in some degree, according to the 
price paid for lean stock. In Essex they are frequently purchased . 
for house-feeding at 10«. to 12*. per ton ; whilst for open or field- 
feeding they only command from Is, to 3«. 6fi?., and the manure 
left. Many instances might be cited where large flocks of sheep 
have consumed whole fields of turnips, and come from them 
absolutely leaner than before. Cold, wet, and comfortless, the 
frozen turnips acted as a purgative, being unaided and uncor- 
rected by dry hay, oil-cake, or warmth and shelter. The value 
of the turnip crop was here absolutely nothing, and an enormous 
loss attended its production. The average cost of producing tur- 



62 ScierUific Notices. 

nips, all charges included, is not less than 10«. to 15«. per ton ;— 
it 18 qoite that under the old Essex system of five to eignt ploogh- 
ings, although much cheaper plans are adopted in some districts. 
It should be remembered that, by feeding animals at home with 
purchased food, in conjunction with home produce, a constant 
addition is being made to the productiye powers of the soil. 

The author, in reviewing his own agricultural position, said : — 
I do not at all complain of the criticism to which I liaye been 
subjected. I considered my farm, in its original state, neither 
creditable nor profitable, and I expended my capital in its im- 
proyement. The result of that expenditure was a decided benefit 
to my fellow-creatures. My agricultural opponents say the money 
was thrown away — the property not improved — and that I am 
losing much money by farmmg. In order to test the correctness 
of these opinions, 1 have, under the advice and suggestion of my 
friends, submitted to a valuation by three eminent surveyors, who 
have fixed my rent at 36s, per acre, adding another 7s, per acre 
for the use of my machinery, &c. Now, as plenty of land, such 
as mine was in its unimproved state, can be hired for 1 2s. per 
acre, the fee-simple of my estate is more than trebled in value ; 
leaving out of view altogether the extra expenditure for my own 
personal convenience. Whether I shall be able, with present 
prices, to pay a rental of 43s, per acre, besides all other charges, 
as well as a profit on my tenant- capital invested, remains to be 
proved. My in-coming valuation as a new tenant was effected on 
the 30th of October, by the same gentlemen who set my rent. 
On the 30th of next October, and at all similar periods, so long 
as I continue to farm, my out-going valuation will also take place. 
The balance sheet will appear in the public prints, either for good 
or for evil, as the case may be. It will either be an example to 
follow, or a beacon to avoid. It will be done in honesty and good 
faith ; but it would be premature now to prejudge its results. 

The fixing of the rental being un fait accompli may be com- 
mented upon, and presents an encouraging feature to improving 
landlords. I have no doubt but the valuers naturally considered 
that drainage, good roads, open fields, unencumbered by useless 
fences and trees, deep cultivation, and good manure, all have a 
material influence on the business of farming ; and that, without 
good and ample buildings, abundance of water, and proper steam 
machinery, it would be impossible to accommodate and provide 
for so large a quantity of stock as I deem it necessary to keep. 

In conclusion, I commend to your especial regard the noble 
practice and improvement of agriculture, as beneficial to health, 
as conducive to longevity and mental repose, and as full of inde- 
pendence ; presenting to your mind, through the charming and 
ever- varying face of nature, the impress of Almighty goodness and 
wisdom. I commend it, not only on the low ground of indi- 
vidual profit, but in virtue of its employing and feeding the 
people, — as a means for promoting the moral, social, and political 
strength of this great and happy nation. 



[ 68 ] 

LIST OP REGISTRATIONS EPPECTED UNDER THE ACT FOR PRO- 
TECTING NEW AND ORIGINAL DESIGNS POR ARTICLES OP 
UTILITY. 

1850. 

Oct. 28. Joseph Harvey y of 41, Weatminster-bridge-road, Lam- 

beth, and Heron-court, Bichmond, Surrey, for '' the 

Richmond car." 
29. Charles Maschwitz, jun., of Birmingham, for a box or 

case for postage stamps. 
29. David Duthoit and Job Roof, of Finsbury-pavement, 

for " the bush tent." 

29. Thomas Parker, of Kensington, Middlesex, for a knife 

and fork cleaner. 

30. Charles Rowley, of Nos. 23 and 24, Newhall-street, Bir- 

mingham, 19, Addle-street, City of London, and 31, 
Bridgewater-place, Manchester, for ''the Prince's 
vest button." 

30. John Smith and Henry Wills Ditchett, of the firm of 

Smith & Co., of St. Augustine' s-parade, Bristol, car- 
pet and furnishing warehousemen, for an improved 
blind roller. 

31. Swaine and Adeney, of 185, Piccadilly, London, whip 

manufacturers, for Swaine and Adene/s universal 
whip-socket. 

31. C, A. ^ F, Fergtison, of Mast-house, Millwall, Poplar, 
for an improved gun-carriage, to facilitate the train- 
ing and working of heavy guns. 

31. Chapman ^ Son, of 14, Frith-street, Soho-square, for a 
moveable button. 

31. Laurie ^ Mamer, of Oxford-street, carriage-builders, for 
an invisible carriage-step. 

31 . JSarl, Smith, ^ Co., of Hallamshire Works, Sheffield, file 
manufacturers, for " the triple file." 
Nov. 1 • William Leschallas, of Budge-row, City, for " the Pen- 
tagon envelope." 
I. Isaac Nayhr, of Burton-street, Bumsley, for an im- 
proved alarm-gun. 

1. John Femihough ^ Sons, of Victoria Works, Yew-tree- 

lane, for an improved double furnace smoke-burning 
horizontal tube steam-boiler. 

2. William Curtis Hugman, of 19, Great Ormond-street, 

Queen-square, London, surgeon, for a portable fold- 
ing truss. 
4. George Purcy Tye, of Birmingham, for a hyacinth glass 
and support. 

4. David Duthoit ^ Job Roof, of Finsbury-pavement, Lon- 

don, for '* the aerial tent." 

5. I%omas Lambert ^ Son, of Short-street, New-cut, Lam« 

. beth, for "the economic fountain lamp/ 



y» 



64 Registrations of Designs. 

Not. 5. Robert ^ John Garrard^ of Loman-street, Grayel-lane, 
Southwark, for "the nautical glazed felt hat." 

5. William Edward Jenkins, of 48, George-street, Easton- 

square, for an embossing machine for stamping with 
ink paper or other materials. 

6. Edouard Auguste Gaillard, of 1 0, Bedford-street, Strand, 

for a new travelling-case. 

6. Browning ^ Rigbj/, of the Adelphi Iron Works, Salford, 

near Manchester, engineers, for a compound cylinder 
steam-engine. 

7. John Ferrinder, of Lincoln, in the county of Lincoln, 

for a box table and sofa bedstead. 
7. Jenkins ^ Ashford, of Birmingham, for a mattress. 
7. James Tonkin, of 315, Oxford-street, London, for an 

improved spring lath. 

7. William Wilson, of King-street, Manchester, for a hot 

water cistern for baths, &c. 

8. Thomas Moore Sharp, of Belfast, for an improved 

paddle-wheel. 

8. George Horton, of 18, Thomas-street, Manchester, for 

a joiner's brace. 

9. George Brotighall, oiVmon-street, Willenhall, Stafford- 

shire, key stamper, for "George Broughall's improved 
steam stamp." 

11. C, ^ J. Clark, of Street, near Glastonbury, Somerset, 

for parts of shoes. 

12. Fowler ^ Fry, of Temple Gate Implement Factory, 

Bristol, for an improved cart. 

13. Martin Billing, of Newhall-street, Birmingham, printer, 

for a lithographic perforating and registering machine. 

14. Frederic Grosjean, of 109, Regent- street, London, for 

"Der Fuszwarmer" (a railway rug or wrapper). 
14. Thomas Foxall Griffiths, of Birmingham, for a saucepan 
Hd. 

14. Lord, Brothers, of Canal-street Works, Todmorden, in 

the county of York, for an improved hook for the 
weight-hooks of lap and other machines. 

15. Thomas Foxall Griffiths, of Birmingham, for a candle- 

stick. 

15. Lorant Poirier, of Bucklersbury, London, for an im- 
proved lithographic press for printing circulars and 
other small forms. 

15. Jeakins ^ Wolmershausen, of 11, Curzon-street, May- 
fair, London, tailors, &c., for a lady's riding habit. 

18. Waddington ^ Son, of 1, Coleman-street, London, um- 

brella and parasol manufacturers, for " the Etui Bis- 
utile," or parasol and knitting-case. 

19. Thomas Butter, of Harbome, for a nail. 

19. Arthur Jemxngham, of Portsmouth, for a letter-clip. 



Registrations of Designs, 69 

Nov. 19. John Martindale ^ Thomas Bowman, of Globe-road, 
Mile-end, for the "Poche-au-chapeau." 
20. Joseph Last, of 38, Haymarket, London, for "the Con- 
tinental wardrobe portmanteau.'* 

20. Joseph Walker Smith, of Birmingham, for a button. 

21 . John Allen, of Clarence-place, Hackney-road, for a rock- 

ing horse. 

21. G. H. ^ G. Nicoll, of Dundee, ironmongers, for a por- 
table family mangle. 

21. W, ^ C, Middleton, of 40, Long Acre, Coach-builders, 
for a centripetal wheel-plate. 

21. Francis Cranmer Penrose, of 4, Trafalgar-square, Lon- 

don, architect, for "the heliograph or logarithmic 
spiral compass." 

22. George Smith, of Castle-street, Liverpool, for a waist- 

coat, having a buoyant lining. 

22. Deane, Drag, ^ Deane, of King William-street, London- 

bridge, for an improved stove. 

23. Charles Boardman, of 54, Pond-street, Sheffield, in the 

county of York, for a cover for cruet or spirit frame. 

23. Ross ^ Sons, of 119 and 120, Bishopsgate-street, Lon- 
don, for a shield for a comb. 

25. Burgess ^ Key, of 103, Newgate-street, for a grater. 

25. William Riddle, of East Temple Chambers, Whitefriars, 
London, for a latch and bolt union. 

27. William Stidolph, of 2, New Bond-street, Bath, for 

" the chiragon," for teaching and enabling the blind 
to write. 

28. Thomas Dismore ^ Son, of 11, Clerkenwell-green, Lon- 

don, for a spring bolt. 
28. William Southam, of Church-street, Nuneaton, for an 

improved self-acting millstone ventilator. 
28. Joseph James Gait, of Portsmouth, naval outfitter, for 

a cape. 

28. Lincoln ^ Bennett, of Sackville-street, Piccadilly, for a 

ventilating hunting cap. 

29. Solomon Solomon, of 14, Commercial-place, City-road, 

for a marine balance timekeeper. 
29. Jacob Parker, of 12, Montpelier Avenue, Cheltenham, 

for a lady's railway portmanteau. 
29. /. -fir. Cutler, of Birmingham, for a button. 

29. R. ^ H. Williams, of Ludgate-hill, for a self-opening 

parasol. 

30. /. Whitehead, of Orchard-street, Charlestown, near 

Manchester, for a valve box and valves, for the supply 
pipes of steam-engines. 
30. T. Oldham, of 50, Cannon-street, Manchester, for a 
shirt. 

VOL. XXXVIII. H 



66 Registrations of Designs. 

Dec. 2. John Baily^ of Moiint-Btreet» GrosTeDor-square, for 
"the pheasant, poultry, and cattle fountain." 
2. P. Bigbff, of Grove-ntreet, Lirerpool, for apparatus for 
huming npirita, for the purpose of obtaining heat 
for portable cooking apparatus. 

2. A, Clayton, of Lymington, gun-maker, for a tube for 

Colonel Hawker's new ignition. 

3, Oeorge Twigg, of Powell-street, Birmingham, for a dress 

fastener. 
3. r. Oldham, of Cannon-street, Manchester, for a shirt 

front. 
3. Hargrove, Harrison, ^ Co., of Wood-street, Cheapside, 

for a parasol. 
6. J. W, M. Last, of Deyereux-court, Strand, for an im- 
proved printing machine. 
6. Charles Warner, of Birmingham, for a pen-holder. 
6. William Longford, of Hitchin, for a gas stove. 
6. Richard Batt ^ Sons, of Edward-street, Portman-square, 

for *• the versicolor trousers." 
9. William Marshall, of Regent-street, for a shirt. 
9. George Bamett, of Jewin-street, Aldersgate, for "the 

magical cylinder strop." 
9. Bansomes ^ May, of Ipswich, for parts of a water crane, 

for railways. 

10. E. B. Turner ^ Co., of St. Peter's Foundry, Ipswich, 

for an improved roller mill. 

1 1 . George Turton, of Wolverhampton, for a flooring cramp. 
1 1 . Walker Brothers, of White-lion-street, Spital-square, for 

•* the Utrolibet carriage." 
1 1 • Francis Cranmer Penrose ^ George Forrester Bennett, 

of Trafalgar-square, London, for " the sliding helico- 

graph." 
13. B. ^ /. Bankin, of Union Foundry, Liverpool, for 

parts of machinery for cleansing grain or seeds. 

13. Abraham Dimoline, of Denmark-street, Bristol, for com- 

pensation piano-forte mechanism. 

14. Luke Brierley, of Hurst-street, Birmingham, & T. Beech, 

of SheltoB, Staffordshire, for a vertical revolving disc 
signal lamp. 

16. T. Be la Bue ^ Co., of Bunhill-row, for edges of en- 

velopes. 

1 7. George Twigg, of Powell-street, Birmingham, for a slide 

for dress pin. 

18. J. Smith, of the Iron Works, Uxbridge, for a feed- 

r^ulator for mills. 

19. Dent, Allcroft, ^ Co., of Wood-street, Cheapside, for a 

glove-fastener. 

20. Capper ^ Son, of Gracechurch-street, for a folding bas- 

sinette or cradle. 



Irish Patents. G7 

Dec. 20. A. Holdeny of SufFolk-street, Birmingham, for **H. A* 
Holden's improved tricolor signal lamp with revolv- 
ing light." 

21. Robinson ^ Co,, of Mount-street, Grosvenor-square, for 
a new carriage lock or wheel-plate. 

21. George Bolton, of Great Dover-street, for a dress or 
shawl-fastener. 

21. Dohson ^ Metcalfe, oi Bolton-le-Moors, for coupling 
for sheet-metal rollers. 

21. Westley Richards, of Birmingham, for a guard for 
carving fork. 

21. Cot tarn ^ Hallen, of 76, Oxford-street, for improved 
fitting for stables. 

21. G. Bolton, of the Dover-road, for a dress or shawl- 
fastener. 

21.^. Shirwood, of Birmingham, for a show-box for jew- 
ellery, &c. 

21. D. S, Brown, of the Old Kent-road, for **the universal 
barometer." 

26. John JFhitehouse ^ Son, of 87, Birchall-street, Bir- 

mingham, for roller-blind furniture. 

27. The Hon, William Edward Fitzmaurice, of Princes-gate, 

Hyde-park, for a metallic cloth and towel-horse. 



iUait of ipatenta; 

That have passed the Cheat Seal of IRELAND, from the 1 7th 
November to the 17 th December, 1850, inclusive. 



To Christopher Cross, of Famworth, near Bolton, in the county 
of Lancaster, cotton-spinner and manufacturer, for certain im- 
provements in the manufacture of textile fabrics ; also in the 
manufacture of wearing apparel and other articles from textile 
materials; and in the machinery or apparatus for effecting the 
same. — Sealed 21st November. 

William Radley, chemical engineer, and Frederick Meyer, oil- 
merchant, both of Lambeth, in the county of Surrey, for im- 
provements in treating fatty, oleaginous, resinous, bituminous, 
and cerous bodies ; in the manufacture and application of them, 
and of their compounds and subsidiary products ; together with 
the apparatus to be employed therein to new and other useful 
purposes. — Sealed 7th December. 

Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaineraoreau, of South-street, 
Finsbury, London, for certain improvements in oscillating en- 
gines, — being a foreign communication. — Sealed 7th December. 

Lucien Vidie, of Rue du Grand Chantier, Paris, in the Republic 
of France, French Advocate, for certain improvements in mea- 
suring the pressure of air, steam, gas, and liquids. — Sealed 
14th December. 



68 Scotch Patents. 

Francis Edward Colegrave, of Brighton, in the county of Sasaex, 
£sq.,for improvements in the yalves of steam and other engines ; 
in causing the driving-wheels of locomotive engines to bite the 
rails ; and also in supplying water to steam-boilers. — Sealed 
14th December. 



HCait of ipatentis 

Granted for SCOTLAND, subsequent to November 22nd, 1850. 

To Jules Le Bastier, of Paris, for certain improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for printing. — Sealed 27th November. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, London, mechanical draughtsman, for improvements in 
the preparation and manufacture of caoutchouc or India-rubber, 
— being a communication. — Sealed 27th November. 

Isaac Lewis Pulvermacher, of Vienna, engineer, for improvements 
in galvanic batteries, in electric telegraphs, and in electro- 
magnetic and magneto-electric machines. — Sealed 28th No- 
vember. 

Guillaume Ferdinand de Douhet, of Clermont Ferrand, France, for 
certain improvements in the disoxygenation and the mutual 
re-oxygenation of certain bodies, and the application of the 
products therefrom, either separately or simultaneously em- 
ployed, to various useful purposes. — Sealed 28th November. 

George Benjamin Thomeycroft, of Wolverhampton, iron-master, 
for improvements in the manufacture of crank axles. — Sealed 
2nd December. 

David Napier and James Murdoch Napier, of the York-road, Lam- 
beth, London, engineers, for improvements in apparatus for 
separating fluid from other matter. — Sealed 2nd December. 

David Auld, of Glasgow, engineer, for certain improvements in 
steam-engines, and in the working of steam-boilers or genera- 
tors, and in apparatus connected therewith. — Sealed 2nd De- 
cember. 

Jean Aime Mamas, of Lyons, France, for improvements in the 
manufacture of indigo, — being a communication, — Sealed 2nd 
December. 

Peter Wood, of the firm of Thomas Bury & Co., dyers, Adelphi 
Works, Salford, for improvements in figuring and ornamenting 
fabrics and paper, and in machinery employed therein. — Sealed 
/ 4th December. 

William Melville, of Roebank Works, Lochwinnoch, Renfrew- 
shire, for certain improvements in weaving, and manufacturing, 
and printing carpets and other fabrics. — Sealed 6th December. 

Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, of South-street, Fins- 
bury, London, for certain improvements in oscillating engines, 
— being a communication. — Sealed 7th December^ 



New Patents Sealed. 69 

Alfred "Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, London, mechanical draughtsman, for an improved com- 
position — applicable to the coating of wood, metals, plaster, 
and other substances which are required to be preserved Arom 
decay ; which composition may be also employed as a pigment 
or paint, — being a communication. — Sealed 9th December. 

Thomas Deakin, of Balsall Heath, in the county of Worcester, 
for certain improvements in rolling metals, and in the manu- 
facture of metal tubes ; also in apparatus and machinery in 
connection therewith. — Sealed 1 1th December. 

John George Taylor, of London, merchant, for certain improve- 
ments in dress and other pins, and in other dress fastenings 
and ornaments. — Sealed 11th December. 

Robert Olddiss Bancks, of the firm of Bancks Brothers, of Weir- 
house Mill, Ghesham, in the county ofBucks, and 20, Piccadilly, 
London, paper-makers and card-makers, for improvements in 
the manufacture of paper. — Sealed 13 th December. 

George Edward Dering, of Lockleys, in the county of Herts, Esq., 
for improvements in the means of and apparatus for communi- 
cating intelligence by electricity. — Sealed 17th December. 

Charles Hanson, of Stepney, London, engineer, and Charles 
Sannderson, of London, for certain improvements in steam- 
engines, steam-boilers, and safety-valves, and in apparatus and 
machinery for propelling vessels — Sealed 1 8th December. 

John Ransom St. John, of the City of New York, engineer, for 
improvements in the construction of compasses and apparatus 
for ascertaining and registering the velocity of ships or vessels 
through the water. — Sealed 18th December. 

James Mather the younger, of Crow Oaks, Pilkington, in the 
county of Lancaster, bleacher, and Thomas Edmeston, of the 
same place, for certain improvements in machinery or appara- 
tus for scouring, finishing, and stretching woollen, cotton, and 
other woven fabrics. — Seded 20th December. 

Rdward Dunn, of New York, but now residing at the London 
Coffee House, Ludgate-hill, London, master mariner, for an 
improved engine for producing motive power by the dilation 
or expansion of certain fluids or gases, by the application of 
caloric— rSealed 20th December. 



SEALED IN ENGLAND. 

1850. 



To Henry Duncan Preston Cunningham, of Bury, in the county of 
Hants, Paymaster and Purser in the Royal Navy, for improve- 
ments in reefing sails. Sealed 30th November — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

VOL. XXXVIII. I 



70 New Patents Seated. 

Frederick Buonapart Anderson, of Gravesend, in the county of 
Kent, optician, for certain improyements in spectacles. Sealed 
30th NoTember — 6 months for inrolment. 

Robert Olddiss Bancks, of the firm of Bancks Brothers, of Weir- 
house Mill, Chesham, in the county of Bucks, and 20, Picca- 
dilly, London, paper-makers and card-makers, for improvements 
in the manufacture of paper. Sealed 30th November— -6 
months for inrolment. 

Francis Frederick Woods, of Pelham-terrace, Brompton, in the 
county of Middlesex, builder, for improvements in paving. 
Sealed 30th November — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Ainslie, late of Alperton, in the county of Middlesex, now 
residing at Perry-hill, Sydenham, in the county of Kent, drain- 
ing engineer, for certain improvements and apparatus for the 
manufacture of bricks, tiles, and other articles made from clay 
and other plastic substances ; parts of the said arrangements 
and apparatus being applicable to the treatment and prepara- 
tion of earths, minerals, animal, and vegetable matters. Sealed 
30th November — 6 months for inrolment. 

James Augustus Elmslie, and George Simpson, of Union-build- 
ings, Leather-lane, Holborn, importers of quicksilver and tin- 
foU manufacturers, for improvements in sheathing ships, and 
in protecting and confining gunpowder, and certain compounds 
thereof, and in the materials used for such purposes. Sealed 
30th November— 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Potter Burt, of the Blackfriars-road, in the county of Sur- 
rey, civil engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of 
window-blinds. Sealed 30th November — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

William Henry Ritchie, of Kennington, in the county of Surrey, 
Gent., for improvements in stoves, — being a communication. 
Sealed 30th November — 6 months for inrolment. 

Joseph Eugene Chabert, of Paris, in the Republic of France, for 
improvements in machinery for washing and drying linen and 
other fabrics. Sealed 30th November — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Richard Barber, of Hotel-street, Leicester, late cotton-winder, for 
improvements in the manufacture of reels for reeling, and stands 
for reels ; which improvements are applicable to the manufac- 
ture of desk or wafer-seals. Sealed 30th November — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

Henry Jules Borie, of Boulevard Poissonniere, in the Republic 
of France, engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of 
bricks. Sealed 30th November^6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Rowley, of Birmingham, manufacturer, for improvements 
in the manufacture of dress-pins and other dress fastenings 
and ornaments. Sealed 30th November — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 



New Patents Sealed. 71 

Richard Blakemore» of The Leys^ in the parish of Ganerew, in the 
county of Hereford, Esq., M.P., for improvements in the con- 
struction of ploughs. Sealed 30th November — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

John Piatt, of Oldham, in the county of Lancaster, engineer, for 
certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for spinning 
and doubling cotton, and weaving cotton, flax, and other fibrous 
substances. Sealed 2nd December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Watson, of Rochdale, in the county of Lancaster, hat 
manufacturer, for improvements in the manufacture of hat- 
plush, and also in machinery or apparatus employed in such 
manufacture. Sealed 2nd December — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Richard Shiers, of Oldham, in the county of Lancaster, manufac- 
turer, and James Heginbottom, of the same place, manager, 
for improvements in the manufacture of textile fabrics. Sealed 
2nd December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Julian Bernard, of Green-street, Grosvemor-square, Gent., and 
Jean Baptiste Dureuille, of 30, Cit6 de TEtoile, Thermes, in the 
Republic of France, for improvements in the manufacture or 
production of boots and shoes, and in the materials and ma- 
chinery or apparatus to be employed therein. Sealed 4th 
December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Benjamin Hinley, of Birmingham, brass-founder, for improve- 
ments in the manufacture of castors. Sealed 5th December — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Joseph Alexander Frank! insky, of Stanhope-place, iu the county 
of Middlesex, Grent., for improvements in public carriages for 
the conveyance of passengers. Sealed 5th December — 6 months 
for inrohnent. 

Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury-square, in the City of London, mer- 
chant, for certain improvements in refining steel. Sealed 5th 
December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Walker Wood, of Briton Ferry, near Neath, Glamorgan- 
shire, G^nt;, for improvements in the manufacture of i^el. 
Sealed 7th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Samuel Rayner, of Bemers-street, Oxford-street, in the county of 
Middlesex, artist, for improvements in paving. Sealed 7th 
December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Archibald Turner, of Leicester, manufacturer, for improvements 
in applying heat for generating steam for motive power, and 
for other purposes ; and in generating heat, and in heating 
and evaporating fluids. Sealed 7th December — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

James Thomson Wilson, of Stratford-le-Bow, in the county of 
Middlesex, chemist, for improvements in the manufacture of 
alum, and in obtaining ammonia. Sealed 7th December — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Francis Papps, of Camberwell, chemist, for improvements in me- 



^2 New Patents Sealed. 

tallic and other bedsteads, mattresses, and cnrtain-rods ; anJl 
in the coating or coyering of bedsteads and other articles, 
wholly or in part composed of metal. Sealed 7th December — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Alexander Mein, of Glasgow, accountant, for certain improve^ 
ments in treating the fleeces of sheep when on the animals, — 
being a communication. Sealed 7th December — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

John Mortimer, of Hanover-square, in the county of Middlesex, 
Esq., for improvements in the magnetic needle and mariner's 
compasses.' Sealed 7th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Henry Voyez, of Acton-street, in the county of Middlesex, 
artist, for improvements in the manufacture of paper-hangings. 
Sealed 7th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

James Ward Hoby, of Glasgow, engineer, for improvements in the 
construction of the permanent way of railways. Sealed 7th 
December — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Everest, of Tonbridge, in the county of Kent, and George 
Osborne, of the same place, for certain improvements in com- 
modes, and in fixed and portable water-closets. Sealed 7th 
December— 6 months for inrolment. 

David Lloyd Williams, of Thornhill, Llandilo, in the county of 
Carmarthen, Gent., for certain improvements in furnaces. 
Sealed 7th December — 6 months for inrolment 

William Edward Newton, of the Oflfice for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improve- 
ments in engines to be worked by steam or other power, — 
being a communication. Sealed 7th December — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet-street, in the City of Lon- 
don, for improvements in agricultural machines, — being a com- 
munication. Sealed 7th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Peter Wood, of the firm of Thomas Biury and Co., dyers, calen- 
derers, and finishers, Adelphi Works, Salford, in the county 
of Lancaster, for improvements in figuring and ornamenting 
woven fabrics, and in machinery employed therein. Sealed 
1 1th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical draughtsman, for 
improvements in cutting and dressing stone, — being a com- 
munication. Sealed 12th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical draughtsman, for 
improvements in the manufacture of iron hurdles or fences, 
and of certain other articles, in the construction of which 
wire-work is or may be employed, — being a communication. 
Sealed ] 2th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Beckett Johnson, of Manchester, in the county of Lan» 
caster, manager, for certain improvements in steam-engineSy 



New Patents Sealed. 7^ 

and in* apparatus for generating steam ; such improvements in 
engines being wholly or in part applicable where other vaponrs 
or gases are used as the motive power. Sealed 1 2th December 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

John Mason^ of Rochdale, in the county of Lancaster, machine- 
maker, and Greorge Collier, of Halifax, in the county of York, 
manager, for certain improvements in preparing cotton and 
other textile materials for spinning ; and in tools or apparatus 
for making cards and other parts of such preparing machinery ; 
and in engines for giving motion to the same ; which engines 
are also applicable in other cases where motive power is re- 
quired. Sealed 12th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Samuel Baxter, of Wapping, in the county of Middlesex, ship- 
wright, for improvements in apparatus for lifting and for faci* 
Utating the working or steering of ships. Sealed 1 2th December 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Hoskins Howels, of Amelia-row, Landport, Portsea, in 
the county of Hants, gunner, for improvements in gun-carriages. 
Sealed 12th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Joseph Bunnett, of Deptford, in the county of Kent, engineer, 
for certain improvements in doors, windows, shutters, and 
blinds. Sealed 12 December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Edmund Morewood, of Enfield, in the county of Middlesex, G^nt., 
and George Rogers, of the same place, Gent., for improvements 
in coating or covering metals. Sealed 12th December — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Jean Aime Mamas, of Lyons, for improvements in the manufac- 
ture of indigo, — ^being a communication. Sealed 12th Decem- 
ber — 6 months for inrolment. 

Joseph Baldwin and George ColHer, both of Halifax, mechanics, 
for improvements in the manufacture of carpets and other fa- 
brics. Sealed 12th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Royce, of Fletland, in the county of Lincoln, miller, for 
improvements in grinding, dressing, and cleaning com and 
seed. Sealed 12th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Benjamin Thomeycroft, of Wolverhampton, iron-master, 
for improvements in the manufacture of crank axles. Sealed 
12th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Richard Rodham, of Gateshead, in the county of Durham, prac- 
tical chemist, and Edward Robert Hoblyn, of Stepney, in the 
county of Middlesex, Gent., for improvements in machinery 
and apparatus for condensing and purifying smoke gases and 
other noxious vapours arising from fire-places and furnaces, or 
from chemical and other works ; and in rendering the pro- 
ducts resulting from such condensation and purification avail- 
able for the manufacture of various colors. Sealed 16th De- 
cember — 6 months for inrolment. 

Edward D'Orville, of Manchester, merchant, and John Partington, 
of Wicken Hall, near Rochdale, in the same county, bleacher. 



74 New Patents Sealed. 

for certain improyements in finishing thread or yam. Sealed 
19th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Gk)orge Henry BachhofiPner, of Grove-road, St. John's Wood, in 
the county of Middlesex, and Nathan Defries, of Grafton-street, 
Fitasroy-square, in the same county, civil engineer, for improve- 
ments in obtaining light and heat, and in apparatus connected 
therewith. Sealed 19th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

John George Taylor, of Great St. Thomas Apostle, in the City of 
London, merchant, for improvements in the manufacture of 
dress and other pins, and other dress fastenings and ornaments. 
Sealed 19th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Philip Nind, of Leicester-square, Gent., for improvements in the 
manufacture of sugar, and in cutting and rasping vegetable 
substances, — ^being a communication. Sealed 19th December 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Cowper, of Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, for 
improvements in the manufacture of files, — being a communi- 
cation. Sealed 19th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Sebastiano Botturi, of No. 7, Place de la Bourse, Paris, civil en- 
gineer, for certain improvements in machinery and apparatus 
for elevating fluids, and in their application as a motive power. 
Sealed 19th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

David Auld, of the City of Glasgow, North Britain, engineer, for 
certain improvements in steam-engines and in the working of 
steam-boilers or generators, and in apparatus connected there- 
with. Sealed 19th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

WiUiam Henry Green, of No. 8, Basinghall-street, in the City of 
London, Gent., for improvements in the preparation of peat 
and other ligneous and carbonaceous substances, and in the 
conversion of some of the products derived thereby, and in the 
mode of their application to the preservation of substances 
liable to decomposition and destructive agencies ; and which 
mode is also applicable to other products of a similar nature. 
Sealed 1 9th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Mortlock Ommanney, of the City of Chester, Esq., for 
certain improvements in the manufacture of steel. Sealed 1 9th 
December— 6 months for inrolment. 

Adolphus Oliver Harris, of High Holborn, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, philosophical instrument-maker, for improvements in 
barometers, — being a communication. Sealed 19th December 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

John Henry Pape, of Paris, for improvements in musical instru- 
ments. Sealed 20th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Herbert Gossage, of Stoke Prior, in the county of Wor- 
cester, chemist, for improvements in the construction of sul- 
phuric acid and certain other fluids ; also in the use of a certain 
product or certain products sometimes obtained in manufac- 
turing sulphuric acid and sulphates. Sealed 20th December — 
6 months for inrolment. 



New Patents Sealed. 75 

Edward Dunn, of New York, but now residing at the London 
Coffee-house, Ludgate-hill, in the City of London, master ma- 
riner, for an improved engine for producing motive power by 
the dilatation or expansion of certain fluids or gases, caused by 
the application of caloric. Sealed 26th December — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

William Hodgson Gratrix, of Salford, in the county of Lancaster, 
engineer, for certain improvementi in the method of producing 
or manufacturing velvets or other piled fabrics. Sealed 26th 
December — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Edward Dering, of Lockleys, in the county of Herts, Esq., 
for improvements in the means of, and apparatus for, commu- 
nicating intelligence by electricity. Sealed 27th December — 6 
months for inrolment. 

John Mathison Fraser, of Matk-lane, in the City of London, 
merchant, for improvements in the manufacture of sugar, — 
being a communication. Sealed 27th December — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

John Bansom St. John, of the City of New York, in the United 
States of America, engineer, for improvements in the construc- 
tion of compasses and apparatus for ascertaining and registering 
the velocity of ships or vessels through the water. Sealed 27th 
December — 6 months for inrolment. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical draughtsman, for 
improvements in the construction of metal shutters, — being a 
communication. Sealed 27th December — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Celeste Menontti, of No. 6, Hue de la Paix, Paris, Gent'., for cer- 
tain chemical compositions for rendering cotton, linen, woollen, 
silk, and other fabrics, impervious to water ; and fixing colors 
in dyeing. Sealed 27th December — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Henry Jones, M.A., of Queen's College, Oxford, and of 
Chorley, in the county of Sussex, clerk, for improvements in 
apparatus to be used when burning candles. Sealed 28th De- 
cember — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Symes Prideaux, of Southampton, Gent., for improve- 
ments in generating and condensing steam, and in fire-places 
and furnaces. Sealed 28th December — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

James Slater and John Nuttall Slater, of Dunscar, near Bolton, 
in the county of Lancaster, bleachers, for certain improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for the purpose of stretching and 
opening textile or woven fabrics. Sealed 28th December— 
6 months for inrolment. 



[ 76 ] 



CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for January, 1851 



D. H. M. 


D. 


H. 


1 Clock before the 3m. 448. 


17 


4 


— ]> rises 7h. Om. M. 


17 




— ]> passes mer. llh. 16m. M. 






— ]> sets 3h. 27m. A. 




— 


3 11 ^ in conj. with the J) di£ of dec. 






8. 87. 8. 




— 


2 10 44 Ecliptic conj. or new moon 






8 16 46 9 in conj. with the J) diC of dec. 




— 


1. 35. S. 






4 15 86 1[^ stationary. 




— 


20 25 1? in a with the 






B Clock before the 6m. 28. 




— 


— ]> rises lOh. 20m. M. 






— ]> passes mer. 3h. 15m. A. 




— 


— D sets 8h. 17m. A. 




— 


8 $ stationary 






16 5 in Apogee 




— 


6 1 19 9 greatest elong. 19. 9. E. 






8 5 It'* first sat. will im. 




— 


9 1^ 47 9 in the ascending node 






16 11 b in conj. with the }) difif. of dec. 




— 


2. 87. N. 




— 


10 Clock before the © 7m. 44s. 




— 


— D rises llh. 46m. M. 




— 


— ' ]> passes mer. 6h. 6m. A. 




— 


— ]> sets Mom. 




— 


4 21 D in a or first quarter 


18 




18 24 ]^ in conj. with the ]> diff. of dec. 






4. 59. N. 




2 


11 Occul. x' Ceti, im. lOh. 34m. 




4 


em. IJh. 34m. 


20 




2 %*B second sat will im. 




— 


12 6 2 i; in D with the 




- 


12 26 9 stationary 




— 


20 9 ^^^ Perihelion 




17 


18 12 It in Aphelion. 


21 


21 


14 5 24 9 in Perihelion 


22 21 


15 OccuL X> Orionis, im. 5h. 38m. 






em. 6h. 35m. 


24 


8 


— Clock before the 9m. 38s. 




8 


— ]> rises 2h. 19m. A. 


25 




— D passes mer. lOh. 24m. A. 




— 


— ]> sets 5h. 25m. M. 




— 


— Occul. 68, Orionis, im. 9h. 40m. 




— 


em. lOhl 49m. 




— 


6 53 It's first sat will im. 






16 14 58 1^ in a with the 


27 20 


17 Partial eclipse of the D 






— Begins 2h. 29*9m. 


29 


14 


~ Middle 4h. 50m. 






— Ends 7h. lO'lm. 


30 


4 


— Occul. d^ Cancri, im. llh, lOm. 






em. 12h. 13m. 




6 


— Occul. Cancri, im. 15h. lOm. 






em. 161i. 11m. 


31 




1 21 It's first sat will im. 







42 Ecliptic oppo. or full moon 
Mercury R. A. 20h. 35ra. dec. 16. 

23. S. 
Venus R. A. 17h. 15m. dec. 17. 

35. S. 
Mars R. A. 18h. 59m. dec. 23. 

34. S. 
Vesta, R. A., 15h. 37m. dec. 13. 

17. S. 
Juno, R. A., 16h. 45m. dec. 12. 

0. S. 

Pallas, R. A., 22h. 31m. dec. 6. 

48. S. 
Ceres R. A. Oh. 33m. dec. 5.27. S. 
Jupiter R. A. 13h. 24m. dec. 7. 

27. S. 
Saturn R. A. Oh. 59ra. dec. 8. 

39. N. 
Uranus R. A. Ih. 39m. dec. 9. 

43. N. 
Mercury passes mer. Oh. 50m. 
Venus passes mer. 21h. 28m. 
Mars passes mer. 23h. 13m. 
Jupiter passes mer. 17h. 36m. 
Saturn passes mer. 5h. 13m. 
Uranus passes mer. 5h. 52m. 
Occul. ^ Leonis, im. 19h. 88m. 

em. 20h. 30m. 
]) in Perigee 
33 %*s second sat will im. 

Clock before the 11m. 16s. 

1) rises 8h. 26m. A. 

D passes mer. 2h. 29m. M. 

2) sets 9h. 41m. M. 

35 9 at greatest brilliancy 

15 9 in inf. conj. with the 

59 % in conj. with the ]) diff. of dec. 

4. 8. S. 
15 '^'s first, sat will im. 
17 ^ in D or last quarter 

Clock before the 12m. 34s. 

D rises Ih. 34m. M. 

D passes mer. 6h. 45m. M. 

})sets llh. 48m. M. 

Occul. 49, Libra, im. 17h. 42m. 
em. 18h. 57m. 
56 5 in conj. with the ]) diff. of dec. 

1. 44. N. 

46 5 i"* conj. with $ diff. of dec. 

4. 16. N. 
29 ^ in conj. with the ]) diff. of dec. 

2. 8. N. 

8 ^ in conj. with the ]) diff. of dec. 
2. 0. S. 
eclipsed, in vis. at Greenwich 

J. LEWTHWAITE, Rotherhithc. 



THE 

LONDON JOURNAL, 

AND 

REPERTORY 

OF 

^vtiSf ^timttSf anlK imanufacturej$. 



CONJOINED SERIES. 



No. CCXXX. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

To James Ashworth, of Rochdale, in tJie ccmrdy of Lan- 
caster, woollen manufacturer, and Thomas Mitchell^ of 
the same place, manager, for cei^iain improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for preparing, spinning, and 
weaving cotton, wool, and other fibrous materials. — [Sealed 
29th May, 1850.] 

The first head of this invention relates to those machines 
commonly known, in preparing and spinning, as " billys,'* 
" jacks,*' and " hand-mules,** and consists in a novel arrange- 
ment of catch for detaining the carriage in a fixed position, 
when run out ; — such arrangement consisting in the employ- 
ment of a spring-catch, having a hook-shaped recess formed 
therein. 

The second head relates to looms for weaving cotton, wool, 
and other fibrous materials, and consists, firstly, in a method 
of detecting the breakage or undue absence of the weft-thread; — 
the peculiar feature of such method consisting in the employ- 
ment of an apparatus which would, according to its unimpeded 
action, stop the working of the loom at each motion ; but 
which is prevented from so operating, when the weft-thread 
is correctly present, by a wire or finger arriving into such a 
position that, as the said thread is being thrown by the 
shuttle, it shall loop upon it ; and, by thus acting upon the 
said wire or finger, so dispose the apparatus as to allow of the 
continued working of the loom. Secondly, in a method of 
regulating the insertion of any required number of picks of 

VOL. XXXVIII. K 



78 Recent Patents. 

weft-thread to a given length of woven fabric ; — ^the essential 
character of this part of the invention being the rendering 
available the diflFerential motion arising from a connection of 
the yarn or the cloth with any suitable working part of the 
machine^ which moves in accordance with the number of picks ; 
for the purpose of regulating the quantity of yarn given oflF, 
or, inversely, of cloth wound on. Thirdly, in a method of 
causing the loom to stop at any particular position of its parts, 
or at any time after the breakage of the weft-thread, that may 
be required : this is accomplished by causing any suitable 
apparatus used for stopping looms — as, for instance, " weft or 
warp-detectors,^' or hand-gear, — ^to bring an intermediate ap- 
paratus into such a position that it may be acted upon (so as 
to effect the required stopping) by tappets, or other such in- 
struments, which receive motion from any working part of the 
machine. Fourthly, in the application of a catch to any con- 
venient part of the stop-motion ; which, being thereby brought 
into connection with a spring, or other projection, attached to 
the slay, arrests the motion thereof when required. 

The first head of the invention is shewn at fig. 1, in Plate 
IV., as applied to a hand-mule ; and fig. 1*, shews the im- 
proved catch in plan view. The carriage is shewn at a, a, 
and the shaft of the faller-wire at b. Upon this shaft is 
mounted a projecting arm c, to which is connected, by means 
of a joint, the upper end of a rod d, passing through a guide 
e. To the stationary framework of the machine is jointed 
one end of a catch f, which is pressed inwards by means of a 
spring ff, but prevented from turning beyond a certain posi- 
tion by a pin placed in a staple h, through which the catch fy 
projects. Whenever the carriage is run in, the rod rf, will 
arrive in contact with the inclined part of the catch ^ and, 
forcing it out, will fall into the notch formed therein, as 
shewn in the drawing. Upon the faller-wire being depressed, 
the rod d, will, by the connection described, be raised from 
the catch, and the operation of running up may be performed. 
This part of the invention applies also, as before stated, to 
billys and jacks, and its application will be readily understood 
from the example given. It will be evident also that, if de- 
sired, the catch may be aflSxed to the carriage, and the rod 
remain stationary. 

The first part of the second head of the invention is shewn 
at figs. 2, 3, and 4 ; — fig. 2, being a plan or horizontal view 
of part of a woollen loom, with the improved weft-detector 
applied ; fig. 3, a cross section thereof; and fig. 4, a detached 
view of certain of the parts, looking towards the right-hand 



Ashworth and MitchelPsyfor Impts. in Weaving ^ ^c. 79 

end of fig. 3. Upon the tappet-shaft of the machine is 
mounted a grooved cam a^ a ; within which is placed a bowl 
or roller, mounted upon the end of a lever b, b : this lever 
turns upon a fixed centre at c, and is provided, at its other 
end, with a slot, within which is a pin, projecting from another 
lever d, affixed to a shaft e. To this shaft is attached one 
end of a lever f, — ^the other end thereof being connected to a 
rod G, which is jointed at top to an arm h, which turns loosely 
upon a shaft i. To the rod o, is affixed a frame j, j, the 
upper part of which carries a cross-shaft k, capable of vibrating 
on its centre; and to this shaft is affixed a bent piece of metsd 
L, and also a wire or finger m. The shaft i, carries an arm 
N, wherein a peculiarly-shaped groove o, is formed, as will be 
seen by reference to fig 4. Upon the shuttle-box is affixed a 
projecting wire q, wluch is for the purpose of bearing the 
weft-thread upward as it passes towards the web. The ope- 
ration of this apparatus is as follows : — ^According to the 
position, shewn in the drawing, of the various parts, the pick- 
ing motion has taken place, and the shuttle is partly across 
the web ; at which time the cam a, through the intervention 
of the levers b, d, f, and connecting-rod g, will have brought 
down the arm h, and with it the frame j, so as to have caused 
the wire or finger m, to intercept the weft-thread, which has 
thereby been caused to loop on it, as shewn at fig. 2 ; at the 
same time carrying the bent piece l, into the slot o, — the 
weft-thread being prevented from sinking below the action of 
the finger m, by means of the wire q. The continued revo- 
lution of the cam will now reverse the motion of the frame j, 
and cause it to ascend and bear with it the bent piece l ; 
which, by the tension of the weft-thread upon the finger m, 
is kept against the outside edge of the groove o, so as to 
avoid a notch p, formed in the arm n ; — the finger or wire m, 
being sufficiently long to keep the weft-thread looped thereon, 
until the bent piece l, shall have risen above the groove o. 
The motion will thus continue as long as the weft-thread 
leaves that side of the loom in its proper connection with the 
web ; but if it should be broken, or otherwise absent from its 
due position, then the finger or wire m, not being held for- 
ward by the before-mentioned tension, will allow the bent 
piece L, to fiedl back ; so that, upon its ascending motion, it 
will arrive in contact with the notch p, and, by a continuance 
of such movement, force the arm n, upward ; whereby the rod 
I, will be made to rock upon its centre, and, through the in- 
tervention of the means hereafter described, under another 

K 2 



80 Recent Patents, 

part of the invention (or of any ordinary arrangement), shift 
the driving-strap of the loom on to the loose pulley. 

The second part of this head of the invention will be under- 
stood from the following description : — Fig. 5, is an end view 
of a cotton loom, with the improvements applied thereto ; fig. 
6, is a back view thereof; and fig. 7, is a detached view of 
one form of apparatus for obtaining the motion which con- 
stitutes the principle of this part of the invention. The 
patentees, in the first place, describe this separately, and, 
subsequently, its application to the purpose of regulating the 
delivery of the yarn, or the taking up of the cloth, a, a, 
represents a fixed stud, upon which is mounted, loosely, a 
spur pinion b ; to the boss of which is attached a bevil-pinion 
c, taking into another d, which is capable of turning loosely 
upon a short shaft e. This shaft is provided, at one end, with 
a collar /, mounted loosely upon the stud a, a ; and the bevil- 
pinion d, is in gear with a similar pinion g, also mounted loosely 
upon the stud a. Now, suppose rotation to be communicated 
to the pinion i, and, consequently, to the bevil-pinion c, by a 
connection with the motion of the warp, as it is drawn off; 
and suppose also that the pinion g, is caused to rotate, by 
reason of a connection with the crank-shaft, or other suitable 
moving part of the loom ; — it is evident, that if these two driv- 
ing media operate so as to cause the pinions c, and g, to 
revolve at an equal rate, the several wheels described will 
operate after the manner of an ordinary tra^n ; and the con- 
nections are so calculated as to cause this condition to be 
observed when the correct number of picks are afforded to a 
given length of warp. But, suppose that the warp-beam (to 
which rotary motion is given), owing to its decreasing diame- 
ter, would afford a diminished quantity of yarn, — then the 
pinion c, having a reduced rotation imparted to it, will revolve 
at a slower rate than the pinion g : the consequence of this 
difference will be a diminished action upon the teeth of the 
pinion d, although the same action is exerted thereon by the 
pinion g. This would be an impossible condition if the train 
were mounted in an ordinary manner ; but, as the shaft e, 
turns looselv upon the fixed stud a, the pinion d, will be 
caused to roll upwards, in order to compensate for the greater 
speed imparted at one side thereof. In like manner, should the 
pinion c, exceed in velocity the pinion g, the connecting one rf, 
will be caused to roll downwards ; by which motion the shaft e, 
will be caused to rise or fall as the revolutions fluctuate ; and 
it is from this shaft that the means of regulating the delivery 
of the yarn or the taking-up of the cloth is obtained. 



Ashworth and MitchelPs,for Impts. in Weaving, ^c. 81 

The practical application of this plan will be understood 
from the following description thereof: — The warp-beam 
of the loom is shewn at h ; the yam, after leaving this, 
passes over a roller i, which is mounted, so as to turn freely 
upon centres ; and from thence it is conducted over another 
roller y, and then through the loom, as usual. Upon the 
axle of the roller i, is mounted a pinion Ar, which, by means 
of an intermediate pinion, communicates rotation to the pinion 
6, already mentioned. One motion, described with reference 
to fig. 7, being thus obtained, the other is effected as follows : — 
Upon the crank-shaft is affixed a tappet /, which, by the rota- 
tory motion of the shaft, is carried round, and brought into 
contact with one arm of a bell-crank lever m, mounted loosely 
on a centre at n ; — the other arm thereof being jointed to an 
upright rod o. Upon this rod o, is affixed a click p, working 
into the teeth of a ratchet-wheel q ; upon the inside face of 
which a pinion r, is mounted. This pinion gears into a 
pinion s, which is affixed to the bevil-pinion ff ; and it also 
gears into a pinion t, which has one tooth less in its circum- 
ference than that shewn at s, and is stationary upon the stud 
a. By this arrangement, as is well understood, the pinion ff, 
will be caused to revolve at a greatly diminished rate. Upon 
the rod o, is affixed a tappet u, which raises, at intervals, a 
lever v, mounted loosely upon an axle w. This lever r, car- 
ries a click, which takes into the teeth of a ratchet-wheel «r, 
keyed to the shaft w ; upon which is also mounted a worm y, 
taking into a worm-wheel z, upon the axle of the warp-beam ; 
by wUch arrangement the delivery of the yam is effected. 

Upon the axle of the ratchet-wheel ^, is mounted a pulley 
^, around which a cord is coiled, — one end of the said cord 
being attached to a stationary part of the machine, and the 
other end thereof carrying a weight, so as to produce a break 
and effect a steadiness of action. From the arm e, a cord i, 
extends downwards, — the lower end thereof being connected to 
a rod 2, 2*, from which is suspended a weight s. The rod 
2, 2*, is mounted upon a fixed centre 4 ; and the end 2*, thereof 
projects under the click-lever v ; which, after having been 
raised by the tappet u, falls by its own gravity, — the amount 
of such falling motion being determined by the position of 
the rod 2*. Affixed to the stud a, is an arm 5, and to the 
end thereof a cord is attached, which, after coiling around a 
pulley 6, formed upon the boss of the ratchet-wheel q, carries 
a weight 7. The operation of this part of the improvements 
is as follows : — Upon motion being communicated to the loom^ 



82 Recent Patents. 

in the ordinary manner^ the tappet I, will^ hy acting upon the 
lever m, cause the rod o, to rise, and thus bring the tappet u, 
into contact with the lever v, which, by turning upon the 
shaft w, will, through the intervention of its click acting upon 
the ratchet-wheel x, cause the wheel z, to revolve, and let off 
the yarn ; — the reciprocating motion of the rod o, at the same 
time, through the click p, imparting rotary motion to the 
ratchet-wheel q, and from thence to the pinion g. As the 
warp-beam decreases in size, the same amount of rotation 
given to it will cause a diminished quantity of yam to pass 
therefrom ; and, consequently, a lessened revolution will be 
imparted to the roller i, and from thence, through the train of 
gearing shewn, to the pinion c ; which retarded motion, act- 
ing as before described, will cause the shaft e, to rise, and, by 
means of the cord i, carry with it the rod 2 ; — the other end 2*, 
thereof falling, and thus allowing the lever v, to descend 
lower, and, consequently, provide for an increased action of 
its click upon the teeth of the ratchet-wheel «r, so as to turn 
the warp-beam a greater portion of a revolution at each mo- 
tion. It will be evident, that the finer the teeth of the ratchet- 
wheel, the more frequent will be the movements of the warp- 
roller, and, therefore, the more perfect the density of the 
fabric ; and, for this purpose, two or more clicks may be em- 
ployed, so as to come into operation by gaining a portion of 
a tooth at a time. The taking-up and other motions of the 
loom may be precisely the same as those in ordinary use, — 
the weights commonly attached to the warp-beam being, how- 
ever, dispensed with. 

In order to prevent the yam-beam from revolving when it 
is desired to stop the machine, an apparatus is applied so as 
to arrest its motion independently of the general stopping of 
the loom. The construction of this apparatus is thus de- 
scribed : — 43, represents the rod of the instrument known as 
" Kenworthy's weft-detector^^; — to this rod is applied a lever 
45, to which is connected a rod 46, the movement of which is 
controlled by a guide 47. Upon the weft-detector coming into 
operation, the rod 43, by turning on its centre, will, through 
the intervention of the lever 45, thrust forward the rod 46, 
until it is under a pin so, which projects from the rod o ; and, 
by thus preventing the said rod from falling, will keep the 
arm m, without the range of the wiper /, and arrest the mo- 
tion for giving off the warp, as before described : at the same 
time, the lever 44, will throw the straining-up catch out of its 
ratchet-wheel in the ordinary manner. Figs. 8, 9, 10, and 
11, shew this part of the invention applied to a woollen-loom. 



Ashworth and MitchelP$,for Impts. in Weaving y 8fC. 88 

and in some measure modified as to arrangement. Fig. 8^ is 
an end elevation of the machine ; fig. 9, is a partial plan view 
thereof; and figs. 10, and 11, are detached views of certain 
parts of the improved apparatus, — the last mentioned being a 
view looking towards the opposite end of the loom to that 
shewn at fig. 8. In this instance, instead of taking the mo- 
tion, for one end of the regidating apparatus, from the motion 
of the yam, it is derived from the contact of a roller 8, which 
revolves upon the woven fabric. This roller is connected to 
the shaft 9, which it is required to turn, by means of an uni- 
versal joint, so that it may always maintain a position parallel 
to the work-beam ; and it is mounted in a frame, which is 
weighted, as shewn at fig. 11, in order to gain sufficient driving 
power. The wheels c, d, g, described in the former figures, 
are mounted in the same manner upon a shaft of the roller 8, 
excepting that the wheel c, is fast upon the said shaft, upon 
which, instead of the ratchet-wheel i, is affixed a worm-wheel 
10, which takes into a worm ii, mounted upon a short shaft 
12 ; and upon this is placed a ratchet-wheel 13, which is driven 
by a click projecting from a vertical rod u, connected, at its 
upper end, to a lever 15, which vibrates on a fixed centre 16. 
The other end of the lever 15, is acted upon by a cam 17, 
mounted upon the crank-shaft of the loom ; and thus the rod 
14, is caused to move up and down, and communicate the 
required motion to the bevil-pinion ff, of the former, and also 
of this arrangement. At the lower part of the rod 14, is 
affixed a projecting pin 21, which, as the rod 14, rises, arrives 
in contact with a lever 22, mounted loosely upon the shaft 23, 
of a ratchet-wheel 24 ; which wheel is driven by a click pro- 
jecting from the said lever 22. On the other end of the shaft 
S3, is a worm, taking into a worm-wheel 25, mounted upon the 
axis of the warp-beam. The shaft, upon which the pinion d, 
(fig. 7,) that connects the two motions, is mounted, is shewn 
at e, fig. 8 ; and to it is attached a cord 26, the lower end of 
which is connected to a lever 27, mounted upon a centre pin 
at 28, and borne downwards by a weighted cord 29 ; by which 
means the lever 27, is caused to rise according to the motion 
of the shaft e, and thus allow the lever 22, a greater extent of 
motion, and, consequently, an increased action, by means of 
its click, upon the ratchet-wheel 24. 

The operation in effect is precisely similar to that described 
with reference to figs. 5, 6, and 7 ; for, as the warp-beam de- 
creases in size, less yam will be given off, and therefore less 
length of cloth produced : the consequent decreasing motion 



84 Recent Patents. 

of the work-beam retards the revolation of the roller 8^ and 
that of the pinion c, fig. 7. The effect, as before, will be a 
rising of the shaft e, which motion, through the intervention 
of the connections shewn and described, will allow that end 
of the lever 22, which carries the driving-dick, to fall, so as to 
cause it to move through a greater space when operated upon 
by the rod 14, and, by taking an increased number of teeth of 
the ratchet-wheel 24, cause the warp-beam to give off the re- 
quired quantity of yarn. In this case, as in the former, the 
speeds are of course so calculated, that the pinions shall run 
at the same velocities when the required number of picks are 
going into a given length of yam. 

Attached to the rod i, (fig. 8,) of the weft-detector appa- 
ratus, before described, there is a lever 51, which is provided 
with a projecting pin 52, placed behind the arm 53, which is 
mounted loosely on the shaft i. Upon the weft-detector 
apparatus coming into operation, the shaft i, turning, as before 
described, upon its centre, will bring the pin 52, against the 
arm 53, so as to thrust it forward, until a projecting part 
thereof shall have arrived under a stud 54, which is attached 
to the upper part of the rod 14, which, as before described, 
carries the click for giving motion to the warp-beam ; — the 
rod 14, being, by this means, prevented from falling, the yam 
will cease to be given off. Reference to fig. 11, will shew the 
operation which, at the same time, takes place with regard to 
the work-beam. Upon the shaft i, is affixed a tappet 55, 
which, as the shaft revolves, is brought to bear against an arm 
66, projecting upwards from the " straining- up catch ^' 57, and 
throws it out of contact with the teeth of its ratchet-wheel, 
and causes the taking-up motion to cease. 

The patentees remark that, although they have described 
this part of their invention as applied immediately to the 
warp-beam, it will be evident that the same effect may be 
indirectly produced by weightnig the warp-beam, as is now 
practised, and applying the regulated driving apparatus to the 
work-beam : they also state, that various modes of using the 
yam or the cloth, for gaining the required motion, may be 
adopted. If desired, the warp-beam, instead of being mounted 
in fixed bearings, may be placed in a spring-bracket, and 
prevented from giving way too far by means of a stop-piece ; 
while it is allowed to move in a slot, formed therein, so as to 
afford a certain degree of elasticity to the yam. 

In addition to the one method shewn of availing themselves 
of a regulating power, arising from a connection of the motion 



Ashworth and MitchelPs,for Impts. in Weaving, 8fC. 85 

of the yam or cloth with a certain part of the machine, the 
patentees next proceed to explain two other methods of gain- 
ing the required motion. 

Let a, tig. 12, represent a roller, deriving rotary motion 
from the warp or cloth ; and b, another, having rotation im- 
parted thereto from the crank-shaft, or other such part of the 
loom, — ^the two revolving at an uniform rate when the desired 
number of picks are going in. A band or chain c, passing 
over the rollers a, b, carries, at its lower end, a roller d, and, 
at its upper part, another e, which is weighted. It is evident 
that, as long as the speeds of a, and b, are uniform, no altera- 
tion will take place ; but should the one revolve faster than 
the other, then the roller d, will be caused to rise or fall, and 
afford the desired medium for the regulating motion. At 
fig. 13, a, represents a shaft, deriving its motion from the 
warp or cloth ; and 4, another, connected to the crank-shaft, 
or other such part, as aforesaid. On the shaft a, a screw is 
formed, which works in a screw-socket of the shaft b. So 
long as their revolving rate is equal, no effect will take place ; 
but, upon a variation of speed occurring, they will recede from 
or advance towards each other ; and from this variation the 
required governing power may be taken. 

The third part of this head of the invention is described, 
for the sake of convenience, as applied to the patentees' im- 
proved weft-detector, already shewn at figs. 8, and 9. To the 
shaft I, (answering to that marked with a similar letter in 
figs. 2, and 3,) is connected a click 3], which takes into the 
teeth of a segmental rack 32, formed upon the upper part of a 
lever 33, which lever is capable of turning upon a centre pin 
34, attached to the framework, and passes through a guide- 
bracket 35. There is also a detaining click 36, applied to the 
teeth of the rack, for the purpose of preventing a retrograde 
motion when the click 3i, is receding from its action. The 
operation is as follows : — Suppose the weft-thread to be broken, 
or otherwise absent, the rod i, will, by the means before de- 
scribed, or by the action of any ordinary similar apparatus, 
be caused to rock upon its centre, and thereby project forward 
the click 31, and, by advancing the toothed segment 32, turn 
the lever 33, upon its centre 34 ; and so on for each vibration 
of the shaft i, until the further end of the lever 33, is suffi- 
ciently raised to be within the operation of the wiper 36, which 
is mounted upon the tappet-shaft, or other moving part of the 
loom. This position of the parts is arranged to take place at 
the time that another advance of the click 3i, will have brought 
a pin 37, which projects from the rack 32, into contact with 



86 Recent Patents. 

the ordinary spring-lever 38 : the wiper 36, therefore super- 
sedes that final motion of the click 31, and, by turning the 
lever 33, upon its centre 34, forces the pin 37, against the said 
spring-lever, and throws off the driving-strap in the usual 
manner. Connected to the spring-lever 38, is an inclined- 
plane piece 39, which, as the said lever moves in throwing off 
the driving-strap, passes under the clicks 31, and 36, and, by 
reason of its inclined shape, raises them from the teeth of the 
rack 32, so as to allow it to fall again into its starting position. 
By this arrangement, a stopping of the loom may be effected 
at any desired position of its parts, by bringing the lever 33, 
within range of the wiper 36, at any given period ; or the loom 
may be allowed to continue for any number of revolutions 
after the weft-thread has been absent, — this being often de- 
sirable where weft is used which frequently breaks and catches 
hold again. 

If desired, this last described improved apparatus may be 
connected to the ordinary knocking-off band ; and, for this 
purpose, upon a centre-pin, attached to the framework, is 
mounted a tumbler 58, one end of which is connected to a rod 
or cord 59, which extends across the width of the loom : the 
other end of the said tumbler is bent so as to occupy a posi- 
tion behind the pin which projects from the segmental rack 
32. By pulling the rod or cord 59, the tumbler will be caused 
to turn upon its centre and so project forward the rack 32, 
within range of the wiper 36 ; which motion will, as already 
explained, throw the spring-lever 38, out of its notch. 

The fourth part of this head of the invention is shewn at 
fig. 14, and also at figs. 8, and 9 ; the former being a view 
of certain parts of a loom, shewing a mode of applying a stop- 
catch to the slay. A bar 59, is connected by a centre-pin 60, 
to any convenient stationary part of the machine, or to a 
spring attached thereto. This bar carries an arm 61, which is 
capable of turning upon a centre at 62, and is provided at its 
other end with a catch 63. Beneath the arm 61, is placed a 
bent lever 64, mounted on a centre-pin 65 ; and one part of this 
lever is acted upon by a wiper 66, affixed to the tappet or 
other convenient shaft, so as to cause it to vibrate upon its 
centre and thereby lift the catch 63, at each revolution of the 
shaft. One end of the bar 59, projects through a spring-rod 
67, which is connected at bottom to any stationary part, and 
lies in the notch with the ordinary spring-lever. To the un- 
der side of the slay is affixed a projecting piece 69, above the 
bottom part of which the catch 63, is raised by the wiper 66 ; 
but, as in the ordinary working of the loom those parts are 



Ashworth and MitchelPSyfor Impis. in Weaving, 8fc. 87 

not opposite to each other in the direction of the width of the 
machine, no effect will take place : if, however, the spring- 
lever 68, be removed from the notch by the weft-detector ap- 
paratus, in order to shift the driving-strap, then the rod 67, 
being forced out with it, will cause the bar 59, to turn upon 
its centre 60, so as to bring the catch 63, into coincidence with 
the projecting piece 69, when the wiper 66, at its next opera- 
tion, will cause the former to arrest the motion of the slay. 
In case it should be desired to bring the spring-lever 68, into 
action, then the attendant must knock out the spring-lever 68, 
only ; and the operation may be performed in the usual man- 
ner. In order to bring the spring-lever 67, again to its notch, 
when knocked out by the weft-detector, there is a pin 67*, 
affixed to the lever 68, which, by projecting behind the lever 
67, causes the two to move back together. 

Another arrangement for effecting this part of the inven- 
tion is shewn at fig. 8, of the drawings. In this instance, 
there is a spring-lever 70, fixed at one end to the framework 
of the machine ; its other end being bent inwards, so as to 
pass through the ordinary spring-lever 38. Upon the edge of 
the piece 70, there is a projecting part 71, which, when the 
spring-lever is moved to shift the driving-strap, arrives against 
the face of a spring 72, fixed to the back part of the slay, and 
thus assists in arresting the motion thereof. 

The patentees claim, under the first head, with reference to 
those machines commonly known as billys, jacks, and mules, 
the application of a spring-catch, with a hooked-shaped recess 
formed therein, for the purpose of detaining the carriage when 
run out. 

Under the second head they claim. Firstly, — ^the use of a 
wire or other instrument, which detects the undue absence of 
a weft-thread, by being brought into such a situation that the 
said thread shaJl loop upon it if in its proper position ; but 
which, in conjunction with suitably-arranged apparatus, allows 
the loom to be stopped if the thread be absent. Secondly, — 
the use of a motion obtained by connecting the yam or the 
doth with any suitable working part of the^oom, for the pur- 
pose of governing the giving off of the warp, or taking up 
of the cloth. Thirdly, — ^the use of an intermediate apparatus, 
connecting ^'stop-motions^' of looms to those parts by which 
the stopping is immediately effected, for the purpose above 
set forth, — whether such stop-motions be applied to the weft 
or warp-threads, or consist simply of hand-gear. Fourthly, 
— the application of a catch, placed in connection with any 
suitable part of the apparatus used for stopping the loom, so 



88 Recent Patents. 

arranged as to hold the slay^ or an attachment thereto^ when 
desired, in order to arrest the motion thereof. — [InroUed 
November, 1850.] 



To Paul D'Angely, of Paris, in the Republic of France, 
Gent., for certain improvements in the construction of 
privies and urinals ; and in apparatus and machinery for 
cleansing privies, cesspools, and other places ; and in deo- 
dorizing the matter extracted therefrom, and rendering it 
available for agricultural purposes. — [Sealed 4th June^ 
1850.] 

The principal end of this invention is to obtain the deodori- 
zation of every species of excretia, fecal matter^ or urine^ at 
the moment when it falls from the human body. This system 
is applicable only to privies and urinals as ordinarily con- 
structed ; and^ therefore, it does not embrace water-closets^ or 
other improved conveniences, within dwelling houses. To 
obtain the result proposed, with respect to privies, the paten- 
tee makes use of a box of wood or iron, or other receptacle, 
placed beneath the seat, in communication with a glazed 
earthenware basin, of a conical shape, as shewn in Plate VI., 
at fig. 1, wherein a, represents the basin, and b, the box or 
receptacle, which may be constructed to contain from twenty- 
five to fifty gallons of matter. This box is furnished with 
handles, to assist in its removal when full ; and there is a lid 
c, of galvanized iron or zinc, provided for the purpose of clos- 
ing, hermetically, the orifice of the point of junction between 
the basin and the box. Before the box b, is placed beneath 
the privy, it will contain deodorizing fluid, in the proportion 
of seven and a half per cent., according to the size of the box. 
With respect to urinals, the patentee proposes to construct 
them in a concave form, as shewn at fig. 2, — the upper part d, 
being of brick or stone, and the lower part e, of glazed earthen- 
ware. Within this lower part a glazed earthenware basing 
covered externally with galvanized iron or zinc, is placed, and 
made to communicate by means of a tube g, with a cemented 
brick reservoir h, containing deodorizing fluid, as in the former 
instance. Attached to one side of the reservoir A, and in commu- 
nication with it, is a glazed earthenware tube i, of a diameter of 
from two to three inches, and of a length proportionate to the 
urinal. This tube i, entering the reservoir, will serve to shew 
when it is full ; in which case the matter may be emptied by 
means of a syphon. A lid of galvanized iron k, closes the 



lyAngehfn^for Constructing Privies and Urinals, 8fc. 89 

top of the tube i, and is locked, except when it is desirable to 
ascertain the contents of the reservoir. The lower part e, of 
the concavity of the urinal, is made of glazed earthenware, to 
prevent the accumulation of ammonia, which might be the 
case if stone or brick were used. 

With respect to cesspools, the patentee forms them of brick 
or stone cemented, or of glazed earthenware, and introduces 
into them deodorizing fluid, in the same proportion as before 
mentioned ; and, in removing the matter from the cesspools, 
he makes use of a wooden cask (fig. 3,), girt with iron, calcu- 
lated to contain about five hundred and twenty-five gallons, 
and fills the same by means of an air-pump. At the top of 
the cask is an indicator, for shewing when the cask is full. 
To get the cask, when Aill, upon a waggon or other vehicle, 
and to facilitate the emptying of it when arrived at its desti- 
nation, an inclined plane (fig. 4,) is employed. To allow of 
the cask being emptied, it is provided with a galvanized iron 
lid a, capable of fitting hermetically, and being easily opened 
to allow the matter to escape. 

The deodorizing fluid is composed of fresh bark, rue or 
wild mint, sulphate of iron, and pyrolignite of iron, in the 
following proportions : — For every two hundred pounds of 
bark, the patentee takes forty pounds of green rue or wild 
mint, or, when dried, eighty pounds, — two hundred pounds of 
sulphate of iron, and one hundred and sixty pounds of pyro- 
lignite of iron. In preparing the fluid he uses a pan, capable 
of containing about two hundred gallons ; and in it he places 
one hundred and sixty-five gallons of pure soft water. The 
water is heated over a fire, and, whilst boiling, the bark is 
thrown in and allowed to remain until completely macerated. 
In another pan, of the capacity of about one hundred and ten 
gallons, about eighty-five gallons of pure soft water are boiled, 
and, while in a boiling state, the rue or wild mint is added, 
and left until macerated. The infusions of bark, and of rue 
or wild mint, are then cleared ; the two liquids are mixed 
in a pan, large enough to contain three hundred gallons ; the 
sulphate of iron and the pyrolignite of iron are added to this 
mixture ; and the whole is heated sufficiently to produce com- 
plete solution. This done, sufficient pure water is added to 
make up the quantity lost by boiling, so as to have the amount 
of two hundred and fifty gallons. The specific gravity of the 
fluid, when made, ought to mark, according to Baume's scale, 
not less than 15**(1116),or more than 16**(1-125). TheeflFectof 
the deodorizing fluid will be to prevent any unpleasant odour, 
by its power of concentrating the whole of the ammonia which 



90 Recent Patents. 

would otherwise be dissipated from the fecal matter and 
urine. 

In order to convert the fecal matter into manure^ it mast 
be dried in a chamber, heated to from 70° to 90° Pahr. One 
half of the floor of this chamber should be composed of glazed 
earthenware tiles, of a prismatic form (see fig. 5,) — ^there 
being between the tiles spaces of about three quarters of an 
inch each. The fecal matter should be brought into the 
chamber and deposited upon the plain portion of the floor, 
until nearly dry, and then placed upon the tiles, which (each 
sloping) will allow the matter, as it becomes perfectly dry, to 
fall into the room beneath. The fecal matter, being reduced 
to powder, should then be mixed with dried or burnt peat, in 
powder, or with dried beasts^ blood, also in powder, in the 
proportions of two-thirds of fecal matter to one-third of peat 
or blood. The manure will then be ready for use. — [Inrolled 
December, 1850.] 



To Henry Columbus Hurry, of Manchester, civil engineer, 
for certain improvements in the method of lubricating ma- 
chinery. — [Sealed 22nd May, 1850.] 

The first part of this invention applies to those working parts 
of machinery which are packed, for the purpose of preventing 
the passage of steam, water, or other vapour, or fluid, or for 
other like uses ; and consists, firstly, in the application of a 
bush or hoop, placed within the packing, and so constructed 
as to form a reservoir for the oil or other lubricating material, 
and conduct the same to the circumference of the required 
parts ; and, secondly, in providing a reservoir for the lubri- 
cating material within the piston of a steam-engine or other 
such moving part. 

The second part of the invention relates to metallic packing, 
and consists in grooving or drilling the said packing, so that 
the lubricating material shall be distributed around its peri- 
phery. 

The third part of the invention relates to an improved 
method of lubricating the axles of railway and other carriage- 
wheels, mill-shafts, or other such parts, and consists in form- 
ing a chamber within the revolving part, suitable for the 
reception of the lubricating material. 

In Plate V., fig. 1, represents, in longitudinal section, a 
portion of a cylinder of a locomotive engine, shewing the 
application of the first part of the invention to the stuffing- 



Hurry* s^ for Impis, in Lubricaimg Machinery. 91 

box and piston-rod (which example will also illustrate its 
adaptation to valve-rods, pump-rams, regulators, pipe expan- 
sion-joints, and all similar working parts) ; and fig. 2, is an 
edge view of the bush or hoop used for forming the reservoir, 
and conveying the oil, or other such material, to the required 
moving parts. The cylinder and cylinder cover are shewn at 
a, a, a, the gland at by and the piston-rod at c. Within the 
stuffing-box is placed a bush or hoop J, — ^there being a thick- 
ness of packing on either side thereof. The bush consists of 
a cylindrical piece of metal, or other suitable material, the 
periphery of which is hollowed out towards its middle so as 
to form a channel around it ; — ^this channel is provided with 
holes e, e, e, which communicate therefrom to the centre part 
/, of the said bush or hoop ; and it is through this centre ori- 
fice that the moving part to be lubricated passes. Through 
the stuffing-box, and coincident with the situation of the bush 
or hoop dy an aperture ^, is formed, which communicates with 
an oil-cup, of any ordinary construction, and provided, if 
desired, with a stop-cock, applied to the neck thereof, in order 
to admit the lubricating material at pleasure ; — its lid closes 
with a light spring, as shewn in the drawing. The bush or 
hoop dy should be made to fit easily into the stuffing-box, so 
as to support itself without unduly pressing upon the working 
part, but sufficiently easy to communicate pressure, given by 
the gland, to the packing on the reverse side of the bush ; 
and it should be bored or turned out to fit the working parts, 
so that the fibrous packing cannot be drawn between. The 
lubricating material passing from the grease-cup will fiow into 
the channel formed by the hollowed part of the periphery of 
the bush or hoop; and from thence, passing through the 
apertures c, c, formed therein, will be distributed over the 
surface of the piston-rod. 

Fig. 8, represents a portion of a stationary engine, partly 
in section^ shewing the application of the bush or hoop to a 
hemp or other fibrously-packed piston. This figure also ex- 
hibits the bush or hoop applied to the piston-rod, precisely in 
the same manner as that described with reference to fig. 1. 
Fig. 4, represents a partial sectional plan or horizontal view 
of fig. 8 ; — the bush or hoop being shewn partly in section. 
The bush or hoop dy dy is placed within the fibrous packing 
of the piston, as described with reference to fig. 1, and may 
be supplied with oil, at intervals, by the introduction of any 
suitable apparatus through the cylinder-cover and piston. 

The method by which this is effected constitutes another 
part of the invention, and is described as follows : — Within 



92 Recent Patents. 

the body of the piston h, h, h, is formed or attached a cham- 
ber or reservoir i, which, by means of pipes y,^,/, communi- 
cates with the bush or hoop d, d, d, (situated within the 
packing, as before described) at three points of its circumfer- 
ence : the chamber or reservoir i, i, may be suppUed with oil, 
or other lubricating material, by various arrangements ; but 
that shewn in the drawing is preferred. To the upper part 
of the chamber i, is adapted a stop-cock k, the interior of the 
plug of which is formed square, to receive the end of a tube 
/, which forms a channel for the passage downwards of the 
lubricating material from the grease-cup. This tube carries 
a valve at m, corresponding to a seat n, in the bottom of the 
grease-cup, and is connected, by means of a short rod, to a 
lever 0, which is capable of turning upon a fixed centre j9. 
Within the collar of the grease-cup, a spiral slot is formed, 
shewn by dots in the drawing at q ; and within this slot is 
placed a pin, which projects from the outside of the tube / ; 
so that, by turning the outward end of the lever o, down- 
wards, the tube /, will be caused to rise, and, by means of the 
valve m, close the communication between the grease-cup and 
the interior of the engine cylinder ; at the same time (through 
the intervention of the spiral slot) the tube /, will be caused 
to revolve, and communicate a like motion to the plug of the 
stop-cock k; — thereby shutting off the communication between 
the upper part of the cylinder and the chamber i : the de- 
scent of the tube, in like manner, opens the valve-seat n, 
and the communication between the grease-cup and the cham- 
ber i. When it is desired to afford a supply of lubricating ma- 
terial, the engine is turned until the piston is at the top of the 
stroke, and, being kept in that position, the tube /, is de- 
pressed, and the required supply effected as above described 
(which position of the parts corresponds to that shewn at fig. 
8,) ; the tube is then caused to rise ; and the engine may be 
put in motion. In order to provide for the escape of air from 
the chamber i, there is a second passage r, formed in the stop- 
cock; and this passage communicates with another 3, which 
passes upward through the tube /, and is open at top to the 
external atmosphere. It will be observed, on inspecting the 
drawing, that that part of the tube which projects into the 
stop-cock is coniqally formed ; the object of which is to ensure 
its entrance into the socket when moved downwards. The 
lubrication may also be effected by forming a communication 
from the chamber through a hole drilled lengthwise in the 
piston-rod, which, in this case, would be supplied with a 
grease-cup, similar to that described with reference to fig. 1, 



Hurry^Sffor Impts. in Luhricating Machinery. 98 

and placed bo near to the cross-head as to work clear of the 
stuffing-box. For the sake of illustration^ the reservoir i, has 
been shewn in connection with that part of the improvements 
which relate to the bush or hoop ; if desired, however, it may 
be used independently thereof; and the lubricating material 
may be conveyed to the required surfaces by means of any 
desired number of pipes, similar to those shewn &tj,j,j, pro- 
jecting, in such case, through the packing, when hemp or 
other fibrous material is used, or through the body and 
packing-ring of the piston, when metallic packing is employed. 
The reservoir i, may be a chamber, constructed in the casting 
of the piston; and the passages y,y, may, in like manner, be 
formed or drilled in the casting; — ^in all cases, however, where 
the stop-cock k, is used, it will be necessary that it be accu- 
rately ground to its seat, so as to be as nearly steam-tight as 
possible. If desired, the bush or hoop d, d, d, may be made 
in two or more segments; or of rolled metal, twisted to the 
form of a hoop, soldered or rivetted, and then properly turned 
and bored; and any practicable number of pipes f*,^,^, may 
be employed for conveying the lubricating material thereto. 

In 'adapting the improved bush to metallic packing, there 
should not be less than two rings or strata of packing on 
each side thereof, so that a lapping of the joints may be ob- 
tained, in order to prevent the steam, &c., from passing into 
the lubricating channel, and so to the other side of the piston. 
The method of supplying the lubricating material may, when 
the cylinder is vertical, be similar to that represented at fig. 
8 ; — if horizontal, the piston may be provided with a plug stop- 
cock, of like construction to that shewn at k, fig. 3, through 
which the lubricating material may be supplied by means of 
a funnel, shewn at fig. 5. To the grease-cup or bowl is 
attached a tube u, which is surrounded by another tube /, 
capable of turning freely thereon ; and in each of these tubes 
an aperture is formed, as at v, which, when brought into a 
coincident position, allow of the oil, or other such matter, 
flowing therefrom. The apparatus is to be introduced through 
the cylinder-cover, by means of a screwed plug-hole, and from 
thence made to project into the square socket of the plug of 
the stop-cock, in a similar manner to that described with 
reference to fig. 8, — ^the outside tube t, being properly shaped 
for the purpose. The holes v, being brought opposite to 
each other by turning the handle w, and the stop-cock being 
also thereby opened, the flow of the lubricating material from 
the grease-cup will be efiected. Fig. 6, shews this apparatus 
adapted to be used for vertical cylinders in place of the fixed 

yoL. XXXVIII. L 



94 Recent Patents, 

apparatus described with reference to fig. 3. In the case of 
a horizontal cylinder, the reservoir, formed or placed in the 
piston, should be situate in the upper part thereof, so as to 
cause the oil, &c., to flow as high as possible : the bowl of 
the grease-funnel, when its tube is insened through the cylin- 
der end into the piston, should be high enough to cause the 
lubricating material therein to assume a level above the cir- 
cumference of the cylinder. 

The second part of the invention is shewn at fig. 1, which 
represents the metallic packed piston of a locomotive engine, 
constructed according to one plan of this portion of the inven- 
tion. Upon the centre ring of the piston is formed a spiral 
groove, as at ^, ^ ; and leading from this groove are small 
channels, which communicate, by means of suitable pipes or 
passages, with a reservoir, similar to that shewn at f, f, fig. 3, 
and which may be supplied with lubricating material, as be- 
fore mentioned. By disposing the groove in a spiral form, 
the lubricating material will, by the reciprocation of the pis*' 
ton, be projected upwards, and be thus assisted in distributing 
itself upon the peripheries to which it is intended to be 
applied : the said groove, however, may be formed parallel to 
the sides of the piston, or in any other line ; or, in its place, 
a series of holes may be drilled, communicating, in like man- 
ner, with the reservoir. 

The third part of the invention is shewn at figs. 7, 8, and 
9, which represent, in two modifications, the improvement as 
applied to a railway carriage-wheel. Rg. 7, is a section of 
the wheel and its appurtenances, and fig. 8, a transverse view 
of the same, partly in section. The axle, upon which the 
carriage is suspended, is shewn at a, a, and is stationary, it 
being affixed to the plummer-blocks b. Upon this fixed axle 
are placed the brass or other metal bushes or steps c, upon 
which a hollow axle rf, rf, revolves, — the wheels c, c, being 
keyed or otherwise fastened thereon. The grease-box is 
shewn at^in communication with the bottom of whidi there 
is a passage^, ^, which is drilled lengthwise in the fixed 
axle a. Through this passage the oil or other lubricating 
material will therefore flow ; and from thence it will pass 
through apertures h, h, formed in the steps or bushes, into 
the hollow revolving aide d, which thus becomes a reservoir. 
To prevent the oil, &c., from escaping at the outward end, 
there is a stuffing-box and gland applied, as at i, i. 

In the modification shewn in section at fig. 9, the aperture, 
jPor the passage of the lubricating material from the grease- 
box, is at A: j from thence it flows into a chamber, formed by 



Newton's, for Impts. in Rotary Engines. 95 

a ring of metal^ or other suitable material I, which is placed 
in a groove, provided within the plummer-block, and pressed, 
by springs (one of which is shewn at m,) against the face of 
the boss of the wheel. This chamber may also be formed by 
lengthening the hollow axle d, until it is in close contact with 
the plummer-block b ; and this contact may be preserved by 
means of a spring, attached to the end of the fixed axle a. 
The hollow running axle forms, as before, a reservoir for the 
lubricating material, which passes between it and the bushes 
or steps. 

The patentee claims. Firstly, — ^the application of an appa- 
ratus, placed within the packing of moving parts of machines, 
suitably formed for acting as a reservoir, and for distributing 
lubricating materials. Secondly, — the application of a reser- 
voir, for lubricating materials, placed or constructed within 
the pistons of steam-engines, or other such moving parts of 
machinery. Thirdly, — ^forming upon the peripheries of me- 
tallic pistons a groove or grooves, or holes, communicating 
with an internal reservoir, for the purpose above set forth. 
Fourthly, — the formation of a reservoir, for lubricating ma- 
terials, within the revolving axle or shaft to which such sub- 
stances are intended to be applied. — [Inrolled November, 
1850.] 

To William Edward Newton, of the Office for Patents, 
66, Chancery-lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engi- 
neer, for an invention of improvements in rotary engines, 
— being a communication. — [Sealed 11th June, 1850.] 

The object of this invention is to pack the junctions of the 
steam-wheel and heads of the steam-cylinder of rotary steam- 
engines in such way that the engineer shall be enabled to 
tighten or loc^en the packing at his discretion, whether the 
engine be at rest or in action. 

The invention consists in packing the ends of the steam- 
wheel and cyUnder-heads of rotary steam-engines by means of 
metal rings, fitted one to each face of the steam-wheel, and 
adapted to slide in an annular groove in the cylinder-head or 
end of the casing which contains the steam-wheel ; when the 
said packing-ring is combined with a series of segmental 
wedges, interposed between the said packing-ring and cylin- 
der-head, and adapted to slide radially, and each coupled with 
a screw-shaft or spindle, which is free to slide endwise in a 
pinion ; the series of pinions being so arranged as to be si- 
multaneously turned in either direction by means of a cog<» 



96 Recent Patents. 

wheels on the main shaft of the engine^ gearing into a worm 
on the shaft of a hand-wheel. By this arrangement^ when 
the hand-wheel is turned^ the series of segmental wedges will 
be simultaneously drawn in towards, or forced out from, the 
centre ; and, by reason of their wedge form, will press the 
packing-ring towards the face of the steam-wheel, or release 
it from such pressure, and thus adapt the packing to the con- 
dition of the engine. 

In Plate IV., fig. 1, is a vertical section, taken in a plane 
parallel with the shaft of the steam-wheel; and fig. 2, is 
another section, taken at right angles to fig. 1. a, repres^its 
one head of the cylinder b, within which is fitted the steam- 
wheel c, mounted on the main-shaft d, which passes through 
the centre of the head. Only a small portion of the cylinder 
and steam-wheel is shewn, as these form no part of the in- 
vention, and may be made on any plan. The inside of the 
head is formed with an annular groove e, to which a packing- 
ring^ is accurately fitted, to admit of its sliding in the groove. 
The outer periphery should be packed, as at ff, in the usual 
manner of packing steam-joints, to prevent the passage of 
steam ; and its inner face should be fitted by a ground joint 
to the face or end of the steam-wheel ; so that when these two 
surfaces are in actual contact, they shall form a steam-tight 
joint. The other face of the packing-ring is in the form of 
the frustnim of a flat cone; and to this face are fitted a series 
of segmental wedges A, which slide radially between the conical 
face of the ring and the bottom of the groove e, and between 
guide-pieces i, i, that project from the bottom of the groove. 
To reduce the weight of the segmental wedges they are formed 
with open spaces in the body thereof. To each of the seg- 
mental wedges is coupled one end of a spindle k, which passes 
to the outside of the cylinder-head, and is adapted to turn and 
slide in a stuffing-box /; but this stuffing-box may be dis- 
pensed with. The inner end of the spindle k, turns and slides 
in suitable boxes, in two bracket-pieces m, m, on the cylinder- 
head, between which a bevil-pinion n, is mounted on the 
spindle ;— the spindle being grooved at o, to receive a feather 
in the bore of the pinion, so that it may be free to slide in the 
pinion whilst it is turned by it. A screw-thread is formed 
upon the spindle at k^, and passes through a nut ;, attached 
to the cylinder-head ; so that, when the pinion is turned to 
the right or to the left, the spindle will be caused to slide 
radially towards or from the centre of the main shaft, together 
with the segmental wedge, which is coupled to it. The s^- 
mental wedges are arranged at equal distances around the 



Barrana^jjbr Itnpts, in Axles and Axle-boxes. 97 

circle; and each one is coupled to a screw-shaft or spindle, 
provided with a pinion, such as above described. The pinions 
n, all gear into the teeth of a bevil-wheel r, that turns between 
collars on the main shaft. The periphery of the said wheel 
is formed with teeth 8, similar to those of an ordinary worm- 
wheel ; which teeth work between the threads of a worm or 
screw /, on a shaft ti, that has its bearings in bracket-pieces 
Vf V ; and the outer end of this shaft extends out beyond the 
periphery of the cylinder, and is there provided with a hand- 
wheel Wf or with a winch. 

From the above description it will be evident that, by turn- 
ing the hand-wheel in one or the other direction, the series of 
segmental wedges will be moved in or out, and thus either 
free the packing-ring, or force it up against the face of the 
steam-wheel; and that, by reason of the multiplication of 
leverage, the engineer will be able to exert a very great force 
on the packing-ring, and be enabled at all times to adapt the 
packing to the condition of the engine, whether at rest or in 
motion. 

The patentee claims the method, substantially as above 
described, of regulating the packing-ring, interposed between 
the steam-wheel and head of the cylinder or outer casing of 
rotary steam-engines, by combining with the said packing-ring 
a series of segmental wedges, operated simultaneously in 
manner substantially as described. — [Inrolled December, 
1850.] 

To Joseph Babbans, of St. PauFs, Deptford, in the county 
of Kent, engineer, for improvements in axles and axle- 
boxes of locomotive engines and other railway carriages. 
— [Sealed 24th November, 1849.] 

This invention consists principally in emplopng adjustable 
wedges or filling-pieces to prevent the prejudicial endway 
motion of the axles in the axle-boxes of locomotive engines 
and railway carriages ; and it also includes a mode of prevent- 
ing grit getting into the axle-boxes ; and certain means of 
saving or catching the grease used for lubricating the axles. 

In Plate V., fig. 1, is an external view and fig. 2, a vertical 
section of an axle-box. a, is the journal of the axle, which is 
fitted with a bearing of the ordinary construction ; and the 
end of the axle is faced with steel, b, is an end bearing- 
piece, which is made in the form of a wedge, and sUdes 
between two vertical guides ; it is raised by turning the screw 
e^ so as to adjust it to the proper distance from the end of 



98 Recent Patents. 

the axle^ to allow of the latter revolving without friction, but, 
at the same time, to prevent any excess of endway motion ; 
and the wedge is fixed, after being adjusted, by means of the 
set-screw d: the screw c, is also fixed by the nut e. As the 
bearing wears away, the end bearing-piece b, must be adjusted 
from time to time, so as to prevent the endway motion, 
which would otherwise take place. 

Fig. 3, is an external view and fig. 4, a vertical section of 
another axle-box. b, is the end bearing-piece, fixed by an 
hexagonal boss in the socket f, which can be adjusted by 
means of the wedge g, so as to bring the end bearing-piece 
to the desired distance from the end of the axle. The wedge 
ff, is provided with a screw stem g^, to receive a nut A, by 
turning which the wedge is moved ; and it is fixed, after the 
proper adjustment has been efiected, by means of the nut e, 
and the set-screw d, fig. 3. 

Fig. 5, is an external view and fig. 6, a vertical section of 
another axle-box. In this case the end collar of the axle is 
dispensed with. The end bearing-piece &, is fixed by an 
hexagonal boss in a screw-socket i ; by turning which the 
piece b, is advanced to the end of the axle ; and, after such 
adjustment, the socket i, is fixed by the nut e, and set-screw 
d, (fig. 5,) the point of which enters a groove cut in the thread 
of the screw on the exterior of the socket L A hole or pas- 
sage is formed through the centre of the socket i, for the 
introduction of a small rod or other suitable instrument to 
push out the piece b, when it is desired to remove it from the 
socket. In the ordinary grease receptacle/, of the axle-box, 
there is formed a small reservoir k, for oil, which is conducted 
therefrom, by a piece of cotton wick, into a small passage or 
opening above the end of the axle; and the oil is thus caused 
to drop between the end of the axle and the end bearing- 
piece b, and lubricate the same. This axle-box is also pro- 
vided with parts /, m, for preventing the entrance of grit 
or dirt into it. /, is a flanged or dished ring, which is put 
upon the axle, and then the conical ring or shield m, is also 
placed on the axle and bolted to the back of the axle-box. It 
will be seen that the flanges of these rings interlock with each 
other, in such manner as to prevent the entrance of grit or 
dirt into the axle-box. 

Fig. 7, exhibits a vertical section of another arrangement, 
in which the end bearing-piece b, is applied in the form of a 
hoop or ring upon the axle, at the back of the axle-box. It 
revolves with the axle, and is moved up to the axle-box, as the 
bearing wears away, by turning the nut n, which acts upon a 



Hickman's, for Impts. in Manufacturing Tubes, 99 

screwed portioD of the hoop or ring i, — the hind end of the 
nut abutting against the boss o, of the wheel. The nut n, is 
prevented from turning, after the hoop or ring by has been 
adjusted, by means of a guard J9, which bears against one of 
the flat sides of the nut, and is fixed to the boss of the wheel 
by a screw or pin q. 

Each of the axle-boxes, above described, is provided with a 
means for collecting or catching the grease that has passed 
over the bearing of the axle. In each figure r, is a grease- 
box or drawer, which sUdes or fits in the lower part of the 
axle-box, and is retained therein by a spring-catch s. The 
grease, after having passed over the bearing of the axle, falls 
into the box, from which it is removed from time to time and 
used over again, until it has been deprived of its lubricating 
quality. 

The patentee claims. First, — the arranging axletrees and 
axletree-boxes, as described, with adjustable apparatus for 
making up for wear, in order to prevent prejudicial endway 
motion ; and also the means of preventing grit from getting 
into axletree-boxes. Secondly, — the arranging axletree-boxes 
with a drawer or receptacle for catching the grease, as ex- 
plained. — [Inrotted May, 1850.] 



To John Hickman, of Walsall, in the county of Stafford, 
clerk, for improvements in the manufacture of cylindrical 
and other tubes.— ISesleA 25th May, 1850.] 

The first part of this invention relates to the operation of 
drawing cyUndrical or tapering tubes of metal; and consists 
in reducing such tubes to the desired size, by coiling wire 
around the front end of the tube, and then drawing such tube 
through the coH of wire, which is kept in a suitable state of 
tension, so as to act upon the tube in a similar manner to the 
dies of an ordinary draw-bench. 

In Plate Y., fig. 1, is an elevation and fig. 2, is a horizontal 
section of the apparatus used for carrying out this part of the 
invention : it is described by the patentee as applied to the 
manufacture of tapering tubes ; but it is equally applicable to 
the manufacture of tubes having the same diameter through- 
out their whole length, a, is the framing of the apparatus. 

b, b, are two bars, the ends of which enter and slide in two 
grooves or recessesi formed in the upright standards of the 
framing a ; and the bars are connected together by two cords 

c, c, which are secured, at one end, to the lower bar, and 



100 Recent Patente. 

after being passed over a pulley in the upper bar, a weight d^ 
is attached to the lower end of each cord ; so that the bars 
will thus have at all times a tendency to approach each other. 
e^ By are two upright bars, each connected to and supported 
by two parallel levers^/; which levers turn on pins or axes, 
affixed to the upright standards of the frame a; and the outer 
ends of the levers work between guides g, g^ and the sides of 
the standards. A weight A, is suspenddl from the lower end 
of the bars e, for the purpose of giving such bars a tendency 
to approach each other, i, is a tapering mandril, on whicn 
is placed the tube^, required to be drawn; around the tube 
a piece of wire A:, is once passed ; and the ends thereof being 
conducted over pulleys /, /, it is held in a suitable state of ten- 
sion, either by means of springs, in the manner represented 
at m, or by tne application of weights, as shewn at n. 

By the above arrangement the wire will be caused to exert 
the degree of pressure requisite to effect the reduction of the 
tube which is being drawn through the coiled portion thereof; 
but, at the same time, the coil will gradually enlarge to suit 
the increasing diameter of the mandril. The coil of wire 
abuts against the projecting parts of the bars b, by and against 
the sides of the bars e, e ; and such bars may have suitable 
recesses formed in them for the reception of the coil of wire. 
These bars also serve as guides to keep the mandril and tube 
in a central position. Although the apparatus is represented 
as being applied to the manufacture of tubes which are of a 
circular form in the transverse section, yet tubes of any other 
desired section may be drawn in this apparatus, by substi- 
tuting a mandril of a suitable form for the mandril shewn. 

The second part of this invention consists in a method of 
manufacturing fluted or corrugated tubes, either of a tapering 
form or of the same diameter throughout. Fig. 3, is a hori- 
zontal section and fig. 4, a front view of the apparatus used 
for effecting this object, a, is a fluted mandril, which is re- 
presented of a tapering form ; but when the tube is to be of 
the same diameter throughout, then the mandril must, like- 
wise, be of the same diameter throughout, i, is the tube to 
be fluted or corrugated, which is placed upon the mandril. 
Upon the outer surface of the tube several rods or strips of 
metal Cy c, are laid in such manner that each rod or strip will 
be over one of the longitudinal grooves of the mandril; and, 
consequently, each rod, if subjected to sufficient pressure, 
will press the intervening portion of tube into the correspond- 
ing groove of the mandnl. The requisite pressure is applied 
by drawing the mandril, tube, and rods through a soft metal 



WaistnCs^for Materials used in Dyeing, Printing, ^c. 101 

die d; and, by this means, the tube is fluted or corrugated 
in the manner represented by the transverse section, fig. 5. 
In place of using a soft metal die, pressure may be applied to 
the rods by means of a coil of wire, as described in the first 
part of the invention, and as indicated by the dotted lines in 
fig. 3. The patentee states that he does not claim the use of 
a soft metal die, excepting when it is employed for the purposes 
of his invention. — [Inrolkd November, 1850.] 



7b William Watson, tlie younger, of Chapel Allerton, in 
the parish of Leeds, in the county of York, manufacturing 
ch^nist, for improvements in the preparation and manu- 
facture of various materials to be used in the processes of 
dyeing, printing, and coloring. — [Sealed 4th June, 1850.] 

This invention consists in the preparation and manufacture 
of various solid compounds of indigo, or of preparations of 
indigo, with various alkalies or alkaline earths (viz., potash, 
soda, ammonia, barytes, strontia, lime, and magnesia), or with 
various salts of such alkalies or alkaline earths ; so that such 
products may be economically produced in a dry state, and 
rendered more conveniently applicable for the dyeing, print- 
ing, and coloring of various matters or fabrics. This is effected 
by adding to, or mixing with, a solution or preparation of in- 
digo in concentrated sulphuric acid, one or more of the above- 
mentioned alkalies or alkaline earths, or salts, so that the 
compound resulting from such mixture may be a solid pro- 
duct. On the score of economy, the patentee prefers to use 
the chloride of sodium or common salt, the carbonates or 
sub-carbonates of soda, of potash, or of magnesia, or the sul- 
phate of potash. 

In the preparation of such mixtures and compounds of 
indigo and salts as are herein mentioned, the patentee employs 
an apparatus similar to that shewn in vertical section in 
Plate V. a, a, is a cylinder of cast-iron, of the diameter of 
three feet, or thereabouts ; within which is fitted, in any con- 
venient and suitable manner, a cylinder of copper b, b, so 
that the space between the cylinders a, a, and b, b, shall be 
steam-tight. This space is connected by means of the pipe c, 
with a boiler, supplying steam at the pressure of about 20 lbs. 
per square inch, c*, is a smaller pipe, for carrying away any 
condensed water. Within the internal cylinder or vessel is 
placed an agitator d, d, (having two or any convenient number 
of arms or blades) the shaft of which works air-tight through 

VOL. XXXVIII. M 



102 Recent Patents. 

a stuffing-box e, aud^ passing through the top or cover of the 
cylinder, is, by suitable gearing, made to revolve at the rate 
of about eighty revolutions per minute. /, is a small door, 
covering a corresponding aperture in the cylinder-cover, made 
readily removable, for the purpose of introducing solid mat- 
ters therein, and capable of being made air-tight by suitable 
luting, ff, is another door at the bottom of the c^ylinder, for 
the purpose of emptying the contents of the inner cylinder or 
vessel. A, is a pipe for carrying away any gas or vapor which 
may arise during the process ; and it may, if required, be 
connected with any suitable apparatus for condensing such 
gas or vapor, and applying it to any useful purpose, i, is a 
bent tube, for the purpose of introducing the solution of indigo. 

The patentee makes a solution of indigo in sulphuric acid, 
by adding about six parts, by weight, of concentrated sulphuric 
acid (the strongest being the best) to one part of the indigo 
of commerce : this solution, which is commonly called chymic, 
will be referred to as solution No. 1. But when a compound 
of superior quality for dyeing the best and brightest colors is 
required, then in lieu of using the indigo of commerce, refined 
or purified indigo is employed, and, by preference, that which 
has been refined or purified, by solution, with proto-sulphate 
of iron and lime, and afterwards precipitated and dried in the 
manner now well known and understood ; and to every part 
of such refined indigo about ten parts, by weight, of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid are added. In the following description 
the solution of refined indigo will be referred to as solution 
No. 2. 

The way in which the solutions of indigo are mixed with 
the alkalies or salts is very similar with all the compounds; 
a description, therefore, of the process of mixing the solution 
of indigo with common salt will suffice to explain this part of 
the invention. The salt, having been carefully pulverized, is 
introduced by the door into the mixing apparatus hereinbefore 
described, which is kept heated by the admission of steam 
between the inner and outer cylinder ; — the door is luted, so 
as to be air-tight ; the agitator is then put into motion ; and 
one of the solutions of indigo is poured slowly through the 
tube i. Hydrochloric acid gas is evolved by the action of the 
sulphuric acid on the salt, and is conveyed away by the pipe 
h, while the operation is continued, until the intended quan- 
tity of solution of indigo has been added, and the evolution 
of gas has nearly ceased : the compound will then be found 
to be dry, and may be allowed to fall through the door ^, into 
any receptacle placed below. The patentee remarks, that he 



WatsofiffSffor Materials used in Dyeing, Printing y Sfe. \t0 

prefers to make the other mixtures or compounds^ herein <d^ 
scribed^ in a similar manner, but that he does not f|n4 tb^ 
application of heat, or of any special apparatus, so essentiali 
with regard to other salts, as when chlorides are used. It is 
not essential to use any precise proportions of the solutions 
of indigo and the respective salts ; but a sufScient quantity 
of the salt must be used to produce a compound which i^ 
sensibly or apparently dry, and in which the acid may bQ 
neutralized^ if the compound be required to be neutral, or sq 
that merely such a quantity of sulphuric acid may remain in 
the compound in excess as may be found advisable, when an 
acid compound is required. As the salts contained in some 
of the compounds, resulting from the processes herein de- 
scribed, combine with water, as water of crystallization, it will 
be found advisable, in some cases, to add to the compound sq 
much water that the resulting compound may contain a due 
equivalent of water of crystallization. For instance, — when 
soda or magnesia, or the carbonates of soda or magnesia, are 
employed for making such compounds as herein mentioned, 
the ingredients are more readily combined, and a compound, 
less liable to change by exposure to the air, is formed, if, for 
every ten parts, by weight, of solution of indigo, about six parts 
of water are added ; — the water being added towards the com- 
pletion of the process of mixing. As some of the salts, which 
are formed by the combination of the alkalies or alkaline 
earths, herein named, with sulphuric acid, do not readily ab- 
sorb water, as water of crystallization, it is advisable to add a 
proportion of such a salt, in an anhydrous condition, as will 
absorb any uncombined water which may exist in the com- 
pound. For instance, — when ammonia, barytes, or strontia 
are used for making these compounds, a suitable quantity of 
the dry sulphate of soda is added, — this salt being the best 
and cheapest for this purpose : other salts, however, in an 
anhydrous state, such as dry sulphate of magnesia, or the 
calcined sulphate of alumina and potash, will answer the same 
purpose, and therefore may, under some circumstances, be 
advantageously employed. The patentee remarks, that in 
various applications of the compounds produced for the pur- 
poses of dyeing, printing, and coloring, such compounds may 
be required to be acid, alkaline, or neutral ; and, in like man- 
ner, ihe preparations made with the solution No. 1, are 
sufficient for many purposes, and are cheaper than those 
made with the solution No. 2 ; whilst, for the production of 
bright colors, a preparation is made with the solution No. 2, 
which is superior to that made with the solution No. 1 ; and. 



104 Recent Patents. 

in like manner, various alkalies or alkaline earths, or salts of 
these, may be found requisite or preferable. He does not, 
therefore, confine himself to the use of any one salt or pure 
salt, in making such compounds ; for it may be found desira- 
ble to add to some of the before-mentioned compounds another 
salt or alkali, for the purpose of more readily neutralizing 
any excess of acid; for instance: — It will be advantageous, 
after making the hereinbefore-described compounds of either 
of the solutions of indigo and common salt, to add such a 
quantity of carbonate of soda, of carbonate of potash, or of 
carbonate of magnesia, that the compound shall, on trial, be 
found neutral. Although it is not considered essential to use 
any precise proportions of ingredients, yet, as a general guide, 
the following formulae (the parts being estimated by weight) 
are given, — the carbonate of potash of commerce being esti- 
mated to contain fifty per cent, of real potash, the carbonate 
of soda of commerce to contain fifty per cent, of real soda, 
and the carbonate of magnesia of commerce to contain forty 
per cent, of real magnesia : — 

No. 1. — 100 parts of either of the hereinbefore-mentioned 
solutions of indigo, and 200 parts of common salt or chloride 
of sodium. 

No. 2. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, 200 
parts of common salt, and 20 parts of carbonate of magnesia. 

[The carbonate of magnesia is to be added after the solution 
and common salt have been well mixed, and is for the purpose 
of neutralizing any free acid.] 

No. 8. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, and 
230 parts of sulphate of potash. 

No. 4. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, and 
90 parts of caustic potash, for a neutral compound. 

No. 5. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, and 
45 parts of caustic potash, for an acid compound. 

No. 6. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, 60 
parts of caustic soda, and 60 parts of water. 

No. 7. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, and 
86 parts of caustic magnesia. 

No. 8. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, and 
86 parts of the carbonate of potash of commerce, for an acid 
compound. 

No. 9. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, and 
175 parts of the carbonate of potash of commerce, for a neu- 
tral compound. 

No. 10. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, 115 
parts of carbonate of soda of commerce, and 60 parts of water. 



BrouyiiByfoT Manufacturing Metallic Casks, S^c. 105 

No. 11. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo^ 82 
parts of carbonate of magnesia of commerce^ and 60 parts of 
water. 

No. 12. — 100 parts of either of the solutions of indigo, 200 
parts of carbonate of baryta, or 150 parts of carbonate of 
strontia, or 90 parts of carbonate of ammonia; and, after the 
solutions of indigo have been mixed with such salts respectively, 
50 parts of dry sulphate of soda, — ^this latter substance being 
added for the purpose of absorbing any uncombined water. 

In conclusion, the patentee states, that he is aware that 
manufacturers of preparations of indigo have been accustomed 
to precipitate indigo from a sulphuric acid solution, by the 
addition of common salt, or other salts ; such solution of in- 
digo in sulphuric acid having been considerably diluted with 
water, — that is to say, diluted with more than five times the 
weight of the sulphuric acid, — ^the resulting compounds of 
such a process being in a state of paste. He therefore wishes 
it to be understood, that he does not claim to manufacture 
any compound of indigo with the salts or substances herein 
mentioned, by precipitating indigo from a diluted solution in 
sulphuric acid ; but he claims. Firstly, — the adding or mixing 
a solution of indigo in sulphuric acid to or with common salt, 
in manner hereinbefore described. Secondly, — ^the adding or 
mixing a solution of indigo in sulphuric acid to or with sul- 
phate of potash. Thirdly, — the adding or mixing a solution 
of indigo in sulphuric acid to or with caustic potash, caustic 
soda, or caustic magnesia. Fourthly, — the adding or mixing 
a solution of indigo in sulphuric acid to or with the carbonate 
of potash, carbonate of soda, or carbonate of magnesia. And, 
Lastly, — the manufacture of solid compounds or preparations 
of indigo, by the admixture of any suitable alkali or alkaline 
earth, or the salt of any alkali or alkaline earth, with a solu- 
tion of indigo in sulphuric acid, so as to form dry or solid 
compounds, of the nature hereinbefore set forth. — [Inrolled 
December, 1850.] 



To Hbnrietta"Bbown, of Long-lane, Bermondsey, widow 
and executrix of the late Samuel Broum, for improvements 
in the manufacture of metallic casks and vessels, — being a 
communication. — [Sealed 17th July, 1850.] 

This invention consists in fixing the heads of metallic casks 
and the bottoms of metallic vessels, and joining other parts of 
metallic vessels, by corrugating the two thicknesses of metal 
which are to be connected together. 



106 Recefit Patents. 

In Plate VI.^ fig. 1, is a vertical section of a can or metal 
vessel, the bottom and neck of which are connected to the 
body according to this invention ; and fig 2, is a section of a 
pair of rollers by which the corrugation is effected. These are 
the only drawings that accompany the specification ; as the 
patentee has not thought it necessaiy to give a representation 
of a metalhc cask ; because the heads or ends of casks are to 
be fixed in precisely the same manner as the bottom of the 
vessel shewn at fig. 1. In order to fix the bottom of the can 
or vessel, it is placed in its proper position, with its flange or 
rim in contact with the inner side of the metal body ; then 
the two thicknesses of metal are passed between a pair of 
rollers, one of which has a projecting bead around it, and the 
other a corresponding groove, as exhibited at fig. 2 ; and these 
rollers are caused to exert a sufficient pressure upon the metal 
to produce the corrugation shewn at a, fig. 1. On examining 
the drawing it will be seen that the convex side of the corru* 
gation in the flange of the bottom fits closely into the con- 
cavity of the corrugation around the lower part of the body ; 
and thus the bottom is securely attached to the body without 
the aid of rivets : the corrugation of the metal likewise imparts 
additional strength to the parts. The neck of the can or. 
vessel is fixed to the body in like manner, by inserting the 
lower part of the neck in the upper part of the body, and then 
subjecting the two thicknesses of metal to the action of a 
suitable pair of rollers (one of which is placed inside the neck), 
whereby a corrugation is produced, as represented at i, which 
unites the two parts securely together. In place of the two 
thicknesses of metal being corrugated together, they may be 
corrugated separately, and afterwards brought together in 
such manner that the convex side of one corrugation will fit 
into the concave side of the other corrugation. The joints 
may be made fluid-tight by the application of melted tin or 
solder. 

In conclusion, the patentee says, ^' I would have it under- 
stood, that although I have only shewn a single corrugation, 
I do not confine myself thereto, as more may be employed; 
but what I claim is the causing heads of casks and bottoms 
of vessels to be fixed, and other parts of iron vessels to hfi 
joined, by corrugating the two thicknesses of metal.'' — [/»- 
rolled January, 1851.] 



[ 107 ] 

To George Allen Evbbitt, of the firm of Allen Everitt and 
Son, of the Kingston Metal Works, in the borough of Bir- 
mingham, metal tube manufacturers, and George Glydon, 
of Birmingham, aforesaid, engineer and foreman to the 
said Allen Everitt and Son, for certain improvements in 
the manufacture of metal tubes for locomotive, marine, 
and other boilers, [Sealed 12th June, 1850.] 

It is well known that the tubes of locomotive and other boil- 
ers are commonly worn out or destroyed at one end by the 
intense heat to which such end is subjected, whilst the other 
portions are comparatively uninjured, or but slightly worn ; 
and there are many practical difficulties in the manufacture of 
such tubes with an increased substance of metal at one end, 
for the purpose of equalizing the wear. Now this invention 
consists in the appUcation of a shield or short tube to one 
end of such tubes, so as to protect the same from the intense 
action of the heat, and render the wear of the tubes more 
uniform. 

In Plate YI., fig. 1, is a longitudinal section of a tube with 
one of the shields or short tubes applied thereto ; figs. 2, and 
8, are end views of the tube ; and ^g. 4, exhibits the mandril 
used when fixing the shield or short tube in its place. The 
mandril is reduced in diameter at one end for a distance some- 
what exceeding the length of the shield or short tube ; on this 
deduced part the short tube a, is placed ; then the mandril, 
with the short tube upon it, is introduced into the long tube 
b ; and the whole is subjected to the action of the apparatus 
eommonly used for drawing tubes. By this means the short 
tube a, is firmly fixed in the tube b ; and the mandril is then 
withdrawn. To faciUtate the withdrawal of the mandril, both 
parts thereof (i. e. the reduced portion and the part which 
comes in contact with the interior of the tube b,) are made 
shghtly tapering. The tubes a, and b, are, in the act of drawing, 
gradually reduced in thickness, to a slight extent, from one 
end to the other, as shewn in figs. 1, 2, and 3. Instead of 
fixing the short tube in the end of the longer one by drawing 
upon a mandril, the short tube may be forced by pressure 
into its place. These short tubes may be made to serve as 
substitutes for the ferrules used in fixing the tubes in the 
boilers ; or the ferrules may be employed therewith in the 
ordinary way. 

The patentees state that they do not claim the introduction 
of a short tube into the ends of the metal tubes of boilers, 
when the length of such short tube is less than twice its 



108 Recent Patents. 

diameter ; nor do they claim the lining the whole length of a 
tube with another tube ; but what they claim^ as their im- 
provements in the manufacture of metal tubes for locomotive^ 
marine, and other boilers, is the application to one end of 
such tubes of a shield or short tube, whose length exceeds 
twice its diameter, but is less than half the length of the tube 
into which it is introduced, as above described. — [Inrolled 
December, 1850.] 

To John Silvester, of West Brotmvich, in the county of 
Stafford, whitesmith, for improvements in straightening, 
flattening, setting, and shaping hardened steel. — [Sealed 
17th July, 1850.] 

The patentee remarks, at the commencement of his specifica- 
tion, that many articles composed of steel, such as saw-blades, 
are spoiled by becoming warped in the process qf hardening, 
which renders it necessary for them either to be hammered 
into form, or softened and re-hardened ; and in some cases 
they are so damaged that they have to be altogether thrown 
aside. This invention consists in straightening, flattening, 
setting, and shaping such plates and other articles as may be 
warped in the process of hardening, by pressing them between 
dies, previous to or while they are in the course of being 
tempered. 

In Plate VI., fig. 1, is an end elevation, fig. 2, a vertical 
section, and fig. 3, a plan view of a machine used in carrying 
out this invention, a, is a metal frame, fixed upon a base- 
ment-plate B, which also supports two rails c, c, whereon the 
wheels n, d, of the carriage e, travel. This carriage carries 
two dies F, f, between which the steel plates to be straightened, 
flattened, or set, are placed, and the carriage is then run in 
beneath the screw a, which works in a female screw, formed 
in the upper part of the frame a ; or the steel plates may be 
put between the dies after the carriage has been brought 
beneath the screw a. A bar or beam h, is placed beneath 
the lower die, for the purpose of relieving the axles of the 
carriage e, from the pressure to which the dies are to be sub- 
jected ; and then, by means of the hand- wheel i, the screw o, 
is turned, until the upper die presses uniformly upon the 
plate or other article between it and the lower die. The dies 
are now bound firmly together by means of clamps, the pres- 
sure of the screw o, is removed, and the bar or beam h, is 
withdrawn ; and then the carriage £, is pushed along the 
rails c, c^ into the furnace^ in order that the plate may be 



Silvester^ 8, Jbr Impts. in Flattening Steel Plates, ^c. 109 

heated to the temperature necessary to bring back the article 
to the proper temper. The patentee states that " the upper 
die can be raised by means of the screw^ and the introduction 
of the slid'mg-frame h^^ to such an extent as to admit of the 
plates being either removed or introduced at pleasure *" but 
he does not give any further explanation of the mode of doing 
this : it may^ therefore, be well to remark, that the frame h^, 
consists of a collar, which rests upon a shoulder at the top of 
the screw o, and of two legs, which can be connected, at their 
lower ends, by means of screw-bolts, with two lugs or pro- 
jections on the top die ; and hence, when the screw g, is 
raised, by reversing the motion of the hand-wheel i, it will 
lift the frame h^, and with it the top die. In place of run- 
ning the carriage, with the articles to be tempered, into the 
furnace, the dies may be previously heated to such a degree 
as to bring back the steel to the desired temper ; and, in this 
case, the upper die is raised by means of the frame h^, and 
the article introduced; and then the requisite pressure is 
produced by means of the screw o, and hand-wheel i, as be- 
fore described. 

Fig. 4, exhibits a pair of dies, suitable for straightening, 
iSattening, setting, shaping, and tempering thin steel plates, 
on which the weight of the upper die may be sufficient for 
producing the necessary pressure without the use of a screw 
or other press. The upper die a, is jointed to one end of a 
lever b, the other end of which works on a fixed point c. 
These dies may be heated previous to the steel plate or other 
article being placed between them; or the whole may be 
heated together in a furnace. 

Instead of employing the heat of a furnace to bring back 
plates and other articles of hardened steel to the requisite 
temper, the patentee sometimes uses perforated dies, into the 
hollows or cavities of which molten lead or other metal is 
poured, so as to raise the temperature of the dies to the pro- 
per degree for tempering the articles. He also tempers 
blades, plates, and other articles of hardened steel, by im- 
mersing them in a bath of molten lead or other metal, and 
at the same time straightens, flattens, and sets such articles, 
by placing the same between dies which are perforated all 
over, so as to permit the molten metal to speedily communi- 
cate the requisite temperature to the articles. 

The patentee claims the straightening, flattenhig, setting, 
and shaping of plates and other articles of hardened steel by 
mechanical pressure, previous to or while they are in the 

VOL. XXXYIII. N 



llO Recent Patents. 

coarse of being tempered (the pressure being continued during 
the process of tempering), as before described. — [InroUed 
January, 1851.] 

To John Milwain, of Manchester, in the county of Lan- 
caster, joiner, for certain improvements applicable to the 
closing of doors, windows, and shutters. — [Sealed 12th 
January, 1850.] 

This invention consists in certain arrangements of apparatus 
for more effectually preventing the passage of sound and air, 
and of dust or other impurities, into rooms, closets, cabinets, 
bookcases, or other receptacles, which are furnished with doors, 
windows, or shutters. The peculiar feature of the first part of 
the invention consists in the employment of a moveable strip 
of India-rubber or gutta-percha, so applied to one part of the 
joint intended to be secured, as to press firmly upon the other 
part of the said joint, when the door, window, or shutter, is 
closed ; but capable of receding therefrom when it shall be 
desired to open the door, window, or shutter. 

The second part of the invention consists in a peculiar mode 
of applying India-rubber or gutta-percha for the purpose of 
closing, as aforesaid, what are commonly called French win- 
dows, and other apparatus, which open and close after the 
manner of folding doors. 

At fig. 1, Plate VI., one arrangement for carrying out the 
first part of this invention is shewn, as applied to an ordinary 
room door, — the figure being a front elevation in section, and 
shewing the door partly open, and the moveable strip raised 
from the floor. To the inside of the door a, a brass or other 

Elate a, a, is attached by screws ; and to this plate are fastened, 
y rivets or otherwise, the upper ends of two pieces of vul- 
canized India-rubber b, b ; the lower ends thereof being 
affixed to a metal casing c, c, c, within which is also con- 
fined, by means of rivets, another strip of vulcanized India- 
rubber or gutta-percha c*, c*, c*, extending throughout the 
width of the door. Upon the plate a, a, are affixed centre 
pins, upon which cams d, d, are mounted, so as to turn freely 
thereon : the lower ends of these cams are in contact with the 
top of the metal casing c, c, and their upper ends are con- 
nected, by means of joints, to a longitudinal rod//. Withiii 
the door-jamb is placed a screw-stud ff, capable of adjustment 
in the screw-box h,h: by this arrangement it will be perceived 
that, on closing the door, the end of the rod//, will arrive 
in contact with the stud g, and thereby be forced inwards j by 



Milwain^ for Closing Doors, Windows, 8f Shutters. Ill 

which action the cams d, d, will be turned upon their centre- 
pins^ and force down the metal casing c, c, which^ carrying 
with it the strip of India-rubber or gutta-percha c*, c*, c*, 
will effectually close the bottom of the door. By turning the 
screw-stud g, in its screw-box, and thereby carrying it nearer 
to, or further from, the rod /,/, more or less action will be 
given to the cams d, d, and, consequently, a like variable mo- 
tion to the strip c*, c*, c*. When it is necessary to open 
the door, the pieces of vulcanized India-rubber b, b, which| by 
the descent of the strip c*, c*, have become distended, will| 
by their contraction, turn the cams d, d, back again upon 
their centres, raise the strip c*, c*, c*, fbom the floor, an4 
allow the door to open freely. 

Fig. 2, shews another arrangement of the invention applied 
to a door* In this instance, in place of the cams d, d, two 
sets of toggle-jointed levers are employed ; the upper ends i, i, 
turning upon pins attached to the plate a, a ; and the lower 
ends f *, i*, being connected to centre-pins, affixed to the metal 
casing c, c. The centre-pips of the toggle-jointed levers work 
in slots, formed in the rod f,f,9ia shewn in the drawing; 
which rod f,f, in this instance, moves in guides y,y. To the 
casing c, c, are affixed studs a*, a*, which project into grooves 
form^ in the plate a, in order to cause the strip c*, c*, c*, 
to descend with a parallel motion. In the figure the door is 
supposed to be closed ; the rod f,f, having been brought into 
contact with the screw-stud g, and thereby made to act on the 
toggle-jointed levers, so as to effect the descent of the strip 
c*, c*, c*. On the door being opened, the pieces b, b, wiU 
contract, and raise the casing c, c. 

Figs. 3, and 4, shew the invention as applied to the closing 
of sash-mndows; fig. 3, being a partial sectional elevation of 
a window, and fig. 4, a sectional plan of the same, — the top 
plate a, a, which carries the apparatus, being removed, in order 
more clearly to shew the various parts. The metal casing c, c, c, 
and strip of India-rubber or gutta-percha c*, c*, c*, are shewn 
as abutting against the upper window a, a, in which direction 
they are constantly forced by means of two springs k, k ; one 
jend of each of which is affixed to the sash of the window, — the 
other ends acting against pieces affixed to the under side of 
the casing c, c, c. The casing c, c, is provided with pins /, /, 
whidi project into grooves made in the plate a, a, so as to 
form parallel guides ; and to it are attached inclined planes 
m, m, against which pins n, n, affixed to the rod f,f, are caused 
to work. Upon raising the lower window b, the rod f^f, will 



112 Recent Patents. 

be forced up the inclined plane o, (placed in a recess formed 
in the frame of the window^) and^ by this means^ be caused to 
move inwards in its parallel guides y,y, — thus carrying the 
pins n, n, along the inclined planes m, m, and drawing the 
strip c*, c*, c*, away from the upper window a. Upon again 
closing the window, the springs k, k, will force forward the 
strip c*, c*, C*, into its former position, and the rod^^ will 
again recede along the inclined plane o. 

Figs. 5, and 6, shew the improvement as applied to a win* 
dow which opens at top and bottom ; fig 5, being a partial 
front view of the two windows, and fig. 6, a representation of 
the inside of the window-frame. 

The inclined plane o, (referred to in the last-described 
figures) is mounted upon a short axis q, extending across in 
the direction of the width of the two windows, and carries, 
at the opposite end to that upon which the incUned plane o, 
is mounted, a projecting arm r ; and to the upper window a, 
an inclined plane 8, is attached, which moves in a groove «*, 
formed in the window-frame. Upon commencing to lower 
the upper window, the arm r, is forced inwards by the in- 
clined plane s, moving against the projecting part r* : the 
axis q, is thereby turned upon its centre, and the rod^ is 
driven inwards; which movement, through the means de- 
scribed in reference to figs. 3, and 4, liberates the window 
from the strip c*, c*. 

Fig. 7, shews, in sectional plan view, a method of applying 
the improvements to the tight closing of windows, when the 
closing is effected by the hand. The metal casing c, c, c, is 
provided, as before, with pins /, /, moving in parallel guides, 
formed in the plate a, which is removed in order to expose 
the parts. To the casing c, c, c, a screw-pin d, is connected 
by means of a socket-joint ; and, by turning this pin, which 
works in a screw-box fixed in the sash of the window, the strip 
c*, c*, c*, will be tightened upon or loosened from the upper 
window A. 

Fig. 8, represents a modification of the invention, adapted 
for closing doors, windows, or shutters, by hand : that is to 
say, by means independent of the opening and shutting of 
the said door, window, or shutter, a, and b, represent por- 
tions of the meeting stiles of the glass-doors of a book-case 
or cabinet, — the front plate a, of the preceding figures being 
removed, in order* to expose the parts. To the under side of 
the metal casing c, of the strip of India-rubber or gutta- 
percha c*, c*, there is attached, by means of a bracket, a pin 



MtlwaxfiSyfoT Closing Doors, Windows, §• Shutters. 113 

t, which projects into an excentric 'groove u, formed within a 
tumbler that turns upon a centre-pin v, — the said tumbler-pin 
being affixed to a knob on the outside of the door. By turning 
this knob^ the pin t, and, consequently, the strip c*, c*, will 
be drawn from contact with the other door, which will then 
be at liberty to be opened ; and, on being again closed, a re- 
versed motion of the knob will cause the strip c*, to assume 
its former position. 

The patentee remarks that, if desired, the plate a, a, may 
be placed on the outside of the door, and that a similar appa- 
ratus may be adapted to the top ; also that springs, of any 
suitable shape or material, may be employed instead of those 
formed by the pieces of India-rubber b ; and that the strip 
may be withdrawn by the action of the door, and forced for- 
ward, by means of springs, in a similar manner to that de- 
scribed with reference to figs. 3, and 4. 

The second part of the invention is shewn in partial sec- 
tional plan view at fig. 9, which represents the improvements 
applied to a French window. Throughout the length of the 
side-framing a groove is formed, within which a strip of India- 
rubber or gutta-percha c*, confined by rivets or otherwise 
within a metal casing, is placed ; there is also a groove w, 
formed in the window-jamb, into which the strip of India- 
rubber or gutta-percha passes when the window is closed, 
abutting against the edge of the said groove, and thereby 
closing the joint, as shewn in the drawing. The method of 
closing the meet of the windows is as follows : — The meeting- 
stile of each window does not close, as in the ordinary con- 
struction, but there is a hollow passage left, as shewn at ^. 
To each meeting-stile is attachied a strip of India-rubber or 
gutta-percha y, y*, firmly enclosed within a metallic case, 
and extending throughout the length of its respective window : 
the outward edge of one of the strips y, presses (when the 
windows are closed) against the part z, of the window c ; the 
other strip y*, being in contact, in like manner, with the part 
z*, of the window d. If desired, the method described, un- 
der the first head of the invention, may also be applied for 
the purpose of closing the tops and bottoms of the windows. 
This part of the invention is also proposed to be applied to 
shutters which open in a similar manner to French windows, 
to the glass or other doors of book-cases and cabinets, &c. 

The patentee claims. Firstly — the use of a moveable strip 
of India-rubber or gutta-percha applied to the joints of doors, 
windows, and shutters, for the purposes above set forth, whe- 
ther such strip be brought into action by the motion of the 



114 Recent Patents. 

said doors^ windows^ or shutters^ or by a subsequent operation 
of the hand. And^ Secondly^ — the mode of applying India- 
rubber or gutta-percha to French windows^ and other such 
contrivances^ which open after the manner of what are com* 
monly called folding doors. — [InroUed July, 1850.] 



To James Palmer Budd, of the Ystalyfera Iron Works, 
Swansea, merchant, for improvements in the manufacture 
of coke. — [Sealed 11th June, 1850.] 

The patentee commences his specification by stating that the 
coals of this country may be divided into two classes^ viz., 
caking and non-caking coals, — the former, on the application ci 
heat, running together into a mass, and the latter, on heat being 
applied thereto, separating into small pieces. Coke has here- 
tofore been made from the caking coals alone ; and the non- 
caking coals, when below a certain size, have been considered 
almost worthless ,- as they cannot be consumed with advantage ; 
and their want of coherence renders them unfit for making 
coke. Now, this invention consists in employing small non- 
caking coals in the manufacture of coke, by mixing the same 
with a suitable quantity of caking or bituminous coals, and 
converting such mixture into coke by the ordinary coking ope- 
ration. The coals are to be reduced to a uniform size (say a coarse 
powder) by crushing or grinding, or by separating the lumps 
therefrom by sieves or other suitable means. The mixed coals 
may be introduced into the ordinary coke ovens or furnaces ; 
and the operations of charging the ovens, admitting air, &;c., 
may be conducted in the usual way. The proper proportion 
of each kind of coal in the mixture may be ascertained by first 
mixing the two kinds in equal quantities ; then if the coke, 
on being broken, does not present a homogeneous appearance, 
or is too porous, the proportions must be varied ; and so on 
until the desired result is obtained. The patentee states that 
the most refractory anthracite may be used for making coke 
according to his invention. 

He claims, the coking of non-caking coal by the mixture of 
caking coal, — the two sorts being intimately mixed together 
and the size reduced by crushing, grinding, or by abstraction 
of the lumps by sieves or other means. — [Inrolled December, 
1850.] 



[ 115 ] 



Acirntific fioticesi^ 



A PATENT AGENTS TALE OF A REGISTRATION. 



Mb. Editor, 

The world has recently been treated by Mr. Dickens 
with a Poor Man's Tale of a Patent ; — permit me, as a 
pendant to that very entertaining, if not very authentic his- 
tonr, to recite my experiences with respect to a Registration. 

Unlike Mr. Dickens' hero (whose ignorance of the business 
he had undertaken threw him into perplexities at every stage 
of the patent's progress, and rendered it a marvel that he, in 
so short a time as six weeks, should have conquered the many 
difficulties which beset him), I came to my task with a firm 
conviction that study and experience had made me master of 
my subject : indeed so impressed was I with the profundity 
of my knowledge in this branch of the law, that I was fast 
approaching to the enviable state of the character mentioned 
by Coleridge, who used to pull oflF his hat with great demon- 
stration of respect whenever he spoke of himself. I mention 
this fact at the outset of my story, that your readers may 
be satisfied, — first, that it was no incompetency of mine which 
drew me into the troubles which I was destined to encounter; 
and, secondly, that they may not be startled by any outbursts 
of wounded dignity which I may chance hereafter to indulge 
in. But to commence : — About the beginning of the month 
of August, 1860, 1 received instructions (as the representative 
of Messrs. Newton and Son, the patent and registration agents) 
to register a design for an ornamental stove, which had been 
prepared at the foundry of Mr. Haywood, the Mayor of Derby, 
and was to be secured in his name as the proprietor. This 
design consisted of a piece of graceful scroll-work, forming a 
central ornament for the lower part of the stove. In prepar- 
ing the necessary drawings for registration, I thought it ad- 
visable, in addition to shewing the ornament on a small scale 
in its intended position on the stove, to give the details of the 
ornament, by shewing it detached and on an enlarged scale. 
The following title was also appended to the drawing : — "De- 
sign for a central ornament for a stove, to be placed as shewn 
in the figure below.'' In this form the drawings were deposited 
at the Registration Office on the 13th of August ; and, on my 
messenger calling for the Registrar's certificate, he was informed 
that the Assistant-Registrar, the Hon. Mr. Curzon, objected 



116 Scientific Notices. 

to the drawings^ because they contained two designs, either 
of which would be received alone ; but that the two together 
were inadmissible. To prevent any delay, I went the next 
morning to the office to explain to the Registrar, Mr. John- 
son, that it was the application of the scroll ornament to the 
lower part of the stove which 1 wished to protect ; and that 
it was for the purpose of shewing the ornament distinctly, 
as well as its position on the stove, that the two figures were 
given. As, however, Mr. Johnson was absent from office, I 
stated the case to the Chief Clerk, who re-delivered it to 
Mr. Curzon; but that illustrious functionary, like all truly 
great men, the ruling principles of whose minds are fixed and 
immutable as nature's laws, was not to be moved by a little 
verbal sophistry ; the final, the irrevocable decree was there- 
fore issued — the registration shall not be, 

' If my memory had served me to relate what followed the 
receipt of this decision, prudence would, I think, have kept it 
out of sight ; for I fear I might accuse me of having called 
in question the wisdom of my judge, who, at a later period, I 
found had been a diligent student of the law, and was justly 
proud of his acquirements. I next made a formal demand, 
that the registration should be efiected, and bear date on the 
day in which it first went into the office, in order that I might 
receive a written statement of the grounds on which the 
design was refused. The following was the reply : — 

Designs Office, 4, Somebset Place, 
August Iblh, 1850. 

Gentlemen, 

In answer to your application, on the part of Mr. James 
Haywood, of Derby, to register an ornamental design for the 
centre of a stove, together with a stove on which it may be placed, 
but for which stove protection is not required, I am directed by 
the Registrar to enclose you a copy of printed ** Directions for 
Registering," and also to state, that the copies, prints, drawings, 
or tracings, must consist of nothing more nor less than the design 
itself ioT which protection is sought. 

I therefore beg to return you the drawings, as the design cannot 
be registered in the form now sent. On your furnishing them in 
the usual manner, the design ^ill be registered, and bear the date 
of the day of registration. 

I am. Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 
Messrs. Newton & Son, J. H. Bowen. 

66, Clumcery Lane. 



Scientific Notices. 117 

Was it not kind, Mr. Editor, to enclose me a copy of " printed 
directions for registering V^ Oh thou good, generous, face- 
tious functionary ! to think that /, who had taken up the 
business as a profession, should require a copy of printed in- 
structions ! I who, in addition to an experience only limited 
by the existence of the Registration Act itself, had fairly 
digested the law long prior to thy own or thy assistant's ap- 
pointment to office ! I could only think of, and liken my case 
to Charles Lamb's, when his friend, the schoolmaster, hearing 
that elegant essayist complain that his little sketches were 
anything but methodical, and that he was unable to make 
them otherwise, kindly offered to instruct him in the method 
in which young gentlemen in his seminary were taught to 
compose English themes. 

Furnished with this letter from the Registrar, I immediately 
prepared a memorial to the Lords Commissioners of the Board 
of Trade, setting forth the nature of the case in dispute, and 
begging that an order might be issued directing the Registrar 
to receive the design, and register it forthwith. This memo- 
rial, accompanied with a drawing of the design itself, was 
forwarded to the Board of Trade on the 20th of August ; and, 
as no answer came, after a lapse of several weeks, Mr. Hay- 
wood, the proprietor of the design (who, by the way, exhibited 
the most exemplary patience throughout the whole proceeding), 
being anxious to know the determination of their Lordships, 
also memorialized the Board, with the expectation of getting 
an early settlement of the matter. My memorial was, how- 
ever, still disregarded ; and, by dint of enquiry, I discovered 
that the Secretary, Sir Denis Le Marchant, had resigned — 
that Mr. Booth had been appointed to his office — that the 
Secretary's table was groaning under the weight of official 
papers which had accumulated during the interregnum — and 
that Mr. Booth was laboring at the apparently hopeless task 
of disposing of this heap of neglected business. Eventually, 
however, after nearly two months' delay, I received a commu- 
nication, which, instead of being an answer to my memorial 
(the substance of which, in a somewhat different shape, will 
be given hereafter), was little more than an echo of the Regis- 
trar's letter; and was, in fact, just such a reply as might have 
been expected from a person overloaded with work (as Mr. 
Booth then was), unacquainted, as yet, with the provisions of 
the Act, and glad to receive the suggestions of the party 
whose position would seem to entitle his opinion to respect. 
The following was the communication received : — 

VOL. XXXVIII. O 



1 1 8 Scientific Notices. 

Office of ComcnTEs of Pwvy Council for Tradi, 
Whitehall, October 16th, 1850. 

Gentlemen, 

With reference to your letter, of the 20th August last, on 
the subject of the refusal of the Assistant-Registrar of Designs 
to receive, for registration, an ornamental centre for stores, I am 
directed by the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council for 
Trade to inform you, that it appears, on reference to the drawing 
furnished by you, and on communicating with the Assistant- 
Registrar of Designs, that the dravnng of the design tendered by 
you for registration, comprised, not only the ornamental design 
in respect of which the protection is sought, but also a drawing 
of a stove intended to shew the mode in which the omamenttd 
design may be applied, — and that on this ground the Registrar 
declined to receive the drawing, as not being in compliance with 
the requisitions of the Designs Act, 5th and 6th Vic. c. 100. 

The Act (Sections 4 and 15) does not require, for the pur- 
pose of registering an ornamental design, that any thing more 
should be furnished to the Registrar for his certificate, than a 
drawing of the design in question, with the name and address of 
the proprietor and the number of the class (not a drawing of one 
of the objects comprehended in that class), in respect of which 
the registration is made. 

Their Lordships are of opinion that the Registrar was justi- 
fied in declining to receive any other drawing than the one 
required by the Act to be furnished to him ; and they see no 
reason, therefore, for their interference in the matter. 

I have to express my regret that, owing to unavoidable cir- 
cumstances, it has not been in my power to communicate to 
you their Lordships' determination at an earlier period. 

I am. Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 
Messrs. Newton & Son, James Booth. 

66, Chancery Lane, 

Not satisfied with this reply, which was, in fact, no answer to 
the case which I had drawn up, I sought an interview with 
one of the law oflScers of the Crown ; and, after briefly stating 
the facts of the case, obtained from him what I considered a 
confirmation of my own opinion, but ascertained that, in his 
official capacity, he had no power to interfere in the dispute ; — 
there was, however, a course open to me, as I well knew, 
by applying for a mandamiis. Here, however, arose the 
question of cost ; and, I may remark en passant , that when the 
proceeding was satisfactorily closed, the agent's fee would be 
7s, 6d,, — a sum, the realization of which warranted little ex- 
penditure in law. But still, the point at issue was a most 
important one, as it involved no less a question than the 
sufficiency or insufficiency of the Ornamental Designs Act ; 
the point for which I contended being, that the application of 



Scientific Notices. 119 

an ornament to an article of manufacture was a proper subject 
for registration. 

I must here, Mr. Editor^ confess to a weakness that well- 
nigh overcame me : 1 had a great desire to go for a mandamus ; 
it would be a novelty, a teUing things to bring a government 
official to reason by force of law, and thereby vindicate the 
public rights. Perhaps the charm that possessed me was 
to emulate the acts of a near relation, who, in early life, as 
champion of the poor of his locality, fearlessly attacked a cer- 
tain Honorable Society of lawyers, and forced them to compro- 
mise the matter by a large annual tribute to the pauper fund ; 
and who, on another occasion, drove his rector into the Court 
of Chancery, to shew his right to tithe his parish ; and, after 
years of disputation, effected the exemption of a large part of 
the locality from that burden. But, whatever was the im- 
pelling power, it was eventually restrained by prudence ; and, 
keeping the mandamus course in reserve, I sought other means 
to carry my point. With this view I requested, and obtained, 
an interview with Mr. Booth, when I entered at great length 
into the case, and shewed that the Registrar's decision, if 
maintained and acted upon, would exclude about three-fourths 
of the designs offered for registration. Here, however, though 
I believe my statement had carried conviction, 1 could meet 
with no rec&ess ; for 1 was informed, as, indeed, I was before 
well aware, that Mr. Booth had no power to compel the 
Registrar to act contrary to his judgment, — that, in fact, he 
doubted whether the Board of Trade had the power to do what 
I required, — but that, if I obtained an audience of the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, I might, perhaps, be satisfied on 
this point. I did not think it well to trouble Mr. Labouchere 
on this matter ; but I reserved this course also, intending, if 
occasion should require me to adopt it, not to confine myself 
to the question now in hand, but to bring forward other Uttle 
matters which 1 had noted down from time to time. 

My next step was to wait upon Mr. Johnson, the Registrar, 
and to put him into possession of all the facts of the case. 
This I did ; and, having satisfied him that there were points 
that ought, without delay, to be definitively settled, he pro- 
posed that 1 should draw up a paper, embodying the various 
points that had been raised, and it should be commented upon 
by him, and both statements should be submitted, through 
the Board of Trade, to the Attorney-General for his opinion ; 
and that he, the Registrar, would be bound by that decision. 
I immediately closed^ with this fair proposal, and, without loss 
of time, prepared and sent in the foUowing letter, which is an 
echo of the memorial transmitted to the Board of Trade : — 



120 Scientific Notices. 

66, Chakcebt Lane, 
Nov. 4th, 1850. 

Sib, 

In conformity with your suggestion for determining the 
unsettled points of practice raised in consequence of the refusal 
of the Assistant-Registrar to receive and register an ornamental 
design for a stove (in the form in which the papers were prepared), 
I beg to lay before you the following statement, in order that it 
may, together with your remarks upon it, be fairly weighed by 
some competent le^ authority, and thereby draw forth the ex- 
pression of an opinion, which may not only form a guide for 
the future practice of your office, but also afford the public a re- 
liable interpretation of an Act which has hitherto been strangely 
misconstrued. With this view then I will enter, not merely upon 
the point on which the memorial to the Lords Commissioners of 
the Board of Trade was framed, but also upon two correlative points 
which were raised while discussing the matter with Mr. Booth : — 
And Ist, In the 3rd. Sec. of the Designs Act, 1842, it is stated, 
"And with regard to any new and original design * * * 
whether such design be applicable to the ornamenting of any 
article of manufacture * * * and that whether such design 
be so applicable (1st) for the pattern, or (2nd) for the shape or 
configuration, or (3rd) for the ornament thereof, or (4th) for any 
two or more of such purposes * * * be it enacted, &c., 
that the proprietor of such design shall have the sole right," &c. 

It is therefore evident, without in the least straining the 
meaning of the words, or breaking them up by an arbitrary 
division, that four distinct kinds or classes of ornament fall 
within the scope of this Act, viz. : — 

I. A pattern per se, whose application may be various and ex- 
tensive, as that of a scroll, or piece of fretted work. 

II. An article of graceful shape, or configuration, but devoid 
of decoration, as a plain Grecian or Etruscan vase. 

III. An ornamented article, the basic form of which has no 
pretension to elegance or novelty, — as the stove in question. 

lY. An article of graceful shape decorated with a pattern, as a 
vase, festooned with flowers, or encircled with figures. 

Such being the nature of the Act, it will be readily seen what 
is the value of the Assistant- Registrar's objection, that 'Hhe 
drawings must consist of nothing more nor less than the design 
itself for which protection is sought;" for it is obvious, that if 
in the design in question the new part of the stove had not been 
pointed out, the registration would have been invalid, from want 
of novelty in the arched shape or configuration of the stove, 
which, from implication, would have formed a part of the design. 
But, if we are compelled (as suggested at the Registration 
Office) to register the central ornament irrespective of the stove, 
what becomes of the third kind of design, as pointed out above, 
and referred to in that part of Section III., which sets forth the 



Scientific Notices. 121 

duration of protection in the following words : — ''In respect to 
the application of any such design to ornamenting any article of 
manufacture contained in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, eighth, or eleventh, of the classes following, for the term 
of three years?" 

Again, in Section lY. it is said, that ** no person shall be en* 
titled to the benefit of this Act, with regard to any design, in 
respect of the application thereof to ornamenting any article of 
manu&cture ^ ^ * unless, at the time of such registration, 
such design have been registered in respect of the application 
thereof to some or one of the articles of manufacture or sub- 
stances comprised in the above mentioned classes." But, inas- 
much as the grant of protection for ornamenting articles, which 
of themselves are inadmissible under this Act — from having either 
no pretension to novelty, or else no novelty of form — is one, if 
not the chief object of this Act, I maintain that the application 
of an ornament to an article of manufacture, is a legitimate sub- 
ject for registration ; and further, that the designer of a decora- 
tion has not merely a right to register such decoration per ee, 
as an ornament, but also to register it in combination with 
the article ornamented, —and that, in such a manner, as to dis- 
tinctly shew what is, and what is not, the subject matter of 
the registration. 

2nd. The Registrar, under the Act 5 and 6 Yic. c. 100, Sec- 
tion XY., is empowered to refuse to register ornamental designs 
"unless he be furnished * * with two copies, drawings, or 
prints, of such design, accompanied with the name of every per- 
son who shall claim to be proprietor * * * with his place of 
abode, or place of carrying on business, and the number of the 
class in respect of which such registration is made ;" — that is, 
three provisos must be complied with before an applicant for a 
r^stration has any right to have his demand considered ; but 
when these provisos are complied with, the Act says, " the 
Registrar shall register all such copies, dratvings, or prints, from 
time to time, successively, as they are received by him for that 
purpose." I maintain, therefore, that the act of the Assistant- 
Registrar, in refusing to register the design in question (for the 
cause assigned), was an illegal assumption of authority. 

3rd. Under Sec. XIV., provision is made that the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Board of Trade and Plantations, may appoint a 
registrar of designs, and likewise a deputy-registrar, clerks, &c., 
who " shall hold their offices during the pleasure of the Lords of 
the said Committee;" — and further, "the Lords of the said 
Committee may make rules for regulating the execution of the 
duties of the office of the said registrar." I therefore maintain, 
that power is vested in the Board of Trade to enforce the observ- 
ance of the statute by the officers of the Registration Office. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 
Clbmkht Johhbom, Esq. A. Y. Newton. 



122 Scientific Notices. 

Now^ whether the style of this letter was unpalatable to the 
Registrar, or his evil genius had been at him, I know not, but 
after the receipt of my communication, he certainly became 
venr captious. The generous spirit in which he offered to 
resign his imperial powers, and submit to the dictates of a 
common Act of Parliament, never returned ; — my statement 
was not suited to be laid before any counsel. It was in 
vain that I expressed my willingness to abide by the decision 
that would be given on the case, as stated; for, backed 
as he now was, during this and all following interviews, by 
the Assistant-Registrar — ^that inexorable judge, who had raised 
my wrath at the outset — ^my word could prevail nothing. At 
last I requested to know in what form he would receive my 
statement. The case must come in the form of a legal opi* 
nion, if I could find some counsel to back my views ; but he 
must be a man of standing at the bar. I mentioned several 
as conversant with the subject, and begged the Registrar to 
choose his man. This he -declined to do; and I selected 
Mr. Webster, who, after hearing a brief statement of the casej 
wrote the following opinion : — 

Temple, 
November 20th, 1850. 

The subject matter of registration under the Designs Act, 5 and 
6 Vic, c. 100, is the application of designs to articles of manu- 
facture. Many cases may occur in which the design, in the 
abstract, so to speak, may have been well known ; but its appli- 
cation to the particular article of manufacture being new, it may 
become the subject of registration. Cases will sJso occur in 
which the situation of the design upon, or in combination with, 
the article of manufacture, is essential to be pointed out. In 
such cases more or less of the article must be exhibited, though 
nothing be intended to be claimed in respect thereof. A change 
in the situation or arrangement of a figure or group of figures on 
the same article of manufacture, may constitute difierent subjects 
of registration. The addition of a well known scroll to the front 
of a grate constitutes a new design of such front ; the author 
has a right to treat the whole, with such addition, as the new de- 
sign, if inclined so to limit and restrict his claim. The words of 
Sec. XV. (5 and 6 Vic, c. 100), as to registration of the design, 
do not qualify or explain the subject-matter of registration as 
previously defined. The words " such design" must be referred to 
and read in connection with the words " any design in respect of 
any application thereof, &c. ;" and I am of opinion that the 
registrar has no discretion as to the registration. The words are, 
" he shall register;" — there is nothing constituting him a judge 
of the sufficiency of the drawings furnished : if they exhibit an 
article of manufacture, ornamental in character, the requisites 



Scientific Notices. 123 

of the statute are complied with. — If the chiim be too extensive, 
registration will be yoid for want of novelty in the design. 

Thomas Webster. 

Fortified with this document^ I ventured to appear again 
before the brace of self-appointed judges; and^ presenting the 
paper, was informed, after a cursory glance at it, that this 
would not help me; — it did not meet the requirements, &;c. 
I suggested, that a careful consideration of its contents might 
be a prudent course — ^that I was led to expect a quiet settle- 
ment of the question ; and perhaps it would be as well not to 
baulk my expectations. You will perceive, Mr. Editor, that 
I was now preparing for a plunge into the Rubicon. As the 
discussion proceeded, the question had changed from a per- 
sonal to a public one; private pique was absorbed in the 
growing desire to vindicate a public right. In fact, the in- 
verse of Emerson's dogma — "Every experiment, by multi- 
tudes, or by individuals, that has a sensual and selfish aim, 
will fail'' — was now to be tried; and I waited patiently the 
cue to commence the contest. The storm, however, blew 
over ; and my statement, accompanied by Mr. Webster's opi- 
nion (and, doubtless, the Registrar's comments), was forwarded 
to the BoNEurd of Trade, to be thence referred to the Attorney- 
General. An attempt was here made to compromise the 
matter; and to this I very reluctantly agreed, naturally an- 
ticipating a repetition of the annoyances which I had so fre- 
quently sufiered ; but the arrangement was overruled, as I 
suppose, from the Registrar (who had now brought himself 
to believe that his case was a strong one) refusing to concede 
anything for the future ; — ^the opinion of the law officers of 
the Crown was therefore taken. The result will appear from 
the following communication from the Registration Office, 
the tenor of which is somewhat different from the previous 
letter received from that quarter : — 

Debiohs Office, 
January 17t^, 1851. 

Gentlemen, 

With reference to your memorial to the Board of Trade 
on the subject of the refusal to register the accompanying '' De- 
sign for an Ornamental Centre for Stoves," 1 am directed by the 
R^;istrar to inform you, that he has received the opinion of the 
Law Officers of the Crown, an extract of which is annexed, — and 
to state that, as it is considered a fit subject for registration, he 
is prepared to register the same. 

I am, Grentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 
Newtov & 8oH, J. H. Bowen. 

66| Chameery Lane. 



124 Scientific Notices. 

Extract from the opinion of the Law Officers of the Croum. 

'' We are of opiaion that the Registrar is bound to receive and 
register every thing which is directed to be registered by the 3rd 
Section. We think when, as in this case, the design is registered 
in respect of its application to the ornamenting of some of the 
articles of manufacture, the drawing may, and property ought 
to shew the application of the design sought to be registered." 

Surely this can require no comment. After rather more than 
six months' delay^ Mr. Haywood is permitted^ through the 
intervention of the Attorney and Solicitor-General, to register 
his design agreeably to the provisions of the Act, — that is, in 
respect of the application of the design to ornamenting an 
article of manufacture ; and I am allowed to earn my fee of 
7s. 6d. You will perceive there is now no mention made of 
enclosing me a copy of " printed directions for registering.^' 
It is my turn to play the schoolmaster ; but I refrain, from 
respect to the feelings of the Registrar and his Assistant, 
who, if for once they have mounted the wrong horse, are 
already suflSciently convinced of their error. And further, as 
the intelligence and firmness which they have in general shewn 
in the execution of their arduous duties will, doubtless, point 
them out to government as fit persons to fill the more respon- 
sible posts which the contemplated alterations in our patent 
laws must necessarily create, I may find it to my advantage 
that, while holding in my hands the power to persecute, I 
acted most leniently towards those gentlemen. 

I am, Mr. Editor, 

Your obedient Servant, 

A. V. Newton. 



ON THE ODIC PRINCIPLE OF REICHENBACH,* 

AND THE RELATION IT BEARS TO THE IMPONDERABLE BODIES 

OF IGNOTUS.f 

The researches of the Baron Yon Reichenbach have led him to 
maintain the existence of an hitherto undiscovered principle, 
which he has termed Od, or, as referring to its agency, the odie 



* Physics. — Physiological Researches on the Dynamics of Magnetism, 
Electricity, Heat, Light, Crystallization, and Chemism, in their relations to 
Vital Force ; by Bakon Charles Von Reichenbach. The complete work 
from the Second Grerman Edition ; with the addition of a Preface and Cri- 
tical Notes, by John Ashburneb, M.D, Part I., 1860 ; Part II., 1851. 

•f On the Nature and Operations of the Imponderable Bodies, by Ignotus; 
in the London Journal of Arts, Sciences, &c.. Vol. XXXII., from February 
to July, 1848. 



Scientific Notices. 125 

force. This principle he regards as common to all bodies, and 
capable of emanating from them in such manner as to produce a 
variety of demonstrable efifects : unfortunately, however, his de- 
monstrations have only been acquired through the media of extra- 
ordinarily sensitive persons ; by far the larger portion of mankind 
being utterly incapable of detecting them, and who, consequently, 
(and particularly those who worship the exact sciences) are dis- 
posed not only to refuse assent or credence to their truth, but to 
regard them as grounded on error and misconception, or as the 
results of speculative enthusiasm, or a deranged imagination; 
nay, the work has been designated as "an absurd romance," and 
" one of the most melancholy aberrations which have, for a long 
time, settled on a human brain ;" and yet no one, who has care* 
fully perused it, can pretend to deny that its talented author has 
conducted his experiments with anxious caution, or drawn his 
inferences therefrom otherwise than with logical reasoning and 
strict scientific integrity. 

The earlier researches and experiments of Yon Reichenbach 
were conducted through the mecQa of a number of sickly sensi- 
tive females, — of the class which may be termed highly nervous, 
cataleptics, somnambulists, and clairvoyants ; the whole of whom 
concurred in stating that, when in the dark, they saw the odic 
phenomena issue from the extremities and surface of magnets, 
in the form of luminosity, exhibiting a variety of colors, but more 
commonly affecting a bluish tint. 

Other effects were, however, described ; — ^namely, peculiar sen- 
sations of warmth or cold, — or of a pleasurable or painful feeling ; 
the latter extending occasionally to shuddering or even convul- 
sion, according as the different poles of the magnet were brought 
into proximity with the hands or other parts of the bodies of the 
parties operated on. 

In his further investigations. Yon Reichenbach, assisted by nu- 
merous admirably conducted experiments, detected correspond- 
ent effects from a variety of sources distinct from the magnet, 
and, particularly, from the poles of crystals ; from the human 
hand ; nay, emanations of od from all parts of animal bodies ; 
from the solar and other celestial bodies ; from heat, radiant or 
conducted ; from friction ; from flames ; from chemical decom- 
positions ; from electricity ; and, in short, from the whole of the 
material world in general. 

The Baron endeavours to prove that the odic force evidences 
wide distinctions from magnetism, electricity, and heat — points 
to be hereafter more fully considered. It is a motive power, 
capable of passing from its various sources into other bodies, and 
of being accumulated in them : in the latter respect he found 
that water as well as other bodies could be charged with odic 
matter ; and which, according to their nature, retained that charge 
for a greater or lesser time, — " the capacity for a charge being 
generally satisfied in a few minutes." The odic matter also ad- 

VOL. XXXVIII. p 



126 Scientific NoticcB. 

mitted of transference from, passage throngh, or conduction from 
all bodies in general ; in fact, nothing, even thick brick walls, 
prevented this effect : it was nevertheless snbject to a degree of 
arrest, according to the nature, density, or constitution of the 
bodies conducting it. Its travelling power consequently varied 
from the velocity of light, magnetism, or electricity ; — paper, wool, 
or wood, rendered the passage difficult ; but gla^ and silk were 
comparatively perfect conductors. The Baron infers (p. 98,) 
that matter possesses a certain coercive power with respect to od, 
but only for a limited time ; and also a power of conducting it in 
different degrees in proportion to the continuity of bodies. 

The Baron's general creed respecting his odic principle may 
be collected from the following passages of his work. He says, 
** a peculiar hitherto overlooked force resides in matter" (p. 60). 
This force, or the light, or flame, resulting horn it, is *' something 
evidently material" (p. 28) ; it is ''a perfectly universal and all- 
pervading force of nature," and extends *'over the universe" 
(p. 222). 

Although the annunciation of this new force was received with 
suspicion and incredulity by a large majority of the investigators 
of nature, there was one class of physicists who hailed it as a God- 
send — the Mesmerists ; to them it appeared as a trueembodjrment 
of the essence of their peculiar science ; and yet Reichenbach 
himself was no mesmerist ; on the contrary, although he regards 
his odic force as explanatory of whatever may be true in that 
category, in some passages he treats both mesmerism and the 
system of Gall, with sneering contempt ; and when speaking of 
tne former he generally designates it as ''the so-called animal 
magnetism." In fact, his ardour for chemical science at once 
justly led him to ascribe the phenomena of odum to chemical 
actions occurring by virtue of a new imponderable element, 
capable of being eliminated by means of chemical action; a 
view in which some of the leading mesmerists are not indisposed 
to coincide, a» may be collected from the remarks of one of his 
learned English translators. Dr. Ashbumer, appended to the 
2nd part of the original work (p. 438 to p. 470), and who 
appears to have engrafted his view on the opinions of Ignotus 
respecting the chemical nature of the principle of light— or 
lumine. 

The second portion of Yon Reichenbach's work, more recently 
published, is principally intended to afford additional illustrations 
of the doctrines previously advanced. One very important feature 
of it is, that, whereas his first experiments were almost entirely 
conducted by means of sickly sensitive persons, they are hers 
corroborated by numerous healthy individuals. It is not without 
apparent exultation that the Baron furnishes a list of more than 
fifty new witnesses of the perception of the various odic phe* 
nomena, differing in sex, age, residence, position in life, and 
occupation; some of the highest respectability, and from the 



Scieniific Nottces. 127 

lank of- nolnlity ; others men of medical and oilier professional 
attainments, and many of them in the most perfect health. 
Amongst them he particolarly mentions a Mr. Anschutz, an 
artist, whom he describes as '' a healthy vigorous man, 35 years 
of age, thoroughly inured by a thousand hard marches and dan- 
gers during his former military life, who had never suffered firom 
real illness; of moderate stature; very muscular," &c., &c. 
(p. 326.) llus gentleman not only saw all the o(Uc luminous 
phenomena, but was enabled to give admirable graphic represen- 
tations of Uiem, some of which are introduced into the work. 
The Barcm consequently infers that ** every pretext against the 
reception of my observations is now for ever removed through 
Mr. Anschuts." Doubtless, however, many will, notwithstanding^ 
aver that Mr. Anschutz may be a wild enthusiast — or an impos- 
tor. When, however, the whole concurrent testimony which 
the evidently honest Yon Beichenbach has brought forward, is 
taken into account, such an inference is, to say the least, unchari- 
table ; and although the author of the present paper is himself 
neith^ mesmerist, nor a positive believer, and has never been able 
to elicit odic phenomena, he does think it not improbable that 
some subtle principle, analogous with what the Baron has ad- 
vanced, may exist m nature. 

Adndtting the above probability, and suspecting that a strong 
uudogy, if not identity, may exist between the odic force and 
the magnetic hypothesis of Ignotus, and with a view of attempting 
to reconcile the two so as to bring them under one and the same 
eat^ory, — the present paper is offered to the readers of the Essay 
of Ignotus. 

In pursuing this object, it will be necessary to state briefly, 
the l^iding features of the hypothesis of Ignotus, at least as far 
as they relate to the point at issue. 

Ignotus has maintained that there exist in nature three impon- 
derable bodies — magnetine, lumine, and caiorine ; and that these 
are all imponderable chemical elements, capable of entering into 
ffbem^4^1 combination with all the acknowledged ponderable che- 
mical elements and their compounds, so as to be essential consti- 
tuents in them, and existing, as such, in a latent state. Whenever 
any body, in which they may thus exist, is subjected to chemical 
action or decomposition, these imponderable matters are capable 
of disengagement; in which case, they admit of being set at 
liberty in what may be termed a free or native state, so as to 
mamfest their own respective active and peculiar properties: 
thus magnetine becomes the cause of magnetic phenomena — lu- 
mine of light — and caiorine of sensible heat ; — from which con- 
ditions they may enter into combination with other bodies, and 
again become latent. The process of combustion affords an in- 
stance of these effects. But perhaps the more important appli- 
cation of the principle brought forward by Ignotus, is the elimi- 
nation of magnetine in the brain, from arterial blood previously 



128 Scientific Notices. 

highly charged with magnetic principle by means of the processei 
of digestion, nutrition^ and sanguification. In this respect, he 
has aimed at a development of the natare and sources of vital 
action. 

Another important point in the views of Ignotus, as bearing 
on the present subject, relates to the nature of that species of 
electricity produced by the ordinary frictional apparatus; th6 
phenomena of which he considers, not as the results of any one 
fixed principle in nature, but as a mere effect or manifestation of 
a chemical action, induced in the decomposition of a particular 
and well known ponderable matter — oxygen, constituted, as he 
believes, of magnetine, and a new ponderable chemical element, 
which he designates as electrine. In this decomposition electrine 
is separated, so as to form the positive, and magnetine the nega- 
tive electricity ; — a subsequent re-union of the two elements giving 
rise to the more familiar and active phenomena involved in what 
is terpaed the electric shock. 

Various modifications of the above principles, or their effects, 
are adverted to in the Essay of Ignotus, which it is unnecessary 
here to detail, the above being sufficient for the pui^poses of the 
present paper. 

Having premised thus far, we now revert to the opinions of 
Reichenbach. 

Reichenbach is fully alive to the possibility that od and mag- 
netism may eventually prove to be identical (p. 298); he never- 
theless dwells on the manifest distinction which their respective 
phenomena present ; as well also as those afforded by heat and 
electricity ; and this with the view of shewing " whether or what 
hope exists of bringing them into already known categories." It 
is purposed to enquire into the general principles on which his 
arguments rest, and the relations they maintain with the views of 
Ignotus. 

Sec, I. — The distinction between od and heat, 
(Reichenbach, p, 299.) 

Odic emanations do not effect the thermometer ; on the con- 
trary, the two cause diametrically opposite effects : — they are far 
more conductible by metals than heat is, and more penetrable 
through solid bodies; they do not alter the density of bodies 
like heat. From these and other reasons, Reichenbach affirms 
that "heat must be fundamentally different from od" (p. 301). 

It is unnecessary to comment on the above ; — if the matter has 
any relation to the views of Ignotus, it is only in a confirmatory 
sense, inasmuch as he regards the principles of magnetism and 
heat in the light of totally different elements, and antagonistic to 
each other. As future consideration will rest the basis of od on 
magnetine, it follows that he can in no respect dispute the Baron's 
inference of od being distinct from heat. 



Scieniifie Notices. 129 

Sec. II. — The distinction between od and electricity. 

{Beichenbach, p. 301.) 

This oQnsidention is more important than the preceding one ; 
9B, notwithstanding Beichenhach infers that ** the gap which sepa- 
rates them is very great'' (p. 305)^ yet electrical phenomena rarely 
if erer exist without odic ones heing, at the same time, manifested ; 
although the latter^he says, ''yery often occur when electrical 
phenomena either do not ezhihit ontward manifestations, or, as 
fiff as we know, do not at all exist" (p. 301). Yarions other 
distinctions are indicated, which chiefly refer themselyes to the 
differences in the distribation, or conduction, or the accumulations 
of the two in respect to other bodies ; as well as to the sensible 
effects induced on sensitive persons. Od, for instance, pervades 
an bodies, and distributes itself throughout their mass; while 
dectricity lies only on the sur&ces of bodies. Od is capable of 
bong mudi longer retained by bodies charged with it ; so that, 
in filet, it appears to have a considerable attraction for their mole- 
cules, and, in its movements, to travel much more slowly — in'some 
instances, a million times more slowly than electricity. Od tra- 
vels through all bodies in a ratio proportionate to the greater or 
lesser continuity of their particles ; while electricity is only well 
conducted by metals, and, by many bodies, not at all. Electric 
actions manifest themselves instantaneously ; od requires an evi- 
dent lapse of time to be recognized, and its duration is incom- 
parably longer. Od can be accumulated on unisolated bodies ; 
electricity only on isolated ones. There are other differences 
urged by Beichenhach, but of minor importance. 

It would appear, from the above statement, that the differences 
between od and electricity mainly refer themselves to the facility 
of movement, or the greater or lesser rapidity of transit of the 
two respectively, when passing through other bodies: at the 
same time sufficient reason is given to justify the inference, that 
od is a matter sui generis, possessed of properties peculiarly its 
own. That this matter is not anal<^ous with the principle of 
light or lumine, as Dr. Ashbumerisindined to infer, is evidenced 
by the fact, that the movements of the latter are not less rapid 
than those of electricity or magnetism themselves. 

An attempt wiU now be made to shew how far the views of 
Ignotns apply themselves to the differences exhibited between od 
and electridty. 

It is to be borne in mind that, according to Ignotns, electric 
actions are induced, primarily, by the decomposition of oxygen 
into its constituents, electrine and magnetine ; and, secondai^y, 
by the two elements entering again into union. It is to the latter 
that some of the more important of the phenomena are attributed, 
as instanced in the discharge of the Leyden jar, in which the 
subtle element magnetine is r^arded as the more energetic agent 
in producing the electric shock. Hence the principal and most 



180 Scientific Notice. 

interesting manifestations^ and those to which Reichenbach applies 
his enquiry, are yirtually of a true magnetic character. The 
electrine itself, althongh doubtless an important and energetic 
agent, is of a far grosser nature, impenetrable through various 
bodies which magnetine readily permeates — particularly glass, but 
capable of readily passing through others, as metals : in conse- 
quence of these properties, it admits of isolation and accumulatiiui 
by means of its impenetrables at non-conductors, as they ar« 
called, whereas magnetine cannot be isolated by any body. 

In the aboYe state of isolation, in which it may be regarded as 
existing in its native condition, electrine has a powerful affinity 
to combine with magnetine, and form a magnetide of electrine, 
or oxygen, — by virtue of which affinity, whenever the isolating 
restraint is removed (and which, in the Leyden jar, is effected by 
applying the metallic conductor), magnetine rushes from the ex- 
terior into rapid combination with the electrine in the interior. 
The reason why, in this experiment, the isolation continues until 
the conductor is applied, is given in the Essay of Ignotus, If 
such cause of continued isolation or constraint did not exist, the 
magnetine in the immediate vicinitv of the jar would doubtiess at 
once produce the combination ; as is frequently experienced from 
overcharging the jar. Under this view the electricity of Reichen- 
bach is a manifestation of true magnetic principle, and as such 
will be further considered in the succeeding section. In itself it 
is not a principle^ hut an effect or phenomenon, and therefore is 
not od. 

With respect to the element electrine, it admits indeed of ao« 
cumulation, and from its nature is necessarily possessed of slower 
velocity of transit, and therefore exhibits a degree of correspond- 
ence with the odic force ; its strong tendency to combine with 
maffnetine and become neutralized the moment it ceases to be 
subjected to restraint, however, shew it to be essentially different 
from the odic force — od, therefore, is not the electrine oflgnotus. 

Sec. III. — The distinctions between od and magnetism. 

(Reichenbach, p. 305, &c.) 

It is important to observe upon this head, in limine, that the 
magnetism to which BeichenWh has applied his observations 
is, almost exclusively, of that kind or modification which mani- 
fests itself by circulation in closed currents, and through the 
ferruginous apparatus termed magnet. He admits, it is true, that 
** it gives tokens of its presence in the rays of the sun and moon, 
but in so weak a degree that its presence is highly doubtful." 
The magnetine of Ignotus is, on the contrary, a general principle 
pervading all nature, and especially emanating from the solar 
orb, as well as from all bodies from which it admits of beine 
eliminated, from a latent into a free state, by virtue of chemicfu 
action ; in which case, whenever it is not subjected to a ferru- 



Seient^ Notices. 131 

ginoos channel^ k endenoes few if any of the phenomena of the 
magnet. Taking the magnetism of Reichenbach in the above 
sense, he has labomed hard, and with apparent success, to shew 
that its phenomena are rery distinct from those of od ; notwidi- 
standing, he admits that " magnetism nerer occurs alone, but 
always associated with od'' (p. 305) ; but, on the contrary, he adds 
that '' od is fdnrmed or manifested visibly in a number of cases 
idiere magnetism never gives evidence of its presence." 

The Bfuron communicates the following essential differences 
between the two : — od may be transferred on all matter ; magne- 
tism only to a certain few bodies. Iron in the minutest form, 
and most delicately suspended, is not attracted by od as it is by 
magnetism* Od may be refracted by a glass prism ; a property 
wholly wanting in magnetism, which is not arrested by anything ; 
neither can it be deflected. Od may be distributed through the 
whole mass of bodies, as water ; but magnetism is restricted to 
&e surfaces of bodies. Suspended odic bodies do not acquire 
any particular direction from the influence of terrestrial magne- 
tism, which turns magnetic bodies into the meridian. Magnetism 
will penetrate every thing, whereas od may be excluded from some 
bodies. 

Many additional instances are adduced ; some of them too intri- 
cate for consideration in this place. 

The magnetism, or magnetme, of Ignotus, certainly maintains 
important differences frt)m the magnetism of Reichenbach ; some 
of which have recently been alluded to. Whether it be ehminated 
from the magnet, electrical action, voltaism, or any other source, 
induding the solar rays, it is to be regarded as a peculiar homo- 
geneous imponderable matter, possessed of powerfrd chemical 
affinities, and capable of exerting in either a free or latent state ; 
and differing, when in the free state, in its effects or phenomena 
according to the apparatus or circumstances by which it is 
evolved. One of its peculiar properties is, that when moving in a 
free state frt)m the solar orb, it admits, like od, of arrest and re- 
fraction, — giving rise to colorific effects. It is therefore probably 
not peifectly immaterial or imponderable, — since it appears to 
meet with more or less opposition in its passage through the 
pores of certain bodies. 

It may be desirable to make a few additional observations on 
tiie modifications of effects produced by the passage of magnetine 
through peculiar apparatus, or under peculiar circumstances. 
When passing through the pores of ferruginous matter, in conse- 
q[uence of the opposition it experiences therefrt)m, its phenomena 
are those manifested by the true magnet : when tlurough the pores 
of other metallic bodies, the pores of which are presumed of 
different construction — ^if the quantity transmitted be consider- 
able, it may evidence somewhat analogous effects, although they 
are temporary, ceasing as soon as the supply diminishes, — 
notwithstanding a silent diffusion into neighbouring bodies may 



132 Scientific Noticei. 

continue for a short time, or, until the magnetic constitution of 
the vhole has attained a state of equilibrium. These latter effects 
are instanced in the voltaic apparatus, a current from which 
passes off with greater or lesser rapidity, according to the extent 
of the exciting chemical action. In what is termed electro-mag- 
netism, if the current be made to pass through the conducting 
iron, formed into a helix, surrounding a body of soft iron, so Lirge 
a quantity of maenetine escapes through the lateral pores of the 
helix, as to render it a true magnet. In the eliminations or 
transmissions of the solar rays, although the passage be rapid, 
and its vibrations sufficient to produce eyentually the phenomena 
of light, yet, meeting in their transit with little or no ferruginous 
matter, few if any of the phenomena of the true magnet are in- 
duced. — ^Yet, in all these cases, magnetism is the essential agent. 
The tardy moyement of the odic force, so different from the 
inconceivable rapidity of that of magnetine, is, however, a suffi- 
cient evidence of the distinction between od and the magnetism 
of either Reichenbach or Ignotus. 

iTo be conliwued,'] 



NEW PROCESS FOB PRESERVING ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE 

MATTEBS. — BY M. ROBIN. 
[Translated for the London Journal of Arts and Sciences.] 

An extensive series of experiments has proved that artificially- 
formed volatile compounds, consisting either entirely or princi- 
pally of carbon and hydrogen, constitute an especial class of 
agents, capable of neutralizing or destroying the influence of oxy- 
gen and moisture, and, consequently, of preserving animal sub- 
stances from putrefaction, in spite of the presence of oxygen. 

In the list may be placed sulphuric ether, chloroform, naphth- 
tha, oil of coal-tar, either crude or rectified, oil of schist, acetic 
ether, benzin, naphthaline, oil of spirit of wood, caoutchoucine, 
volatile oil of potatoes, essence of bitter almonds, and, lastly, hy- 
driodic ether. 

Animal substances immersed in these liquids undergo no putrid 
change, and the vapors of the liquids are equally energetic in 
their antiseptic action. Pieces of meat placed in a close vessel, 
in the bottom of which was a sponge saturated with one of the 
above-named antiseptic agents, retained the blood which remained 
in them when first cut off the animal, and manifested not the slight- 
est trace of putrefaction ; — and, after the lapse of eight months, 
pieces of half a pound in weight were found in a perfect state of 
preservation, after having been enclosed in stoppered bottles con- 
taining sponges saturated with sulphuric ether, chloroform, or 
oil of coal-tar. During the whole of this time the meat was only 
exposed to the vapor of the fluid, which formed an antiseptic atmo- 
sphere in the bottles; but when immersed in water saturated 
with the vapor, the preservation seemed to be equally perfect. 



Scientific Notices. 138 

Arguing from analogy of chemical composition, from which 
the existence of similar properties may fairly he inferred, — a se- 
cond class of hodies has been discovered, which possesses in a 
high degree the anti-patrescent power; — these are the binary 
compounds of carbon with the other metalloids. Besides hydro- 
gen, it has been ascertained experimentally that the sulphuret of 
carbon, protochloride of carbon, carburet of nitrogen, Hollands 
spirit, and hydrocyanic acid, are, as well as the hydrocarbons, 
powerful preservers of organic matter. The vapor of these differ- 
ent compounds, disengaged at the ordinary temperature of the 
air, in close vessels, will preserve, for an indefinite period, animal 
substances enclosed in them ; — this effect is produced in even a 
stronger degree, as would indeed be naturally expected, when 
the organic matter is immersed in the fluid. 

It is not, however, sufficient that an antiseptic fluid should 
preserve the form, volume, and consistence of animal substances ; 
m some cases, as, for instance, in the preservation of anatomical 
specimens, it is equally necessary that the color of the object 
should be retained : with respect to this, chloroform, proto-chlo- 
ride of carbon, and rectified oil of coal-tar, are much superior to 
the antiseptic substances ordinarily employed ; but all these are 
far surpassed by hydrocyanic add. From the moment in which 
the vapor of the acid becomes diffused through the atmosphere of 
a close vessel, all putrefactive action is at an end — the animal matter 
remains permanently in the state in which it is first subjected to 
the action of the acid — there is no further alteration, either in its 
color or in its physical properties. Pieces of flesh, suspended in 
stoppered bottles, in the bottoms of which were sponges, saturated 
respectively with hydrocyanic acid, maintained, at the expiration 
of eight months, all the freshness of appearance and general ex- 
ternal characters which they possessed at the commencement of 
the experiment. Further trials have, however, shewn that, taking 
into consideration lowness of price, intensity of power, and ra- 
pidity of action, there is no substance among the hydrocarbons 
and Uie analogous compounds of carbon with the other metalloids, 
equal, as an antiseptic, to the oil of coal-tar. The vapor which 
arises from a sponge, saturated with this fluid, will preserve, for 
a very long period, with its form, volume, and flexibility, complete, 
and of a fine red-brown color, animal matter, suspended in a 
closely-stopped bottle. None of the fluids of the flesh escape, and 
it can be removed at pleasure from the vessel, for the purpose of 
study or dissection. Animal matter, which from immersion or 
exposure to the vapor of the oil of tar for a sufficient time to ab- 
sorb that substance, is rendered incapable of undergoing putre- 
faction in the air, if removed from the preserving fluid, and ex- 
posed to the air, will become as hard and dry as a piece of 
wood ; but, if kept in a close vessel, so that evaporation cannot 
go on, it will retain all its volume, softness, and flexibility. 
Rectified oil of coal-tar offers this advantage over the crude oil ; it 

VOL. XXXYIII. Q 



184 Scient^ Notices. 

does DOt alter the color of the specimens, hut maintains in them 
a Yery remarkahle appearance of freshness ; so that, although it 
is somewhat more expensive, it ought always to he employed where 
it is desirable to preserve the color of the ohject as nearly as pos- 
sible in its normal state. 

If it he necessary to expedite the action of the antiseptic agent, 
it may be done by accelerating the evaporation of the latter by 
applying a moderate heat to the vessel : by this means the vapor 
will be more dense and penetrating. It is not improbable that 
the oil of coal-tar, in its crude state, may be employed with 
advantage in embidming dead bodies, and in their preservation 
for the purpose of dissection in the medical schools; in the 
tanning of leather, and in the preparation of that kind of leather 
termed " russia leather ;" in the destruction of the insects which 
attack collections of objects in natural history ; in the preservation 
of wood, and of cerealio and all other kinds of grain. — [Comptes 
Rendus.'\ 

ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE AIB. 

BT M. LEWT. 

From the month of March, 1850, M. Lewy was continually en- 
gaged in the analysis of the atmosphere in the town and neigh- 
bourhood of Santa Fe de Bogata, in the BepubUc of New Granada; 
and some extraordinary results have been attained through these 
experiments with respect to the quantity of carbonic acid which 
the atmosphere contains. In August and September as much as 
47 parts of carbonic were found in 10,000 parts of atmospheric 
air ; whilst in the months of March, April, May, and June, not 
more than 3 or 4 parts of carbonic acid could be obtained from 
the above quantity of air. 

The experiments were quite trustworthy, and were performed 
by the best methods to ensure exactness. 

The experiments on the atmospheric air collected at the surface 
of the Atlantic Ocean during the voyage have also led to the dis- 
covery of a new and apparently very general fact (for it was 
found in every one of the analyses), viz., that air, thus collected 
from over the sea, contains a larger proportion of oxygen and 
carbonic acid during the day than in the night. It does not 
appear that this fact had been before ascertained; but all the 
analyses in this case, without a single exception, confirm it. 
There was invariably found more oxygen and more carbonic acid 
in the air collected during the day than in that during the night. 
The difference was more decided when the sky was clear than 
when it was overcast. The two following are analyses of air 
collected over the sea at a great distance from terra firma : — 

\%ih Dec, 1847. — 3 o'clock in the afternoon ; fine weather, a 
strong breeze from the east, temperature of the atmosphere 24** 
Cent., 2r 9' north latitude, 42° 25' west longitude. 

4^A BtCfi 1847. — 3 o'clock in the morning ; wind north west, 



Scientific Notices. 135 

fine weather, strong breeze, temperature of the air 13° CenU* 
north latitude 47% west longitude 13°. 

Composition of the air in volume. 

O^gm. Nitrogen. Carbonio Add. 

ISthDec—iy&y ... 21-05973 78-88637 0-0006390 

4<A Dec— Night ... 20*96084 79*00660 0*0003336 

It will be seen that the difference is very appreciable. In per- 
forming the analysis with the endiometer of M. Regnault, it is' 
helieyed ^^^^^ of volume could be readily detected. 

The extraordinary quantity of oxygen contained in the atmo- 
sphere (oTcrlying the sea) during the day, may, perhaps, be ex- 
plained, by supposing that the sun, in heating the surface of the 
sea, causes the disengagement of the air dissolved in the water, 
and which is very rich in oxygen, more so than atmospheric air : 
it may be thus conceived, that the layer of air in contact with the 
water would become appreciably affected in its composition. 



ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF METALLIC ALLOYS. 

BZ.M. A. LEYOL. 

From the labors of M. Levol, in the department of chemistry 
above mentioned, the following important deductions have been 
made : — 

That silver and copper are capable of forming a definite com- 
pound or alloy, composed of 718*93 parts of silver to 281*07 of 
copper ; — the formula of this compound being AgjCus, and its 
essential character (like that of all true chemical compounds) a 
perfect homogeneousness of texture and appearance. 

All the alloys of silver and Qppper, besides the one just de- 
scribed, must be regarded as mere mixtures of the metals, in which 
either the silver or copper is in excess, according as they vary 
from the proportions laid down. 

That alloy, or rather definite compound, in which the standard 
of silver is represented by 718*93, appears to be the one to which 
other alloys of silver and copper ought to be referred. Other 
alloys experience, at the moment previous to solidification, a very 
remarkable liquation, which it has been hitherto found impossible 
.to prevent: thus an alloy, containing of silver 900, cast in a 
spherical form, will give, on analysis of its exterior parts, a com- 
position shewing 2*39-thou8andth8 above its original standard; 
and, on analysis of its central part, 8*36-thousandths below that 
standard. 

This circumstance gives rise, in the working of alloys of silver 
and copper, to many serious practical difficulties, which are felt, 
not only where masses of metal are cast, as in ingots, but also 
in the manufacture of coin : although, in reference to the latter, 
the limits of variance are narrow and, empirically, means are 
fonnd to bring the standard to a close average. The composition 



136 Scientific Notices. 

of each piece of money, such, for example, aa a fiye-franc piec^ 
approximates very closely to the normal standard of 900-thoU' 
sandths of silver ; bat each piece is produced from a sheet of 
alloy, which gives about 40 pieces ; and it has been proved that, 
between one end of the sheet of metal and the other, a very nota- 
ble difference really exists. It, therefore, necessarily follows, that 
tach piece of money, cut from the sheet of alloy, must vary, 
more or less, in composition. 

The following experiments, made on sheets of alloy intended 
for the manufacture of five-franc pieces, prove the truth of the 
above doctrine : — 

The sheets of alloy mentioned are 50 centimetres in length 
before being passed through the flatting-rollers. After this ope- 
ration, when rolled down to the proper thickness, their length is 
increased to If metre ; and they furnish 40 discs of metal, — each 
being afterwards converted into a piece of money. These discs 
were subjected to analysis, individually, — the whole 40 being 
examined : the first corresponded to the head of the sheet whence 
it was cut ; the last to the other extremity. The difference in 
the composition of these two, represented the gross difference 
between the two extremities of the sheet ; and this was found to 
amount to above 3-thousandths in the quantity of silver. 

The possible consequence of this state of things is, that if by 
chance the estimation of the standard value of French money 
were made upon pieces cut entirely from the head of the sheets 
(taking the lowest normal standard as 898'896-thousandths), that 
standard would be judged of at 900*44, or I *54-thou8andths above 
its proper value ; while if, on the other hand, the estimation were 
made upon pieces obtained from the opposite extremities, it would 
follow, that the money would be judged 1'59-thousandths below 
its real value. 

What is to be opposed to this difficulty, as injurious to the 
interests of the directors of the coinage as to those of the public — 
as much beyond the control of the exactness of assayist as of the 
other methods employed to ascertain, with precision, the stand- 
ard of every individual piece of money ? Would it be possible to 
introduce any third substance into the alloy ? Or may the influence 
of centri^gal force be applied during the pouring of the molten 
mixture ? Or are there no other means which may be thought of? 
It is proposed, at least, to enter upon some experiments upon 
this subject ; and even should these fail, there would always re- 
main one way of getting over the evil ; — this would be to adopt, 
as a monetary standard, a combination of silver and copper which 
is constant — which is not subject to the singular liquation pointed 
out : such a compound or alloy is the one first mentioned — 7 1 8*93 
of silver to 281*07 of copper. This is known to remain con- 
stantly and perfectly homogeneous. There, perhaps, may be some 
objections to the adoption of such a change. It may readily be 
seen what these are, and whether they are valid. It is said that 
the decimal system is represented in the present French monetary 



Scientific Notices. 137 

lystem, under the triple relation of the nominal value aasigned to 
each piece, its weight, and standard composition. As to the ques- 
tion of value, nothing can be better ; and certainly, in that re- 
spect, no change could be desired ; but the weight and standard 
are both fictitious, and admit of tolerated variation. Would it 
be, then, a source of great inconvenience to modify them, with a 
view of deriving a future considerable and extended benefit ? 



Jb0Ci>ts 0f AttjS* 



THOMAS MILNER GIBSON, Esq., M.P., VicE-PRESiDEifT, in the Chair. 

Dec. nth, 1850. 

An account of the different metJiods of Bleaching Flax, Cotton, 
LineUf Calico, and other Fibres and Fabrics, — by F. Cbage 
Calvert, F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Insti- 
tution, Manchester, &c., &c. 

The author, in commencing his paper, stated that flax was at 
one period cultivated in warmer climates than at present. It was 
said that Isis taught the Egyptians to use it ; and it is certain 
that the cloth which enwraps the mummies is made of it. 

It is not generally known that there are three distinct varieties 
of the flax-plant in Belgium, Holland, and France. 

1 . Le grand Lin, from which the finest cambrics are made. 

2. Le Lin chaud, yielding a large quantity of seed. 

3. Le Lin moyen, with a fibre of middling quality. 

A knowledge of the existence of these varieties would be very 
useful to the British flax-grower, whose interest it is to sow that 
kind which will yield him the seed or fibre most wanted in the 
market. 

In 1849, there were imported, chiefly for sowing, 626,459 
quarters of seed.* 

The processes employed in preparing the flax for manufacture 
are as follow : — When full grown it is pulled up and gathered 
into sheaves or bolls ; the seed is then shaken out ; and the straw 
is steeped in ponds or small streams for three or four weeks, by 
which fermentation is caused and acids are generated, which dis- 
solve the gum and resin that unite the fibre to the stalk. By 
Schenck's method,f water at 90° Fahr. is used, and the steeping 
is got through in about four days. The retted flax is now ex- 
posed on grass for several days, and dried with care ; the fibre is 
then broken away from the stalk, either by hand or in the scutch- 
ing machine ; after which it only requires to be hackled, or combed, 
to be ready for spinning and weaving. 

* The importation of hemp had increased from 40,578 tons in 1847, to 
53,01S tons in 1849. 
t For description of this process, see Vol. XXXI., p. 1, Lond. Jour. 



138 Sclent^ Notices. 

There are two varieties of cottoo-tree : the first an herbaceooi 
plant about two feet high, the other a shrub of larger growth. 
Both have been long known in Egypt, India, and Arabia, and 
flourish equally well in the United States of America. Cotton 
was first introduced into Europe by the Venetians in the four- 
teenth century ; but its manufacture into fabrics was reserved for 
the men of Lancashire. Much encouragement was given by 
Henry VIII. and Edward VI. to the nascent trade, which at that 
time was only practised during the intervals of agriculture. 
England now imports annually 6,745,259 cwt. of raw cotton; 
and, besides her home consumption, exports 153,166 pieces of 
calico, and 375,367 pounds of yam. 

To such wonderful perfection have machinery and skill been 
brought, that Mr. H. Houldsworth is now able to produce 520 
hanks of thread to the pound : that is to say, one pound of cot- 
ton-wool, weighing 7000 grains, is susceptible of giving 520 
hanks, each being composed of a thread 840 yards in length ; or 
7000 grains of cotton-wool can give a thread equal in length to 
436,810 yards, or 248 miles. 

The fine spinning of flax has also been carried to an extraordi- 
nary extent ; for one pound of flax fibre is susceptible^of being 
spun into a thread 84,496 yards, or 48 miles, in length. 

Under the microscope these two fibres present very difierent 
appearances: those of cotton have the appearance of irregular 
nbbons, twisted on each other, and are perfectly transparent in 
those parts which are not doubled ; whUst the flax consists of 
smooth transparent tubes, intersected at short intervals by joints 
or knots, similar to those of bamboo or other reeds. 

There is an historical fact connected with these two interesting 
fabrics. It is, that paper made from pith of the Papyrus-plant 
had lasted from 1822 years before the Christian era to the eighth 
century. Egypt was then invaded by the Arabians, and her 
trade destroyed. It was then for the first time that cotton paper 
was imported from China by the Arabians, who, two or three 
centuries afterwards, supplied us through Turkey. The manu- 
facture of their flax paper was so successful, that cotton paper 
was completely laid aside until the commencement of the present 
century, when once more it expelled from the market the linen 
paper. 

After cotton has been gathered in September, the cotton-wool 
is separated from the seed and other heterogeneous matters by a 
machine called a '' gin," invented in 1 793 by an American named 
Whitney. 

The author next proceeded to draw attention to the bleaching 
of cotton and flax goods. 

The cotton-bleacher has not, he said, like the calico-printer, to 
ascertain the origin of the cotton-wool ; for it is indiflerent to 
him to know that Pernambuco cotton takes colors much better 
than Georgian does ; but the quality of his cloth has a most ma- 
terial influence on the nature of the operations and the strength 



Scientific Notices, 139 

of the solationB to which he has to subniit it. Thas, in the case 
of doth to be employed for printing, — if not perfectly bleached 
and freed from all resins or gum, it will dye, when put into a 
madder bath, not only where mordants have been applied, but 
also on those portions intended to remain white. 

Flax goods require no preliminary operations before bleaching, 
whilst calico requires singeing, i.e, the removing of an infinite 
quantity of small fibres which exist on its surface — an operation 
which cannot be avoided. 

Singeing is effected in three different ways : first, by passing 
the cloth over red-hot cylinders. Secondly, by passing it over 
pipes, from which issue numerous jets of coal-gas; above the 
doth are corresponding pipes provided with longitudinal open- 
ings, into which the flames are drawn through the cloth, by a 
revolving fan or other means. The third method, recently intro- 
duced, is the substitution, for coal-gas, of hydrogen, produced by 
blowing steam on a bed of red-hot charcoal. After singeing, and 
before they can be printed on, the cotton goods undergo the dif- 
ferent operations of bleacliing, to remove from the fibre those 
heterogeneous matters mingled with it by nature, or introduced 
into it during its manufacture. 

In the bleaching of cotton fabrics, the operations are simple, 
rapid, and certain. In that of flax they are complicated, long, 
and full of risk. This difference is owing to the fact, that in 
cotton goods the fibre is of a uniform nature, and the color to 
be removed is merely retained by resins and gum ; whilst linen, 
besides the small amount of coloring matters which naturally 
exist in the fibre, and a large proportion added in steeping, con- 
tains little pieces of the reed, called splints, caused by the impos- 
sibility of completely separating the fibres from the woody parts ; — 
in fact, all the difficulty of bleaching linen rapidly lies in this 
unavoidable obstacle : that is, when you have bleached it beyond 
a certain stage, the difficulty is not to get the fibre white, but to 
preserve it from injury until all the splints are removed. Were 
it not for this hindrance, there would be little more difficulty in 
bleaching linen than calico. 

The fibre, as it exists in the plant, is nearly white, and the 
color of ordinary steeped flax, which gives so much trouble to 
bleach, is owing to the common process of retting. The author 
offered for inspection a sample retted by a new chemical process 
which he had discovered, and hoped ere long to bring to such 
perfection as will render it commercially useful. 

With respect to the bleaching of cotton goods, the author said, 
that it had arrived at such a degree of perfection and rapidity, 
that, although it usually took four or five days, cotton may be 
bleached in 24 hours, now that the application of bleaching 
liquors is thoroughly understood. The operations may be divided 
nnder two heads. The first series is for the purpose of removing 
from the doth its natural resins, gum, and fatty matter, together 
.with all those substances added to it during its manufacture — 



140 



Scientijtc Notices^ 



such as oily matters, starch, gelatine (from the sizing of the warp), 
and often metallic oxides, as those of magnesia, copper, or zinc, 
&c. The operations of the second series are the true bleaching 
ones, intended to destroy the natural coloring matter, and those 
which have been added by the spinners and weavers. 

The purpose of the operations is shewn by the following table 
of substances added during manufacture. 



( glue, 
Soluble in water-< soda or potash, 

^starch, albumen. 
Soluble in lime /fatty matters, 
water 1 gluten. 

Soluble in caus-j ;f*^ ™*"^"' 

ticalkaU -^hnensoap, 

(^ copper soap. 



Soluble in caus- f coloring matter, 
tic alkali \ resins. 

igum resins, 
resins, 
oxide of iron, and 
calcareous and 
other salts. 



A great 
following 


No. of hours. 
3h.0m. 1. 
20 2. 
8 3. 


20 
9 


4. 
5. 


20 
30 


6. 
7. 


2 10 


8. 


3 


9. 



many modes are adopted for the same end ; but the 
is the process most usually followed in Lancashire : — 

No. of hours. 
26 40 

20 

6 



and 



Steeped in water. 
Wasned in wheels. 
Boiled with lime 

water. 
Washed in wheels. 
Boiled in a solution of 

carbonate of soda 

(soda ash), 60lbs. for 

SOOOlbs. of cloth. 
Washed in wheels. 
Steeped in weak vitriol, 

sp. gr. 1*025. 
Drained two hours and 

slightly washed. 
Stee^d m a very weak 

solution of bleaching 

powder. 






10 


10 








10 


20 


1 


20 



10. Washed. 

11. Boiled in a solution of 

soda ash (carbonate 
of soda), 30lbs. for 
SOOOlbs. of cloth. 

12. Washed. 

13. Steeped in a very weak 

solution of bleaching 

V powder, 
ashed. 

15. Steeped in a solution of 

vitriol of sp. gr. 1-026. 

16. Drained one hour, and 

well washed. 



45 hours. 



26 40 

This process costs the bleacher about 9^^. per 100 lbs. of cloth. 

The bleaching price for calico of 32 to 36 inches wide, and 24 
yards in length, is 6d, — of 36 to 40 inches wide, and 40 yards 
long \0d. 

In the case of fine fabrics, such as muslin, the boiled lime is 
done away with. Caustic soda is only employed for stouter 
goods. The carbonate of soda-boil is often replaced by one of 
soap. The boil with lime is, perhaps, the most important ; for 
lime has great power to change the fatty matters on the cloth 
into soap ; and, being further decomposed by an acid dip, they 
are in a condition for being rapidly dissolved by the caustic soda 
produced by the action of the Hme which remains on the cloth. 

It is admitted, too, that lime so modifies the coloring matters, 
that they are more rapidly destroyed by the action of chlorine 
agents. The application of chlorine, as a substitute for the slow 
action of the air, was first discovered by Berthollet in 1 785, but 
was not in use until 1 798 ; when a compound of chlorine and 



Scientific. Notices. 141 

lime was first extensively manufactared under the name of Tennant 
and Knox's bleaching powder. This valuable agent, which is 
far superior to chlorine, or a solution of that gas, should be well 
mixed with water, and all the insoluble parts allowed to settle ; 
for, if this is not done, an insoluble compound of chlorine, which 
forms part of the undissolved powder, attaches itself to the calico, 
and, when it is dipped in acid, is decomposed, and disengages, on 
the spot, such an amount of chlorine that the cloth is instantly 
barned. 

The strength of the chlorine solution employed depends upon 
the quality of goods and the mode of bleaching adopted. In the 
''slow process," after a dip of a few hours in the bleaching 
liquors, the pieces are left on stone flags for a long time ; while 
in the " mechanical process," several thousand yards of cloth 
are attached together, and passed, by suitable contrivances, suc- 
cessively into ^e different liquors. Gum thurst is sometimes 
employed ; but its advantages scarcely compensate for its cost. 

During trials which the author made on bleaching, it occurred 
to him that the following process would be cheaper and more 
rapid than the one now made use of: — First, treat the calico with 
weak muriatic acid for a few hours at the temperature of 200^ 
Fahr., which will change the starch of the warp into sugar, and, 
by removing it from the cloth, facilitate the action of the alkalies 
on the fatty matters. To destroy these, employ a partly caustic 
solution of carbonate of soda. Then dip in muriatic acia, next in 
bleaching liquor, and, lastly, in muriatic acid. Muriatic acid is 
preferred to sulphuric for several reasons. First, because by not 
forming the very slightly soluble salt gypsum on the cloth with 
the lime, it does not prevent the free action of chlorine on its 
compounds. Secondly, because it more effectually decomposes 
the bleaching compounds of the bleaching powder. 

The bleaching of linen is materially different to that of cotton, 
owing to the nature of the fibres, and of the organic substances 
which unite them being different ; and because still greater care 
must be taken by the bleacher to employ such means as will remove 
the resins and gum which unite the coloring matter to the fibre, 
without altering those which unite the minute tubes constituting 
the real fibre. He arrives at this, the real end of his art, by em- 
ploying milder means, and almost entirely avoiding bleaching 
agents, which, even when employed with great care, are likely to 
injure the fibres. 

The process consists in steeping the linen in cold water for 
several hours ; after which, it is boiled in a weak solution of car- 
bonate of Qpda, or with a partly caustic lye, to which is added 
gum fust. After twelve hours' boil under a slight pressure in 
the above fluid, indicating 1° or 2^ Twaddle (or of sp. gr. *02), it is 
well washed, and then spread out during five or eight days on the 
grass. After two or three such treatments, the linen, together 
with a thick soap-lather, is passed between two pieces of wood, 

▼OL. XXXVIII* B 



142 



Scientific Notices. 



1. Steep twelve hours in 

cold water. 

2. The whole is then 

carried to the boiL 

8. Wash. 

4. Boil 12 hoars in car- 
bonate of soda, caus- 
tic lye, or resin soap. 

6. E^Lpoee on erass for 
four to eight days. ^ 

6. Boil, as before. 

7. Wash. 

8. Expose, as before. 

9. Bod. 



10. Wash. 

11. Expose on grass. 

12. Steep in sulphuric 

aciaofsp.gr. 1*02. 

13. Wash. 

14. BoiL 

15. Expose. 

16. Scald. 

17. Rub. 

18. Wash. 

1 9. Expose, 2 to 4 days. 

20. Scald with soap. 

21. Wash. 

22. Rub. 



moving in alternate horizontal directions, called rabbing boards. 
Then, after another boil and exposure, it is dinped for twelve 
hours in a solution of vitriol, indicating P Twaddle. It is then 
boiled, rubbed, again exposed, and lastly undergoes immersion 
for several hours in a very weak solution of bleaching liquor. 
The operations are as foUow : — * 

23. Wash. 

24. Expose. 

25. Acid. 

26. Wash. 

27. Bleaching liquor. 

28. Wash. 

29. Scald. 
80. Wash. 

31. Expose. 

32. Acid. 

33. Wash. 

34. Bleaching liquor. 
36. Wash. 
36. Dry. 

In bleaching, linen loses 18 per cent, of matter soluble in 
alkali, and from 28 to 30 per cent, of its weight during its change 
from a brown to a white cloth. Calico contains 5 per cent, of 
substances susceptible of being dissolved by alkalies, and loses 
in bleaching about 28 per cent, in weight. 

This process occupies about six weeks in summer and three 
months in winter. The author stated that, after lone trials, he 
had arrived at a means of bleaching linen in three or four weeks, 
without, in the slightest degree, injuring the fibres ; as was proved 
in the working of the process on a large scale in Ireland. 

During exposure on grass, the oxygen of the air appears to act 
on the coloring matters by remoring their hydrogen, converting 
them into substances similar to acids, and therefore more soluble 
in alkalies. This is borne out by the fact that dew or snow, 
which contain air, and are very rich in oxygen, help very mate- 
rially the bleaching of linen. There is also no doubt that the 
oxygen converts the fatty matters into fatty acids, which are 
easily removed from the cloth as soluble soaps. 

In the bleaching of linen, it is more important than in that of 
calico, that, after each boil or dip, the cloth should be perfectly 
freed from all trace of the substance composing the liquor. With 
this view, a great variety of machines is employed ; but those 
which are preferred are the dash-wheel, fiy-winches, and Robin- 
son's new patent washing-machine : in Ireland, generally, the old 
system of washing is used. 

Several years since, the author succeeded in finding a very 
simple process for bleaching jute and china grass, — samples of 
which were shewn to the Society. 

The author urged, as a matter of national importance, the ex- 
tended cultivation and manufacture of flax. Three acres, he said, 
of land, realising a crop worth £75, are capable of giving em- 
ployment to 216 spinners, weavers, and needlewomen, whose 



Scientific Notices. 143i 

laboar, although being equal to £2217, leaves a proiSt of ^332 
to their employer^ by having manufactured 1050 pocket hand- 
kerchiefisy at £2. lOs. per dozen. 

L^tly* ^7 the use of Mr. Schenck's steeping process, not only 
is all the seed saved, but, for a long, unwholesome, and difficult 
operation, we have one safe, healthy, and economical. For 
Schenck's rapid process prevents the production of the large 
amount of noxious gases (wide source of disease), besides the 
risk of losing an entire crop, as is often the case when the farmer 
is obliged to steep his flax ; — a few hours being sufficient to destroy 
the fibre, and thus to deprive him of all return. The variety of 
fabrics into which flax can be woven should not be lost sight of; 
for it is capable alike of being worked up as ladies' fine cambric^ 
or as mechanics' fustian (which has of late been successfully ma- 
nufactured in Ireland). The durability and l;)eauty of its products, 
and the much greater brilliancy of the colors printed or dyed on 
linen than when fixed on calico, should not be lost sight of; as 
it always possesses that gloss which is artificially obtained on 
cotton by starch and pressure, only to be destroyed by the first 
washing. 

Deo. 18th, 1850. 

Chables Dickens, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mb. W. Bbidges Adams read a paper on the influence and 

extensiortof railways. 

He commenced by shewing that roads were the origin of all 
human civilisation ; that on the water roads— the rivers and sea- 
coasts — are found the earliest settlements of mankind ; that the 
civilisation of elder Greece was probably due to the mingling of 
the Scandinavian race with the Aborigines in the coasting cruises 
of the sea-kings ; that the interiors of all countries were the last 
to become civilised, for the want of roads ; and that the Romans, 
the most powerful nation of the old world, were the greatest 
road-makers. That knowledge, in the wide sense, could not 
exist without roads ; and, in that case, wisdom, or the dominion 
over knowledge, would have but a narrow field of rule. As rail- 
ways are the most perfect of existing roads, they may be con- 
sidered as the synonym of high civilisation. 

Mr. Adams then went on to compare the civilising effects of 
roads and of the printing-press. He considered the former to b6 
wider in their results ; inasmuch as the press has but a narrowed 
effect between nations speaking different languages ; whereas the 
road, but especially the railroad, by bringing men face to face, 
and with speech to speech, has a tendency to fuse language, to 
break down dialects, to generate an universal language, and ulti- 
mately to destroy national rivalries. The ** republic of letters " 
is ever cosmopolitan, but only in a narrow circle. The republic 
of railways will be world-wide. 

The macadamised system of roads had attained great perfection 



144 Scieniific Notices. 

on a surface of irregular mosaic work ; but the cost of transit 
thereon rendered them an appliance useful only to the compara- 
tively wealthy. And even the river to 6ravesend,> by reason of 
the slowness and uncertainty, precluded poor men from travelling, 
whose time was their maintenance. 

Railways are commonly called an inyention ; but they are not 
so. An invention is a process of forethought. Columbus inr 
vented America, for European men, by forethought. Railways 
are only contrivances, or after thoughts, — a consecutiye series of 
remedies for constantly occurring defects. A plank was first laid 
down to mend a rut ; then the plank was sheathed with iron to 
prevent too rapid wear; then a cast-iron rail was laid down, 
with an upward projecting edge, and called a tramway ; then 
the edge or flange was transferred to the wheels, and the rails 
became edge rails ; and then followed the flat bar on timber ; 
and then the bridge rail, and the fish-bellied rail, and double 
T-rail, supposed fit to reverse four times, but not answering in 
practice. Next followed chairs and stone blocks, and chairs 
and cross sleepers, and longitudinal sleepers without chairs, and 
the hog-trough metal sleepers of the Great-Western experimenti 
and Greaves' cast-iron dish-cover sleepers, and longitudinal tim- 
ber-bedded rails, and Barlow's cast-iron vice-sleepers, and the 
wrought-iron bitumenised sleepers, and cast-iron trough-sleepers 
wood-lined, and Barlow's longitudinal saddle-back rail, and the 
cylindrical bar rail of Welsh quarrymen. All these were mere 
contrivances ; but the cost of ^*300 annually per mile for main- 
tenance of road was a proof that the perfect railway was still to 
be invented. 

The first propounder in print of a general system of iron rail- 
ways with steam traction, for public transit, was Thomas Gray, 
in the year 1820. He also agitated specificaUy for a line between 
Liverpool and Manchester ; but his object was slow travelling 
and heayy loads. He besieged every one, from ministers of state 
downwards, with his plans ; but lived neglected and died poor ; 
while men around him became rich by buying and selling shares 
in the lines he first agitated. 

Yet George Stephenson wtis an inventor in the large sense of 
the word. He prophesied, i. e, foretold, a railway over a quak- 
ing moss, whereon a fire-steed might travel at thirty miles per 
hour, and for his pains was called a madman. He created, prac- 
tically, a new combination out of materials till then very imper- 
fectly understood, and still not thoroughly comprehended. 

The subsequent variation of gauges, and the contest for speed, 
has resulted in the generation of monster machines^ whose power 
is far in excess of the strength of the fulcrum on which they 
work, — ^the rails and railway. Engines weighing 53 and 59 tons, 
occupying fourteen wheels each, cannot work profitably, either 
commercially or mechanically. The railway, the engines, and 
the carriages are still comparatively crude, and the cost, both in 
.outlay and working will probably be reduced to one-half* Even 



Scientific Notices. 145 

as they are, they are the real source of iDcreasiDg natiooal capi- 
tal ; hut they are worked at present with a view only to direct 
profit in the shape of tolls. The time is coining when the indi- 
rect profits will make tolls a comparatively small object. 

Highways have a tendency to grow into streets, jast as Oxford 
Road has become Oxford Street, becaose people can build on the 
borders without risk of heing denied access, and without fear of 
heavy tolls. But the rail coast remains a desert, because the in- 
terests of the landowners and the railowners are opposed. The 
legislature prohibits the railway companies from owning land or 
buildings^ or from any source of profit but tolls and transit. 
Therefore, they are analogous to the toll-enforcing barons of the 
feudal times, exacting all they can up to the prohibition limit of 
the Act of Parliament. The manifest interest of the companies 
is to encourage population along their borders, as the dry rivers 
of the country ; but the public fear to put their heads into the 
lion's mouth, knowing he has teeth, though it may suit him to 
hide them for the time. 

The principles that govern a landowner in laying out his estate 
for building, should govern the laying out of railways. The pro- 
perty is not made for the road, but the road for the property. 
A railway, constructed as a convenient mode of transit for all 
persons dweUing near it, and for all results of operations in agri- 
culture and manufactures on its borders, would be provided with 
water-pipes, sewage-pipes, gas-pipes, and stopping places, every 
quarter mile distance. It would be constructed in the most per- 
manent manner to minimise traction, and it would be worked 
only to pay actual costs. The profits would be in the increased 
value of rents. Siding rails would run into farm-yards, and the 
markets would be at the stations and termini. Factories would 
be interspersed, and all waste and sewage would go on to the 
farms direct. Coals being thus borne cheaply on to the farms, 
power machinery would rapidly increase, and farm-labourers 
would rapidly acquire mechanical skill. Temporary rails would 
become a farm utensil, as they now are the utensils of road-con- 
tractors, and contrivances innumerable would be the result. 
Improved buildings of all kinds would arise, and especially dwell- 
ings, wherein expenditure would be minimised and comfort 
maximised ; and farm workmen and factory workmen, dwelling 
beneath the same roof, would cease to be classes, and would fuse 
together, producing the effect of each individual continuing in, or 
changing to, the employment for which he might have a natural 
aptitude. Children would thus be better educated, under the 
eyes of their parents, without the domestic affections being weak- 
ened. Domestic drudgery of all kinds would be diminished by 
the use of the steam-engine, and general cleanliness and mond 
habits would grow up. It would be scarcely possible for thieves 
or paupers to be bred under such a system. 

Our chief difficulties in sanitary questions and economical ar- 
langementa have arisen firom the bit-by-bit growth of our towns 



146 Scientific Notices. 

without plan, while transit was costly and almost hnpracticliUe 
for the masses. The water question, the sewage question, the 
ventilation question, are all involved in the want of original method. 
Facility of cheap and rapid transit solves them all, hy enabling 
people to live more dispersed. 

There is needing an influential landholder to be to the agricul- 
tural railway-maker what a Bridgewater was to the canal-maker, 
and a Devonshire has been to the horticulturist, to multiply many- 
fold his own revenue while being the world's benefactor. 

The turnpike-roads of the whole country are now comparatively 
waste by the advent of railways, and property along their borders 
is comparatively valueless. It would be easy to convert these 
turupike-roads into a system of practicable railways, by inserting 
rails level with the surface to travel on, at stage-coach speed, by 
steam. There are 22,000 miles, on which ^8,000,000 have been 
borrowed, and interest is largely in arrear. The reason why 
steam formeriy failed on the turnpike-roads was the want of rails 
as a fulcrum. For farm purposes and horse traction ^500 per 
mile would suffice ; for steam, including engines and platform 
carriages, fitted either for travellers or goods, ^2000 to ^2500 
per mile would suffice. With light transit there would be 
scarcely any " maintenance of way." At present, common transit 
averages ^6*33 per mile per annum. The gradients do not present 
any great difficulty with light vehicles. An incline of one in 
thirty-seven on the Birmingham and Gloucester has been worked 
for many years with heavy machines. And when rails are laid 
in turnpike-roads, the hills would very soon pay for improving. 
This arrangement would place the whole of the agricultural dis- 
tricts of England in a rapidly improving condition, — the farms at 
one end of the rail and the markets at the other. At present, 
chemistry has done more than mechanism for agriculture. The 
ordinary traffic would not be interfered with by this plan of rails, 
as vehicles could cross and recross them. 

And the same principle of laying down rails as branch lines, 
and as omnibus lines in the outskirts, and through main avenues 
of large towns, without impeding ordinary traffic, must, sooner 
or later, be adopted. The existing railways do not subserve the 
public want — of people getting easily to their own doors. In 
Birmingham and Manchester the railways go into the towns, 
though inconveniently ; but in London the distance to the rail- 
ways is great. There are numerous outlets applicable to this. 
The South- Western Railway, in this mode, might have been con- 
nected with Waterloo and London Bridges at an outlay of tens 
instead of hundreds. 

Mr. Adams practically demonstrated, by reference to existing 
facts, that none of these apparently novel propositions are novel, 
save in their systematic combination, substituting a plan for the 
usual hap-hazard work ; that only by a clear plan and survey of 
the whole scope of the original work that is yet to do in chemis- 
try and mechanics, and by fitting, and not misfitting, men and 



Scientific Notices. 147 

women to occupations analogoos to their several natural aptitudes^ 
can rapid progress be made. 

The want of general education is the true cause of the mass of 
crude ideas brought forward by ignorant people and charlatans, 
and has thus tended to make the words " schemer" and " inven- 
tor/* — words of high import to mankind — the synonyms of 
ignorance and absurdity with the vulgar mass, just as ignorant 
and absurd in other ways. If there be a class ignorantly san- 
guine, so also is there a class as ignorantly incredulous, living 
only for the immediate gratification of self, and who, were they 
in sufficient numbers, would make us a nation of Chinese, re- 
producing eternally, and originating nothing. 

Into the practiod details of the railway question, Mr. Adams 
scarcely entered, deferring them to a future paper, in which he 
proposed distinctly to state the principles that should govern rail-* 
way economy, and the existing practical appliances most nearly 
devdoping Uiose principles ; believing, that in the railway, this 
latest mode of pe^ecting human intercourse, conjoined with the 
giant iron steamers that will span the narrow and the broad seas, 
— ^that will raise Ireland to a land of plenty as the connecting 
link between England and America, — would be found the true 
solution of the problem of universal peace. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

January 14^, 1851. 
WILLIAM CUBITT, Esq., Pbesideht,— ik the Chaik. 



The paper read was '' On the constniction of the Building for 
the Exhibitum of the Works of Indxistry of All Nations in 
1851," by Mr. M. D. Wyatt, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 

The paper, which was unavoidably of very considerable length, 
oommeneed by characterizing the first attempt to concentrate 
within the compass of a few acres, specimens of the productive 
industry of all nations, as a ''great experiment," worthy of 
being tried upon a scale commensurate with the energy of the 
industrial resources of this country. The success of this experi- 
ment must depend on a just apprehension of the results to be 
produced — a well-digestea scheme for producing the results 
aimed at — and power and dexterity to arrange the whole, so as to 
insure the accordance and working of all its parts in the simplest 
and best manner. The subject, then, naturally dirided itself into 
the consideration of the requisites demanded — the design — and 
the actual construction of the building. 

The features of all the buildings in which previous exhibitions 
had been held^ both abroad and at home, were then carefully 



148 Scientific Notices. 

reviewed, and the points of diflference between the present cos- 
mopolitan exhibition and all its predecessors were distinctly 
enunciated, and shewn to have induced the invitation to the 
world at large to contribute their suggestions for the building, 
the results of which were shewn to the public in the Theatre of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, in the two hundred and forty 
plans there exhibited. None of these plans being found to em- 
brace the necessary requisites, the Royal Commissioners devised 
a plan, for the execution of which tenders were invited in June, 
1850. 

The reservation having been made that hond-fide tenders for 
any construction, offering greater advantages than that proposed 
by the Commissioners, would be considered, Mr. Paxton brought 
forward his proposition ; and it being contended that certain 
advantages in celerity of construction, facility of removal, the 
adaptability of the materials to the required forms, and the amount 
of cost, were inherent in the design for the proposed structure, 
to be entirely composed of wood, iron, and glass — the other ten- 
ders were rejected, and that of Messrs. Fox, Henderson, and Co., 
for Mr. Paxton's design was accepted. 

Such was the origin of the present building ; which, being 
adapted to the site selected for it, in Hyde Park, by H.B.H. 
Prince Albert, was shewn to consist of a nave 72 feet wide and 
64 feet high, with a series of side aisles, two of 48 feet and six, 
of 24 feet wide, of the respective heights of 43 feet and 23 feet ; 
the whole spreading to a width of 436 feet. 

A transept, 408 feet long and 72 feet wide, intersected the 
building at right angles in the centre : this transept was covered 
with a semi-circular roof, springing at a height of 64 feet from 
the level of the ground, and making the entire height 100 feet. 

The details of the construction were very minutely given. The 
total area of the ground floor was said to equal 772,784 square 
feet, and that of the gaUeries 217,100 square feet. 

Details were also given of the mode of conveying the rain 
water, &c., into the adjoining sewers, through the interior of the 
supporting columns; of the ventilation, by means of sets of 
louvres, of galvanized cast iron, placed between the columns of 
the side aisles, and in the upper part of the roof; of the supply 
of water for the extinction of fire, and for the supply of the foun- 
tains ; and of the experiments for testing the girders and trusses, 
by the hydraulic press erected in the building, and by which the 
strength of the whole was proved before they were used. 

In examining the power and dexterity with which the design 
had been realized by Messrs. Fox, Henderson, and Co. (or, in 
other words, in the actual construction of the building) it was 
necessary to bear in mind, that their tender was only verbally 
accepted on the 26th of July, 1850, that possession of the site 
was obtained on the 30th of July, that the first column was fixed 
on the 26th of September, and at the present time (only 145 



Irish Patents. 149 

working days since the commencement) but little of the vast 
building remained to be finished. To give an idea of the vast 
size of this building, it was noticed, that the width of the main 
avenue was within 10 feet double that of the nave of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, whilst its length was more than four times as great. 
The walls of St. Paul's were 14 feet thick, those of the glass 
building in Hyde Park were only 8 inches. St. Paul's occupied 
35 years in building, whilst the Hyde Park building would be 
finished in less than half that number of weeks. The celerity of 
the construction was very remarkable. As many as 308 girders 
had been delivered on the ground in one week. Seven of the 
great trusses of the nave were raised in one day. Each man 
fixed about 200 superficial feet of glass per day. 

In order to perform this work, it was necessary to devise and 
employ various contrivances for economising labour ; such as the 
sash-bar machine, the gutter machine, the morticing machine, 
the painting machine, the glazing machine, besides many others 
of an equally ingenious nature — all of which were described ; 
and, when listening to the details, it was uniyersally felt, that 
England possessed mechanical and physical energies far exceed- 
ing those which gave form and being to the most celebrated 
monumente of antiquity. 

In the course of the paper, Mr. Digby Wyatt (the author), to 
jrhom, from the commencement, had been entrusted the active 
superintendence of the construction of the building, paid a well- 
merited tribute of praise to Mr. C. H. Wild and Mr. Owen Jones, 
who had been associated with him ; to Mr. Barry and Mr. Brunei, 
who, as members of the Building Committee, had made very val- 
uable suggestions ; as well as to Messrs. Fox and Henderson, and 
to Mr. Brounger, Mr. J. Cochrane, and others, for their exertions 
in the execution of the construction ; and he concluded by re- 
minding the members, that the weight of responsibility, the 
arduous duty of supervision, the honor of acting as the master 
mind, to weigh the requisites, to determine the design, and to 
govern the construction of this great apparatus, had been re- 
served for Mr. Cubitt, the President of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. 



That have passed the Great Seal of IRELAND, from the 17 th 
December, 1850, to 17 th January, 1851. 



To Joseph Findlay, of New Snedden-street, Paisley, in the county 
of Renfrew, North Britain, manufacturer, for an improvement 
or improvements in machinery or apparatus for turning, shaping, 
or reducing wood or other substances. — Sealed 1 9th December. 
VOL. zzxviii. s 



150 Scotch Patents. 

William Henry Green, of No. 8, Basingball-street, in the City of 
London, Gent., for improvements in the preparation of peat 
and other ligneous and carbonaceous substances, and the con- 
version of some of the products derived thereby ; and also in 
the mode of the application of some of such products to the 
preservation of substances liable to decomposition and destruc- 
tive agencies ; and which mode is also applicable to other pro- 
ducts of a similar nature, — being a foreign communication. — 
Sealed 21st December. 

Peter Woods, of the firm of Thomas Bury & Co., dyers, calen- 
derers, and finishers, Adelphi Works, Salford, in the county of 
Lancaster, for improvements in figuring and ornamenting wo- 
ven and textile fabrics, paper, wood, leather, and all kinds 
of material, substances, or compositions; and in machinery 
employed therein. — Sealed 24th December. 

Henry Bessemer, of Baxter House, St. Pancras-road, in the county 
of Middlesex, engineer, for certain improvements in apparatus, 
acting by centrifugal force, in the manufacture of sugar ; and 
other improvements in the treatment of saccharine matter by 
such apparatus. — Sealed 31st December. 

Charles William Lancaster, of New Bond-street, in the county of 
Middlesex, gun-maker, for improvements in the construction of 
fire-arms, cannon, and projectiles ; and in the manufacture of 
percussion tubes. — Sealed 3rd January. 

George Edward Dering, of Lockleys, in the county of Herts, 
Esq., for improvements in the means of, and apparatus for, com- 
municating intelligence by electricity. — Sealed 4 th January. 

Joseph Eccles, of Moorgate Fold MiU, near Blackburn, in the 
county of Lancaster, cotton spinner and manufacturer, and 
James Bradshaw and William Bradshaw, of Blackburn, in the 
said county, watch-makers, for certain improvements in and 
applicable to looms for weaving various descriptions of plain 
and ornamental textile fabrics. — Sealed 4th January. 

James Thomson, of Glasgow, in the county of Lanark, civil en- 
gineer, for improvements in hydraulic machinery, and in steam- 
engines. — Sealed 10th January. 



Granted for SCOTLAND, subsequent to 22nd December, 1850. 



To Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, London, mechanical draughtsman, for improvements m 
cutting and dressing stone,— -being a communication. — Sealed 
23rd December. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, London, mechanical draughtsman, for improvements in 



Scotch Patents. 151 

the maniifactare of iron hurdles or fences, and of certain other 
articles in the construction of which wire-work is or may be 
employed,-^being a communication. — Sealed 23rd December. 

Thomas Allan, of Glasgow, iron-founder, for certain improve- 
ments in paying or covering roads, streets, and other surfaces 
of a similar nature. — Sealed 23rd December. 

WiUiAm Hodgson Gratrix, of Salford, engineer, for certain im- 
provements in the method of producing or manufacturing vel- 
vets or other piled fabrics. — Sealed 24th December. 

James Nasmyth, of Patricroft, in the county of Lancaster, engi- 
neer, and John Barlow, of Manchester, copper roller manufac- 
turer, for certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
printing calicoes and other surfaces, and also improvements in 
the manufacture of copper or other metallic rollers to be em- 
ployed therein ; and in the machinery or apparatus connected 
with such manufacture. — Sealed 24th December. 

Francis Edward Colegrave, of Brighton, Esq., for improvements 
in the valves of steam and other engines ; in causing the driving- 
wheels of locomotive engines to bite the rails ; and also in sup- 
plying water to steam-boilers. — Sealed 31st December. 

Thomas Brown, of Muscovy-court, Tower-hill, London, for im- 
provements in machinery for raising and lowering weights. — 
Sealed 31st December. 

Edward D'Orville and John Partington, of Manchester, manufac- 
turers, for certain improvements in finishing thread or yarn. — 
Sealed 3l8t December. 

James Forster, of Liverpool, merchant, for improvements in fil- 
tering water and other liquids. — Sealed 31st December. 

James Hill, of Stalybridge, in the county of Chester, cotton spin- 
ner, for improvements in or applicable to certain machines for 
preparing cotton, wool, and other fibrous substances, for spin- 
ning and doubling. — Sealed 3rd January. 

Henry Bessemer, of Baxter House, St. Pancras-road, London, 
engineer, for certain improvements in apparatus, acting by cen- 
trifugal force, in the manufacture of sugar ; and other improve- 
ments in the treatment of saccharine matter by such apparatus. 
Sealed 6th January. 

Lucien Yidie, of No. 14, Rue du Grand Chantier, Paris, advo- 
cate, for certain improvements in measuring the pressure of 
air, steam, gas, and liquids. — Sealed 8th January. 

John Coope Haddan, of Bloomsbury-square, London, engineer, 
for improvements in the manufacture of railway carriages and 
of railway wheels ; and also of panels for carriages and other 
purposes. — Sealed 9th January. 

Samuel Hall, late of Basford, near Nottingham, engineer, for im- 
provements in the manufacture of starch and gums ; and in 
furnaces and steam-boilers, with safety-apparatus to be used in 
such manufactures, and for other purposes. — Sealed 10th Jan- 
uary. 



152 New Patents Sealed. 

John Cony, of Belfast, damask manufacturer, for improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for weaving figured fabrics ; which 
machinery or apparatus is also applicable to other purposes for 
which Jacquard apparatus is or may be employed. — Sealed 13th 
January. 

John Ransom St. John, of the City of New York, United States, 
engineer, for improvements in the process of, and apparatus 
for, manufacturing soap, — being partly a communication. — 
Sealed 15th January. 

John Clarkson Milns and Samuel Pickstone, of Radcliffe Bridge, 
in the county of Lancaster, manufacturers, for certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus used in spinning, doubling, 
and weaving cotton, flax, and other fibrous substances. — Sealed 
20th January. 

Joseph Gibbs, of Devonshire-street, London, civil engineer, for 
improvements in manufacturing paints and cements, and pa- 
nels or surfaces on which paints or cements are to be or may 
be applied ; part of which improvements are applicable to other 
useful purposes. — Sealed 20th January. 

Edward Clarence Shepard, of Parliament-street, Westminster, 
for certain improvements in electro-magnetic apparatus, suit- 
able for the production of motive power, of heat, and of light ; 
being a communication. — Sealed 22nd January. 



SEALED IN ENGLAND. 

185 L 



To JohnTatham and David Cheetham, of Rochdale, in the county 
of Lancaster, machine-makers, for certain improvements in 
steam-engines, in apparatus for generating and indicating the 
pressure of steam, and for filtering water, to be supplied to 
boilers ; also improvements applicable to steam- vessels or ships. 
Sealed 2nd January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Joshua Horton, of JBtna Works, Smethwick, in the county of 
Stafford, steam-engine boiler, and gas-holder manufacturer, 
trading under the firm or style of Joshua and William Horton, 
for improvements in the construction of gas-holders. Sealed 
2nd January — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Corry, of Belfast, in the Kingdom of Ireland, damask ma- 
nufacturer, for improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
weaving figured fabrics ; which machinery or apparatus is also 
applicable to other purposes for which Jacquard apparatus is 
or may be employed. Sealed 2nd January — 6 months for in- 
rolment. 



New Patents Sealed. 153 

Benjamin Cook, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, ma- 
nufacturer, for a certain improvement or certain improvements 
in the manufacture of metallic tnhes. Sealed 2nd January — 6 
months for inrolment. 

John Percy, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, Doctor of 
Medicine, and Henry Wiggin, of Birmingham, manufacturer, 
for a new metallic alloy, or new metallic alloys. Sealed 2nd 
January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Liawes, of City-road, in the county of Middlesex, for im- 
provements in generating and applying steam for certain pur- 
poses. Sealed 4th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Harcourt Brown, of Fir Cottage, Putney, Surrey, Gent., for 
certidn improvements in the manufacture of wafers. Sealed 
7th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Grissell, of the Regent's Canal Iron Works, in the county 
of Middlesex, engineer, and Theophilus Redwood, of Mon- 
tague-street, in the same county. Professor of Chemistry, for 
improvements in coating metab with other metals. Sealed 
11th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Alexander Archer, of the Broadway, Westminster, tobacco 
manufacturer, for improvements in the manufacture of tobacco. ' 
Sealed 1 1th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Samuel Hall, late of Basford, near Nottingham, civil engineer, for 
improvements in the manufacture of starch and gums. Sealed 
nth January — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Melville, of Roe Bank Works, Lochwinnock, in the 
county of Renfrew, North Britain, calico printer, for certain 
improvements in manufacturing and printing carpets and other 
fabrics. Sealed llth January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Allan, of Glasgow, in the county of Lanark, North Britain, 
iron-founder, for certain improvements in paving or covering 
roads, streets, and other surfaces of a similar nature. Sealed 
llth Januar)^ — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Anstey, of Brighton, in the county of Sussex, Gent., for 
certain improvements in consuming smoke and in regulating 
the draft in chimneys. Sealed llth January — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

William Robinson, of Halsham, in Holdemess, in the East Riding 
of the county of York, machinist and agricultural implement 
maker, for improved machinery for separating corn from straw. 
Sealed llth January — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Clarkson Milns and Samuel Pickstone, of Radcliffe Bridge, 
in the county of Lancaster, manufacturers, for certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus used in spinning, doubling, 
and weaving cotton, flax, and other fibrous substances. Sealed 
11 th January — 6 months for inrolment. 
Alexander Speid Livingstone, of Swansea, in the county of Gla- 
morgan, engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of 
fuel. Sealed llth January — 6 months for inrolment. 



164 New Patents Sealed. 

Charles Barlow, of Chancery-lane, London, Esq., for improve* 
ments in propelling, — being a communication. Sealed 11th 
Jannary — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Barlow, of Chancery-lane, London, Esq., for improve- 
ments in machinery for the manufacture of railway-chairs. 
Sealed 14th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Oustav Adolph Buchholz, of Agar-street, Strand, in the county 
of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improvements in printing, and 
in the manufacture of printing apparatus ; and also in folding 
and cutting apparatus. Sealed 1 6th January — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Robert Cogan, of Leicester-square, in the county of Middlesex, 
glass merchant, for improvements in the application of plain 
or ornamental glass, alone, or in combination with other suit- 
able materials, to new and useful purposes of construction or 
manufacture. Sealed 16th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Cowper, of Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, patent 
agent, for improvements m the construction of apparatus for 
manufacturing, and apparatus for retaining and drawing off, 
soda-water and other aerated liquors. Sealed 1 6th January — 
6 months for inrolment. 

. Frederick Watson, of Moss-lane, Hulme, Manchester, Gent., for 
improvements in sails, rigging, and ships' fittings and ma- 
chmery, and apparatus employed therein. Sealed 16tli Janu- 
ary — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles William Lancaster, of New Bond-street, in the county of 
Middlesex, gun-maker, for improvements in the manufacture of 
fire-arms and cannons, and of projectiles. Sealed 1 6th Janu- 
ary — 6 months for inrolment. 

Jean Marie Taurines, of Paris, in the Republic of France, engi- 
neer, for certain improvements in the machinery and apparatus 
for measuring and regulating the working of ^engines. Sealed 
16th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Richard Bycroft, of Paradise, Walsoken, in the county of Norfolk, 
Gent., for improvements in apparatus to be used by persons to 
secure warmth and dryness when travelling. Sealed 18th Ja- 
nuary — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Norman, of Shoreditch, in the county of Middlesex, cabi- 
net-maker, for an improved cooking and boiling apparatus. 
Sealed 18th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Frederick Muntz, jun., of Birmingham, Gent., for im- 
provements in furnaces, applicable to the melting of metals 
for making brass, yellow metal, and other compound metals. 
Sealed 18th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Lienau, jun., of Wharf-road, City-road, in the county of 
Middlesex, merchant, for improvements in purifying or filter- 
ing oils and other liquids. Sealed 18th January — 6 months 
for inrolment. 



New Patents Sealed. 155 

William Rees, of Pembrey, in the county of Carmarthen, coal 
agent, for certain improvements in the preparation of fuel. 
Sealed 18th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Edmund Pace, of the firm of Taylor and Pace, of Queen-street, 
in the City of London, iron bedstead-makers, for certain im- 
provements in bedsteads, couches, chairs, and other like articles 
of furniture. Sealed 21st January — 6 months for inrolment. 

George EUiot, of St. Helens, in the county of Lancaster, chemist, 
for improvements in the manufacture of alkali. Sealed 21st 
January — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Burgess, of Newgate-street, in the City of London, gutta- 
percha dealer, for improvements in machinery for cutting tur- 
nips and other substances. Sealed 21st January^G months 
for inrolment. 

Hobert William Sievier, of Upper Holloway, in the county of 
Middlesex, Grent., for improvements in weaving and printing 
or staining textile goods or fabrics. Sealed 21st January — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Charles Roper Mead, of Charlotte Cottages, Old Kent-road, me- 
chanical engineer, for improvements in apparatus for measuring 
gas, water, and other fluids. Sealed 21st January — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

John Ransom St. John, of the City and State of New York, in 
the United States of America, engineer, for improvements in 
the process of, and apparatus for, manufacturing soap, — being 
partly a communication. Sealed 21st January — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Samuel Cliffc, of the township of Bradford, near Manchester, ma- 
nufacturing chemist, for improvements in the manufacture of 
potash, soda, and glass. Sealed 21st January — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Auguste Loradouz, of Bedford-street, Strand, for certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for raising water and other 
fluids, — ^being a communication. Sealed 23rd January — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Alexander Samuelson, of Banbury, agricultural implement manu- 
facturer, for improvements in apparatus for cutting turnips, 
carrots, mangold wurzel, and other vegetables. Sealed 23rd 
January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Joseph Bunnett, of Deptford, in the county of Kent, engineer, 
for certain improvements in public carriages for the convey- 
ance of passengers. Sealed 23rd January^ 6 months for in- 
rolment. 

Joseph Crossley, of Halifax, for improvements in the manufacture 
of carpets, rugs, and other fabrics. Sealed 28th January — 6 
months for inrolment. 



[ 156 ] 



CELESTIAL PHENOMENA por February, 1851. 



D. H. M. 

1 Clock before the ISm. 528. 

— ]) rises 7h. 35m. M. 

— D pass mer. Oh. 27m. A. 

— D sets 5h. 4m. A. 

6 2 Ecliptic conj. or % new moon 

2 - ]) in Apogee 

1 43 11*8 third sat will im. 
10 40 9 stationary 

4 1.0$ greatest hel. lat N. 

5 Clock before the 14m. 18s. 
— .' D rises 9h. 31m. M." 

— k ]) pass mer. 3h. 20m. A. 

— ]) sets 9h. 21ra. A. 

6 2 ^9 t^ in coi^j. with the .]) diff, of dec. 

2. 48. N. 

21 22 y in conj. with the D difF.ofdec. 

5. 1. N. 

22 20 % stationary 

9 1 30 X*8 first sat. will im. 

6 40 %*s third sat will im. 

9 8 '56 D in D or first quarter 

10 " Clock bfefore the 14m. 32s. 

— ]) rises llh. 30m. M. 

— ]) pass mer. 7h. llm. A. 

— ]) sets Ih. 52m. M. 

12 131 ll*s second sat. will im. 
14 Mercury R. A. 20h. 3m. dec. 19. 

62. S. 

— Venus R. A. iSh. 38m. dec. 19. 

10. S, 

— Mars R. A. 20h. 30m. dec. 19. 

59. S. 

— Vesta, R. A., 16h. 26m. dec. 15. 

13. S. 

— ,. Juaoy R, A;, 17h.'17m. dec. 11. 

32. S. 

— Palla9, R. A., 23h. 7m. dec. 5. 
• - 2*.'S. '• ■'■■' 

— Ceres R. A. Ih. 4m. dec. 0. 43. S. 

— JUpi^r R. A; TSh. 26m. dec. 7. 
; .33.' S. . . 

— . Saturn R.' A. Ih. 6m. dec, 4. 
'• • '"M.-'N;* • • ~ • .' 

— Uranus ?RV^A. lb. 41m. dec. 9. 

57rN. • - '• : 

— . Mercur^jpsss mep.. £2h.^ 28m. 

— Venus pass' 'mer. '2 ih. i2m. ' 



13 

16 3 

3 

6 

17 



1 

19 4 

6 



D. H. M. 

14 Mars pass mer. 22h. 54m. 

— Jupiter pass mer. 15h. 48m. 

— Saturn pass mer. 3h. 30m. 

— Uranus pass mer. 4h. ^m. 

15 11 15 $ greatest elong. 

— Clock before the 14m. 26s. 

— D rises 4h. 29m. A. 

— ]) pass mer. Morn. 
]) sets 6h. 25m. M. 

]) in Perigee 

28 Ecliptic oppd. or Q full moon 
23 %*8 first, sat, will im. > 
1 5 Pallas in the descending node 
Ceres in conj. with |p difi';^f dec. 

4. 52. S. 
Occul. h Virginis, im.l3h. 2m. 
em. 14h. 9mi. =' ^ ' 

15 ^ in the descending, node 
4 i{,'s second sat will im. \ 

47 % in conj. with the }) di^. of dec. 
o. 53. D. 

20 Clock before the 14in. 2s. 

— ]) rises lib. 18m. A. ■ 

— ]) pass mer. 3h. 49m. M. 

— D sets 9h. 24m. M. 

21 Occul. y Librae, im. 12h. 13m. 

em. 13h. 14m. 
-^ Occul. V Librae, im. 17b. llm. 
em. 18h. 28m. 
38 D in D or last quartex.. » 

16 T^'s first sat will im. 
45 It's first sat will im. ^ 

Clbck before the 13m. 22s. 

— . D rises 3h. 46m. M. 
— " D pass mer. 7h. 59m. M. 

— }) sets Oh. llm. A. 
10 greatest elong. 46. 12. W. 

rp greatest hel. lat. S. • 
5 3 $ in conj. with the ]) diS. of dec. 

1.35. N. 
5 1 g in Aphelion. ... •» 
7 35 § in conj. with i$ di£t of dec. 

0. 24. S. ' • 

9 18 ^ in conj. with the'D'diff. of dec. 

0. 6. S. 
9 ^4 2 in conj. with the }) d^fT. of dec. 

0. 30. S. 



22 9 

23 5 

24 11 

25 ^ 



26 



27 
28 



J. LEWTHWAITE, Rotherhithe. 



THE 

LONDON JOURNAL, 

AND 

REPERTORY 

OP 

^vt0t ^cUncejBft anD i!)(tanufacture0^ 



CONJOINED SERIES. 



No. CCXXXI. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

To Francis Edward Colegrave, of Brighton, in the county 
of Sussex, Esq., for improvements in the valves of steam 
and other engines, in catising the driving-wheels of loco- 
motive engines to bite the rails, and also in supplying 
water to steam-boilers, — [Sealed 3rd July, 1850.] 

This invention relates, firstly, to an improved mode of con- 
structing tbe slide-valves of engines, so as to prevent the 
pressure of the steam from acting on the back of the valve ; 
and by this means economising a considerable amount of 
power that is now expended in working the valves. The in- 
vention relates, secondly, to an arrangement and construction 
of parts of a locomotive engine and its appurtenances, whereby 
a powerful blast of heated air may be directed on to the rails, 
when slippery from damp or frost, so as, by quickly drying 
them, to allow the driving-wheels of the engine to take a 
proper hold on the rails. Under this head is also included a 
novel mode of communicating motion from the driving-wheels 
to the leading and trailing-wheels of an engine, for the pur- 
pose of effecting the same object, viz., to cause the wheels to 
bite the rail. The third part of the invention relates to the 
adaptation of additional water spaces to the boiler, so as to 
economise, as much as possible, the heat given out from the 
fire. 

Under the present system of working the valves of engines, 
the wear on the moving parts of the valve, and the power 
expended in actuating the valves, is very considerable, owing 
to the pressure of the steam on the back of the valves : — in 

VOL. XXXVIII, T 



158 Recent Patents. 

ordinary locomotive engines this pressure on the valves amounts 
to about 100 lbs. on the square inch. By the improved con- 
struction of valves^ forming the first head of this invention^ 
these objections are designed to be obviated. 

In Plate VII., the mode of carrying out the objects of 
this invention is shewn in several views. Fig. I, represents 
a longitudinal vertical section of a steam-cylinder^ with the 
improved valve applied thereto ; and fig. 2, is a plan view of the 
valve, with the cover and some of the other parts removed, in 
order more clearly to shew its internal construction. The 
valve-box is shewn at a, a ; and b, b, is the slide-valve, which 
is actuated in the ordinary manner, c, c, are four studs, 
screwed into the side of the cylinder, for the purpose of sup- 
porting the cast-iron plate d, d; the under side of which is 
planed and ground true, to lie flat upon the top of the back- 
plate e, of the valve. The cast-iron plate d, d, rests upon the 
nuts//; the faces of which are accurately ground, so as to 
correspond exactly to the upper edge of the back-plate e, of 
the valve. The plate d, is secured, in its proper place on the 
studs c, c, by other nuts g, g, which hold it firmly down on 
to the nuts// beneath. Instead of the valve being solid, as 
usual, a recess is made therein to receive a plate e, — an edge 
being left all round for the purpose of preventing the plate 
from shifting or moving out of its place. The upper surface 
of the plate e, is made flush with the projecting edges of the 
valve, and works against the under side of the cast-iron plate 
d. In order to compensate for the wear of the plate e, and 
to cause it always to bear with an equal pressure against the 
plate d, coiled springs A, A, are placed beneath the plate e, in 
holes made for that purpose in the back of the valve. By 
this means the friction of the valve will be greatly reduced; 
as it will merely consist of the friction of the plate e, against 
the plate d. The other parts shewn in the figure are such as 
are well known and in use ; they do not, therefore, require 
any detailed explanation. 

The patentee remarks, it will be evident to any intelligent 
engineer (as indeed practice has proved) that there is not 
sufficient friction to wear away above the thickness of a sheet 
of paper from the edge of the valve with a twelve-months' 
fair work ; and that, when this small wear has taken place, 
the narrow edge of the box, round the back-plate e, will not 
receive a greater amount of pressure from the steam than the 
original screw pressure with which the engine started when new. 

The above description refers exclusively to valves applied 
to cylinders of the ordinary construction ; but, in the case at 



Colegrav^s^ for Imptf. in Valves of Steam-EngineSf^c. 159 

new cylinders^ the patentee sometimes^ for facility of manu- 
facture^ makes the valves circular instead of " square." In 
cases where it is considered desirable^ a hole may be cast in 
the centre of the valves and plates^ so as to exhaust through 
the back of the valve direct into the blast-pipe ; and where 
the valve works on the top of the cylinder the steam-chest lid 
may be made use of as a surface-plate ; but the use of the 
screw-studs and independent cast-iron plate d, above described, 
is preferred. When circular valves are employed^ the inside 
and outside lines of the steam and exhaust ports must be de- 
scribed with the same radius as the outside diameter of the 
slide-valve ; and the work must be all kept perfectly parallel 
to the face of the cylinder. 

At figs. 3, and 4, two views of a new cylinder, with the 
valve applied thereto, are shewn. Fig. 3, is a longitudinal 
vertical section, taken through the cylinder and valve ; and 
fig. 4, is a plan view of the valve, with the top plate removed : 
as similar letters of reference are marked upon corresponding 
parts of these and the preceding figures, the same description 
will, in a great measure, apply to this modification. 

Fig. 5, is a longitudinal section of a pair of cylinders, with 
the i^ve-box and valves constructed according to the present 
improvements, and placed between them. Steam is admitted 
to the valve-box (between the two valves, which are protected 
from pressure, as in the former arrangement), and from thence 
the steam passes through the valves into the cylinders, as usual; 
and, after exerting its elastic force therein, is passed out 
through the exhaust-pipes into the exit-pipes. The con- 
struction of the valves is identical in principle with those 
already described. 

The second part of the invention, which relates to the means 
of causing the driving-wheels of locomotive engines to bite 
the rails, is shewn at fig. 6 ; which represents a longitudinal 
lection of some of the principal parts of a locomotive engine, 
with the improvements adapted thereto. An air-chamber a, 
ifl made at the lower part of the smoke-box, and is supplied 
with air through the pipe p, by means of a pump o, which 
draws in air through the mouth-piece n, as shewn by the 
arrow, and forces it into the chamber a. The air is heated 
in this chamber, and also in a supplementary chamber b, 
above, which communicates with it by means of the pipes q, q. 
The chamber b, is furnished with a safety-valve to regulate 
the pressure of air in the chambers a, and b. From the cham- 
ber B, the heated and compressed air passes along a pipe s, 
ftumished with a cock or valve /, which is worked by a long 

T 2 



160 Recent Patents. 

rod tt, tt ; so that the engine-driver, by simply pulling this 
rod, may cause the heated air to pass down the pipe 8, and 
be conducted on to the surface of the rails ; which, by the 
powerful blast of heated air, will be almost instantaneously 
dried. 

Another means of causing the wheels to bite the rails, con- 
sists in connecting the driving to the leading and trailing- 
wheels in such a manner that they shall all be made to rotate 
simultaneously, and, by thus increasing the friction on the 
rails, cause the engine to be propelled more easily. The means 
for effecting this object is shewn, in side elevation, at fig. 7. 
To the driving-wheel a double pulley or band-wheel t?, is 
secured ; and, on the side of the leading and trailing-wheels, 
similar pulleys Wy w, but of smaller diameter, are secured. 
A band, cord, or chain x, is passed once round the innermost 
groove of the pulley v, then round the trailing-wheel, then 
once round the outer groove of the pulley v, and after pass- 
ing round the pulley of the leading-wheel, it terminates at 
the driving-wheel. A friction-wheel y, adjustable by a screw 
from above, is provided, to tighten the band or chain or, 
upon the pulleys. By this arrangement it will be seen that, 
when the band a?, is tightened, the driving-wheels cannot 
rotate without causing the leading and trailing- wheels to ro- 
tate also ; and this additional action on the wheels will be 
sufficient, under most circumstances, to cause the engine to 
proceed. 

The last part of the invention relates to the means of sup- 
plying hot water to the boiler, and consists in making a water- 
space, several inches wide, round three sides, and under the 
bottom of the ash-pan, so as to utilize the heat that radiates 
therefrom. At fig. 6, d, is the water-space, constructed under 
the ash-pan, and at the back and sides thereof. It comma-> 
nicates, at one end, with the tender, by means of the pipe z, 
which supplies the space with cold water ; and, after the water 
has abstracted a considerable portion of caloric from the heated 
surface of the ash-pan, it passes, in a heated state, along the 
pipe z*, into the boiler. 

The patentee claims, First, — constructing the valves of 
steam-engines with moveable back-plates, which are made to 
work against a stationary plate, that will take off the pressure 
of the steam and prevent it from acting on the back of the 
valve. Secondly, — the plans herein shewn and described, or 
any mere modification thereof, for drying the rails, or causing 
the wheels of a locomotive engine to adhere more firmly 
thereto in damp or slippery weather. And, Thirdly, — the 



WaddelPSffqr Impta, in Steam-Engines. 161 

employment of a water-space beneath and around the ash- 
pan, for the purpose of warming the water previous to its 
passing from the tender into the boiler. — [Inrolled Jamuzry, 
1851.] 



To Robert Waddell, of Liverpool, in the county of Lan- 
caster, engineer, for certain improvements in steam-engines. 
—[Sealed 11th June, 1850.] 

This invention of improvements in steam-engines consists, 
firstly, in the application of a novel apparatus to the working 
cylinders of such machines, or to the steam-pipes thereof, for 
the purpose of removing water, arising from the condensation 
of steam, from the priming of the boiler, or from other causes. 
This is eflFected by the application of a valve or valves, so ar- 
ranged as to be closed during the ordinary working of the 
engine by pressure of the steam ; but which valves, upon an 
accumulation of water, open by reason of the gravity thereof, 
and admit of its escape. The invention consists, secondly, 
in an arrangement of apparatus for governing the velocity of 
steam-engines. By this arrangement an additional throttle- 
valve is used ', which, when the engine is running above its 
speed, is brought into operation by the variation which then 
takes place in the pressure of the steam, at different parts of 
the steam-pipe. 

In Plate VII., fig. 1, represents, in section, the working- 
cylinder and steam-pipe of an engine, upon the horizontal 
construction, with the improvements applied thereto ; and, in 
order to point out a variation in the method of carrying out 
the same, a different form of apparatus is applied to either 
end of the cylinder. To the end a, of the working-cylinder, 
is attached a chamber a, a, and a communication made be- 
tween the two by a passage b, b. Within the chamber a, a, 
are placed two valves c, c*, which are connected together by 
a rod d, and move simultaneously in an upward or downward 
direction : these valves are ground and fitted to seats e, c*, 
formed upon the chamber a. The bottom valve c*, is pro- 
vided with projecting pieces ^yj (see the detached plan view, 
fig. 2,) which, by working against the sides of the cylinder 
a, a, act as parallel guides ; and a similar provision is obtained 
at the upper part, by making the valve c, cylindrical, but 
loose enough in the chamber a, to allow of a slight escape of 
steam when the valve is from its seat. To the upper part of 
the rod d, d, is attached a cap g, which prevents dirt or 
other extraneous matter from passing through the aperture 



162 Recent Patents. 

in the chamber a, a, and also serves to keep the yalves from 
falling too far. Upon the cylinder a, is affixed a bracket^ 
which carries, upon a centre-pin, a lever t,— one end thereof 
being provided with a counterbalance weighty, and the other 
with a fork, which embraces the rod c ; such fork abutting 
against the cap g, and the boss of a handle k. The weight 
mounted upon the lever t, is so adjusted as to counterbalance 
the valves c, d*, and the parts immediately connected there- 
with : if, therefore, the areas of the said valves be equal, they 
will remain in contact with their seats, notwithstanding the 
pressure of the steam, which acts upon their surfaces by 
passing through the passage b, b. In order, however, to en- 
sure this condition, the outward part of the bottom valye c*, 
may be of an area slightly exceeding that of the inward part 
thereof — by which arrangement an advantage is given to at- 
mospheric pressure, which secures the desired effect — or the 
weighty, of the lever t, may be slightly more than necessary 
to counterpoise the valves and their appendages. The opera- 
tion will be as follows: — During the proper action of the 
engine, the valves c, c*, will be kept to their seats, — an equi- 
librium being established, as before described ; but, upon water 
becoming present in the working cylinder, either from con- 
densation, priming, or other cause, it will flow through the 
passage b, into the chamber a, and, by accumulating, force 
down the valve c*, from its seat, and open a passage for the 
exit of the water : as soon as this has been effected, the equi- 
librium will be restored, and the aperture again closed. Upon 
the opening of the valve c*, the upper one c, will, of course, 
be carried from its seat, and there may be a slight escape of 
steam, but not such as will be of any material consequence. 
In order to prevent the valves c, c*, from sticking, the handle 
k, may be occasionally turned, so as to cause them to revolve 
in their seats. 

A modification of this arrangement is shewn as applied to 
the end b, of the working-cylinder. In this instance, within 
the chamber a, a, there is placed a hollow vessel /, /, the 
lower end of which is provided with a pin, capable of moving 
in a guide m; it is also furnished with a valve c*, suitably 
adjusted to a seat formed in the bottoni of the chamber a, a ; 
and the upper part of the vessel is provided with a valve c, 
which is of an area slightly superior to the outward surface 
of the bottom valve c* : by which means, a tendency is given 
to the valves to rest in their seats. Upon water being present 
in the working-cylinder, it will flow through the passage i, 
into the chamber a, a, and, by accumulating, will cause the 



WaddelVSf for Impts. in Steam-Enffines. 163 

vessel I, to float upwards and lift the valve c% from its seat^ 
and provide a passage for the exit of the water. 

At fig. 1^ the iniprovement is also shewn as applied to the 
steam-pipe ; for which purpose^ a chamber n, n, is connected 
thereto, and provided^ at its upper and lower parts^ with pipes 
o,p; to each of which, respectively, are fitted valves c, c^, 
eonnected by a rod d^iaa, similar manner to the arrangement 
first described; — ^in this instance, however, there is a spiral 
spring q, g, placed within the cap g, which serves to counter- 
balance the weight of the valves, &c., instead of the weighted 
lever before described. The design of this apparatus is to 
receive the water as it passes along the steam-pipe ; in order 
to effect which, the chamber n, n, extends below the bottom 
thereof; the water will, therefore, fall down the pipe p,p, 
and act upon the valve c*, as already described ; and, to assist 
in arresting the passage of condensed steam, or other water, 
g projecting-bar r, is placed across the chamber n. 

Fig. 3, represents a modification, which may be employed 
in place of that last described, by connecting the pipe p, to a 
chamber similar to that shewn at n ; through which pipe the 
water will then pass, and, by floating up the hollow vessel I, 
(as described with reference to the apparatus b,) open the 
valve c*, and allow the water to escape. 

The second improvement is shewn, as applied to a steam- 
pipe, at fig. 4. A, is the pipe ; connected to which, is a cy- 
linder B, having steam-ports c, d, which form communications 
with the pipe. The cylinder b, is provided with a piston b, 
the rod of which passes through a stuffing-box, formed in the 
bottom of the cylinder, and works in a guide f. One end of 
a lever o, is connected, by means of a pin and slot, to the rod 
of the piston e, and is also attached to the spindle of a throt- 
tle-valve H, similar to those of the ordinary construction; 
and, upon this spindle, is also mounted a weighted lever i, 
serving to counterbalance the piston e, and its appendages. — 
J, is the ordinary throttle-valve 

The operation of the apparatus will be as follows : — ^While 
the engine is working at its proper speed, the various parts 
will be in the position shewn in the drawing, — the pressure 
being equal on both sides of the piston e, and, consequently, 
retaining it in a fixed position; and the throttle- valves H, and 
J, vrill be so situate, as to admit of the required number of 
strokes being performed. But should the engine, by any 
sadden release from resistance, run off at an undue rate, the 
steam in the pipe a, will become what is called '' wire-drawn,^' 
and the elastic force thereof will be greater on that side of the 



164 Recefit Patents. 

throttle-valve j, which is nearest the boiler than on the other 
side thereof j — the consequence of this will be, that a superior 
pressure will be exerted on the upper side of the piston e, 
which will then be caused to descend, and, by carrying with 
it the lever o, will turn the additional throttle-valve h, upon 
its centre, and so partially close the steam-pipe, and reduce 
the supply of steam to the working-cylinder. When the en- 
gine has been thus brought to the required speed, the steam 
will have regained an uniform pressure, and the counterbalance- 
weight on the lever i, will raise the piston e, to its former 
position. 

In reference to this part of the invention, the patentee 
remarks, that the additional throttle-valve may be used either 
when that of the ordinary construction is connected to a 
governor, or when it is used with hand-gear, as in marine 
engines. 

The patentee claims. Firstly, — ^the use of a valve or valves, 
capable (for the purpose above set forth) of acting by the 
gravity of the water intended to be discharged. Seconfiy, — 
the apphcation to steam-engines of a throttle-valve, capable 
of being brought into action by a difference in the elastic 
force of the steam existing at the same time in the steam- 
pipe. — [Inrolled December, 1850.] 



To William Mac Lardy, of Manchester , in the county of 
Lancaster, machinist, for certain improvements in machi- 
nery or apparatus for preparing, spinning, and doubling 
cotton and other fibrous materials, — [Sealed 12th June, 
1850.] 

This invention relates, firstly, to that machine commonly 
known, in the preparation of cotton and other fibrous materials, 
as the " drawing-frame,^^ and consists in a peculiar arrange- 
ment of " spoon,'' or conductor of the " stop-motion ;'' — the 
essential feature of such arrangement being, the employment 
of two or more surfaces over which the cotton or other fibrous 
material passes, — whereby opposite sides of the sliver are 
brought in contact with the spoon. 

Secondly, the invention refers to those machines used in 
spinning and doubling, commonly known as 'Hhrostle-frames" 
and " doubling-frames,'' and consists in connecting the spin- 
dle to the warve, used for driving the same, in such a manner 
that it may be lifted therefrom, so as to admit of the bobbin 
being doffed by passing it over the bottom part of the spin- 



MacLardy'8y for Impts, in Spinning Cotton, ^c. 165 

die : this provision admits of a top bearing being applied to 
a spindle made all in one piece^ and having its driving-warve 
below the copping-rail^ as usual ; and thus a great steadiness 
of action is obtained. 

Thirdly, the invention relates to that apparatus used in 
spinning which is commonly known as the " ring and tra- 
veller^^ method. In the ordinary method of ring-spinning, 
the bobbin is driven positively and at an uniform rate of 
speed, and the " traveller^' caused to revolve round the ring 
by the traction of the thread of yarn which is being spun, — 
that is to say, the thread pulls the traveller round the ring 
as the bobbin revolves ; also it is the traction or pulling of 
the traveller round the ring that forms what is technically 
called the ," drag,'^ and thus lays the yam or material on to 
the bobbin as it is spun and delivered from the rollers. The 
improvement relating to the ring and traveller consists in 
driving the traveller round the ring positively ; and, instead 
of the thread pulling the traveller round the ring, as in the 
ordinary " ring-throstle,^^ the traveller will, in this case, pull 
the thread and bobbin precisely in the same manner as the 
thread passing through the curl of the ordinary flyer does. 

In Plate VIII., fig. 1, represents, in side elevation, one form 
of the improved spoon ; and fig. 2, is a plan view of the same. 
The spoon rests, as in the common aiTangement, upon the 
fixed bar a, as a centre, — such bar running along the side of 
the frame, to carry the necessary range of spoons. The short 
lever i, has, formed upon its upper end, the usual guide-spoon 
or mouth c, through which the sliver passes, in the direction 
of the arrows ; but, in addition to this guide, a second con- 
ductor is formed at rf, of a tubular or trumpet-shape. The 
plate e, over which the sliver passes in entering the spoons, 
is, in this arrangement, elevated sufficiently to cause it to 
bear against the upper side of the trumpet- mouth a, whence 
it passes over and acts upon the conductor c, in the usual 
way. In this manner, a duplex action is produced upon the 
sliver, so that the spoon may be held up out of contact with 
its stopping mechanism at a greater angle than is usual ; and 
hence it possesses much more certainty of falling and stopping 
the frame when the sliver or slivers break and cease to act 
upon the conductor. The conductor is mounted in the ordi- 
nary way, — ^it being supported on the bar a, and guided in 
the slotted plate e. The full lines in fig. 1, represent the 
conductor as it stands when the drawing-frame is in action 
and the sliver or slivers are passing through in their unbroken 
complete state. Should one or more, however, give way, the 



166 Recent PaienU. 

necessary tension being removed from the condactor, it will 
be no longer held in this position^ but will fall backwards, at 
represented by the dotted lines. In this position^ the back of 
the lever b, has arrived against the front edge of the longitu- 
dinal traversing-platey^ which has a serieaof notches or re- 
cesses formed in it, one for each conductor. This plate ^^ has 
a constant traversing motion, immediately behind the line of 
conductors, but works clear of them when they are held up by 
the slivers ; when either of them, however, falls, its lever enters 
a corresponding notch in the traversing-plate f, and, by pre- 
venting its usual traversing motion, effects the stopping of the 
machine, as is well understood. 

Fig. 3, represents, in elevation, a modification of the '^ du- 
plex spoon'' or conductor ; and fig. 4, is a corresponding 
plan view. This conductor acts in a manner precisdy similar 
to that already described ; but the duplex action is secured by 
a slightly different form of parts, — the sliver being passed 
from its plate e, beneath a projecting angular arm d, and 
thence over the second spoon c. In this arrangement, the 
second action is obtained by the upward pressure of the sliver 
against the lower side of the arm d, which acts as the addi- 
tional conductor. The same form of duplex spoon is repre- 
sented in fig. 5, as adapted to a balanced lever-conductor, 
carried on pivots at a. The sliver passes beneath the angular 
arm d, and thence over the guide c, as before. When the 
sliver gives way, the upper part of the spoon being heavier 
than the lower, the lever falls back, and the catch g, on the 
lower end, advancing forward in the direction of the arrow, 
enters one of the bars or detents of the constant revolver h, 
as is well understood. 

The second part of this invention is shewn at figs. 6, 7, 
and 8 ; — fig. 6, being a representation, in elevation, of a spindle 
and flyer, with the parts immediately connected thereto; and 
figs. 7, and 8, detached views of the driving-warve. The 
upper part of the spindle a, a, is formed of an enlarged 
diameter, — which part is mounted to run in a top bearing-rail 
b ; and the lower end is supported in a step c, as usual. The 
driving-warve is shewn at d, and is provided with two collars 
or bushes e, e*, turned true, and mounted in suitable bearings 
formed within the bolster-rails /, /, so as to be capable of 
revolving therein. A square socket ff, is formed within the 
warve, and the lower part of the spindle is suitably squared 
for passing freely through the same into its footstep-bearing; 
so that the two are caused to revolve together, but in inde- 
pendent bearings, and are easily separated by the lifting of 



MacLardy^Sffor Impis. in Spinning Cotton, ifc. 167 

the spindle upwards until the footstep is free of the warve. 
The upper part of the spindle a, is formed tubular, in order 
to provide a passage for the material to the flyer, which is of 
the ordinary construction, but is made permanently fast on 
the spindle, and placed so far downward from the top bearing 
as to allow of the spindle being lifted sufficiently upward to 
be clear of the bush e*, of the warve d. The copping-rail is 
shewn at t, t, and is notched out at the front part thereof, to 
admit of the spindle being angled outwards. To efiect the 
doffing operation, the spindle a, must be lifted upwards, until 
its footstep is brought above the bush e*, of the warve ; by 
which movement its smaller diameter will be coincident with 
the top bearing b; which position will admit of the spindle 
being angled, so as to remove it from the notch in the copping- 
rail, and so far outward as to admit of the bobbin being drawn 
off in a downward direction. 

The last part of the invention is shewn at figs. 9, and 10; 
fig. 9, being an elevation of a spindle, and the parts in im- 
mediate connection therewith, and fig. 10, a plan or horizontal 
view of the same. The spindle is represented at a, a, carried 
upon a step b, and supported within the bolster-rail c. The 
bobbin d, is loose upon the spindle, and revolves, as in ordi- 
nary throstle-frames, upon a friction washer. In this case, 
however (as in other, modifications of the ring and traveller 
principle), it is not moved up and down in order to distri- 
bute the yam upon its periphery. The copping-rail is shewn 
at e, and carries a ringjf;^ fitted with a traveller g : the inte- 
rior diameter of the ring/, is sufficiently large to admit of the 
legs of the flyer A, revolving freely therein. The flyer is 
attached to the top of the spindle a, a, and, instead of the legs 
of the flyer being provided with the curl commonly in use for 
guiding the passage of the yam, the traveller g, is made to 
answer that purpose. This traveller g, is formed with a 
projecting piece, which extends inwards sufficiently to prevent 
the flyer from revolving without carrying the traveller round 
the ring/, at its own uniform speed. The yam under ope- 
ration passes in the usual manner through the rollers of the 
machine, and from thence through the loop of the traveller g, 
and <m to the bobbin d; and the copping-rail e, by rising and 
falling, distributes the yam upon the periphery of the bobbin, 
as it is wound thereon by the drag of the boblnn, in precisely 
the same manner as with the ordinary spindle and flyer* 
As the copping-rail rises and falls, the proiecting part of the 
traveller in contact with the flyer will, at ul positions, be co- 
incident with the circle in which the legs of the flyer revolve. 



168 Recent Patents. 

The patentee states that, by this method of spinning, the 
advantages of the ring and traveller principle are united 
with those of the ordinary throstle ; for it will be observed, 
that the traveller may be considered as the usual curl of the 
flyer, with a provision for its being traversed upward and 
downward, in order to distribute the yarn ; and, therefore, 
the same efl^ect will be produced with a spindle of considerably 
reduced length above the bolster-bearing. If desired, a disc 
or ring of metal, or other suitable material, may be placed 
upon the upper part of the flyer, as shewn at fig. 1 1, in order 
to keep the yarn, as it passes to the traveller, from bearing 
against the top of the bobbin. 

The patentee claims. Firstly, with reference to those ma- 
chines commonly known as drawing-frames, — the application 
to the stop-mo.tion spoons, of two or more surfaces, in contact 
with which the sliver of cotton or other material passes. Se- 
condly, with reference to throstle-frames and doubling-frames, 
he claims so connecting the spindles to the warves, by which 
they are driven, that the said spindles may be lifted free from 
the warves, for the purpose of doffing the bobbins ; and also 
the mounting of the driving-warves of throstle-frame and 
doubling-frame spindles in independent bearings, for the pur- 
pose of preventing vibration. Thirdly, in reference to that 
mode of spinning called the ring and traveller, he claims the 
new system of driving the traveller positively round the ring 
by means of a revolving-flyer, or other suitable instrument. — 
[Inr oiled December, 1850.] 



To Robert Heath, of Manchester, in the county of Lan- 
caster, iron merchant, and Richard Handley Thomas, 
of Wolstanton, in the county of Stafford, engineer, for 
certain improvements in tJie manufacture of iron,-- [Sealed 
19th June, 1850.] 

This invention relates particularly to the conversion of " pud- 
dled'^ balls of iron into what are commonly called ^'blooms;'' 
and the peculiar feature thereof consists in a novel arrange- 
ment of two revolving surfaces, between which the iron, in- 
tended to be worked, passes, — such surfaces being connected 
to suitable gear, so as to revolve in the same direction, the 
one at a speed above that of the other ; by which means, the 
material under operation is rolled, so as to turn upon its own 
centre, and is, at the same time, carried downwards, to be 
discharged at the lower part of the apparatus : this machine 



Heath and Thomas^ y for Manufacturing Iron, 169 

is also applicable to the rolling of iron into other forms than 
that of the ordinary bloom, as hereafter described. 

In Plate VII., fig. 1, represents a side elevation of the 
machine; fig. 2, a plan or horizontal view thereof; and fig. 
3, an end elevation of the same. The framework (affixed to a 
bed-plate in any ordinary manner) is shewn at a, a^ upon 
which are mounted, in suitable bearings, the two revolving 
surfaces b, i*. These surfaces are of iron, and are grooved 
or fluted, as shewn in the drawing. To the axle of the one b, 
is affixed a toothed wheel c ; and to that of the other i*, a 
toothed wheel d, driven by a pinion m, — the shaft of which 
is connected to any suitable motive power. The wheel d, is 
of smaller diameter than that shewn at c ; the revolving sur- 
face 6*, to which it is connected, will, therefore, move at a 
rate above that of the other b. Upon the upper part of the 
framework of the machine is mounted a sliding-piece e, which 
is capable of moving in V-guides^ /, The inward end of the 
piece e, carries a projecting part or " upsetter" g, which is 
so formed as to fit the peripheries of the revolving surfaces 
b, i*, — in contact wi*h which it is capable of moving, so a3 
to form an abutment, against which the iron under operation 
presses, in order to effect a perfect end to the bloom. The 
outward part of the sliding-piece e, is connected to a lever A, 
which is attached to a vibrating-shaft i, i, mounted in suitable 
bearings attached to the framework of the machine. This 
shaft carries, at either end, a lever j ; and these levers are 
provided, at their extremities, with a weight ^; by which 
means, the shaft t, i, is turned forcibly uj)on its centre, and 
the sliding-piece e, (through the intervention of the lever h,) 
is pressed forward towards the opposite sides of the revolving 
surfaces b, i*. On the contrary side of the machine to that 
occupied by the sliding-piece e, the framework a, a, projects 
upwards ; and, in such projection, is formed a dovetail-groove, 
which receives a similarly-formed piece /, adjusted so as to 
bear lightly against the sides of the revolving surfaces b, b* : 
this forms an abutment for the material under operation, and 
may be removed, when worn, for the substitution of another. 

The operation of this machine is as follows: — The iron, 
puddled in the usual manner, is placed between the revolving 
surfaces b, b* ; and the sliding-piece e, is pressed forward 
by the weights k, k, so as to be partly across the peripheries 
thereof. The machine being now put in motion, the material 
will be rolled round upon its own centre ; the superior velocity 
of the surface i*, at the same time carrying it downwards : 
goring this operation the metal will be extended in lengthy 



170 Recent Patents. 

and the sliding-piece e, will be forced back against the pres- 
sure generated by the operation of the weights k, k; whereby 
a perfect end to the bloom will be maintained^ so as to pro- 
duce one of a regular figure. In the position shewn in the 
drawings the bloom is partially formed, — the slide e, haviug 
been forced backwards, as before described. When the 
metal, under operation, has passed the line coincident with 
the centres of the revolving surfaces, it will fall to the lower 
part of the machine, and may be removed therefrom in any 
desired manner. As the bloom is in progress of being formed, 
the refuse matter, which will be separated therefrom, may fall 
on to a grating provided for that purpose, and thus pass into 
a receptacle for removal at pleasure. 

The patentees claim the use of revolving cylindrical sur- 
faces or rollers, moving in the same direction (as shewn in the 
drawing by arrows), for the purposes above set forth. — [In- 
rolled December, 1850.] 



To Henry Pratt, of New Bond-street, in the parish of St. 
George, Hanover -sqiuire, in the county of Middlesex, camp 
equipage manufacturer, for improvements in the construc- 
tion of portmanteaus and travelling trunks. — [Sealed 9th 
July, 1850.] 

This invention has for its object a more convenient and use- 
ful arrangement of the several parts of a portmanteau or 
travelling trunk than is usually found in these articles. 

In Plate IX., fig. 1, represents a longitudinal vertical section 
of the improved portmanteau, — shewing some of the compart- 
ments open ; and fig. 2, is an end view of the same. The 
body or fixed frame of the portmanteau or trunk is seen at 
a, a. The portmanteau is divided, at its upper part, into two 
compartments b, and i* ; and the cover being jointed in the 
middle, at c, to the centre upright of the frame, either of 
these compartments can be opened without interfering with 
the other. Beneath one of the boxes b, is a hat-case d, which 
is removable ; and, when removed, leaves an open space or 
compartment, of convenient size, for the reception of various 
articles. A similar vacant space is made at e, beneath the 
other compartment i*. The two compartments d, and e, arc 
divided from each other by a fixed central partition/; but, ii 
required, this partition may be hinged at bottom, and made 
to fall down and throw the two compartments into one. One 
of the ends g, of the portmanteau is also hinged at bottom, 



PratfSjfor Impts. in Constructing Portmanteaus, ifc. 171 

and is secured to the lower part of the framing ; and^ when 
open (as shewn at fig. 1^) gives access to two drawers h, and 
h^, which extend from end to end of the portmanteau beneath 
the compartments d, and e. The upper drawer is shallower 
than the other^ and is intended to hold shirts and other flat 
articles, which are liable to become crumpled in the more 
confined and shorter compartments above. The lower drawer 
h*, is intended to receive coats, trousers, and other outer gar- 
ments, and is therefore made deeper than the upper one. 

Fig. 3, is a longitudinal vertical section of a modification 
of the above ; — ^both the ends g, and ^*, of the portmanteau 
being, in this instance, hinged, and capable of being let down 
when required, as shewn by dots in the figure. By this 
arrangement, the drawers may be made to pull out at either 
end. A short drawer is also placed in one of the upper com- 
partments d, or e; and, when that is the case, the central 
partition is fixed. In constructing this portmanteau, it will 
be found convenient to make the ends g, g*, and the bottom, 
of one piece of leather : the top may also be made of one 
piece. 

In constructing a lady's portmanteau or travelling ward- 
robe, a similar arrangement is adopted, — ^the principal difier- 
ence being, that the front of the wardrobe falls down, in the 
place of one or both ends, as already described. The drawers, 
of course, instead of being long and narrow, as in the former 
instance, are as wide as the wardrobe is long. The separate 
compartments d, and e, (as shewn in the former figures) are 
dispensed with, and form one large compartment, for the re- 
ception of bonnets, caps, and other light articles. In the 
lady's portmanteau, the top part, although divided into two 
compartments, is not jointed transversely across the middle, 
as in the other instance, but is divided lengthwise, so as to 
form two compartments the whole length of the portmanteau, 
instead of two nearly square ones, as in the gentleman's port- 
manteau. The ends of the gentleman's portmanteau and the 
two sides of the lady's portmanteau are held up, in a vertical 
position, by means of a brass clip or dasp, so as to prevent 
the said ends from falling down when the lid or top part is 
lifted up to get at any of the upper compartments. The 
handles, whei*eby the portmanteau is lifted, are not affixed 
to the portmanteau itself, but are attached (as seen at t, t,) 
to a strap k, which is secured in the middle, at /, to the iron 
centre-bar of the framing. This strap k, is furnished at each 
end with a strong buckle, which is held down by a strap m, 



172 Becent Patents. 

fig. 3. Additional handles may be attached, if required, to 
the sides of the portmanteau. 

The patentee claims constructing portmanteaus or travelling 
trunks, or wardrobes, with double lids, jointed in the middle, 
and made to open from opposite ends or sides ; such port- 
manteaus or travelling trunks having separate compartments 
and drawers, in which various descriptions of articles and 
wearing apparel may be placed, and kept separate from each 
other, as above set forth. He also claims attaching the 
handles to straps, as above described, instead of to the port- 
manteau itself, as is usually the case. — [Inrolled Jantiary, 
1851.] 

To Isaac Hartas, of Wrelton Hall, in the county of York, 
farmer, for an invention of improvements in machinery for 
obtaining motive power, — being a foreign communication. 
—[Sealed 19th June, 1850.] 

This invention relates to an improved arrangement of mecha- 
nism for obtaining motive power from the muscular exertion 
of horses and other animals, and is intended principally to be 
employed for driving machinery for agricultural and other 
like purposes. 

In the machine which forms the subject of the present in- 
vention, the horse or other animal is made to tread on a tra- 
velling endless floor, which communicates motion to a shaft, 
round which it moves, and thereby (through the intervention 
of any convenient gearing) communicates motive power to the 
machine to be driven. The patentee remarks, that the me- 
chanism hitherto employed for obtaining motive power for 
driving machinery, by means of horses or other animals ac- 
tuating a travelling endless floor, is open to several serious 
objections ; and, among others, it has been found that, if the 
horse is suddenly stopped, either the mechanism becomes de- 
ranged, by some undue strain thereon, owing to the exertion 
of the horse to stop the machine (which will continue in action 
for a short time by the momentum gained by the fly-wheel), 
or there will be great liability for the horse to be thrown down 
and injured. Now the object of the present improvements 
is to obviate these inconveniences to which the old arrange- 
ments are liable. 

In Plate VIII., fig. 1, represents a side elevation of the 
improved engine,-— some of the parts being cut away, in order 
that the interior arrangement may be more clearly seen ; and 



Hartal, for Impts. in Obtaining Motive Power. 173 

fig. 2y is a plan view of the same, a, a, is the framework ; 
and by by is the travelling endless floor, furnished with pulleys 
or rollers, which run on rails on each side of the machine as 
usual, and also provided with a chain-plate or flexible toothed 
rack c, which gears into a toothed wheel ^ on the driving- 
shaft g. If required, there may be one of these wheels on 
each side of the machine ; and both are to be firmly secured 
to the shafk. A cylindrical box or case h, is also secured 
in any convenient manner to the shaft g. Inside this box is 
fastened a pawle or click i, which is kept in contact with the 
teeth of a ratchet-wheel k, by means of a spring j. This 
ratchet-wheel k, is mounted on a hollow shaft /, which also 
carries the fly-wheel m^ and revolves freely on the driving- 
shaft g : the arrangement and construction of this part of the 
mechanism will be best understood by referring to the de- 
tached sectional view, fig. 3. It will now be understood that, 
as the horse moves the travelling-floor under him, he will 
drive round the toothed wheel /, and the shaft g, on which it 
is fixed, together with the cylindrical-box h, and its pawle or 
cUck i ; and, by means of the latter acting against the teeth 
of the ratchet-wheel k, the hollow shaft 7, and fly-wheel w, 
will be driven round; and all the parts will continue to rotate 
together as long as the horse keeps in motion. When he stops, 
the travelling-floor will stop, as will also the driving-shaft and 
the cylindrical-box A, and pawle i ; but the fly-wheel, having 
acquired a certain amount of momentum, will however con- 
tinue to rotate and carry round with it the hollow shaft /, 
and ratchet-wheel ; but, as neither of these parts are fixed to 
the driving-shaft g^ their continued rotation will not of course 
have any efiect upon the stationary parts, — as the teeth of the 
ratchet-wheel will pass under the click, which is the part 
that drives the wheel when all the parts of the machine are in 
motion. It will therefore be seen, that no derangement of 
parts, and no inconvenience can arise from the continued ro- 
tation of the fly-wheel. On the opposite side of the machine 
to that shewn at fig. 1, a brake-wheel n, is keyed to the driv- 
ing-shaft, for the purpose of controlling the speed and stop- 
ping the machine by means of a friction-brake, when required: 
this friction-brake consists of a weighted lever o, furnished 
with a block, which fits the periphery of the friction- wheel. 
To one end of the lever o, is attached a cord, which passes 
over pulleys, and is secured, at the opposite end, to a hand- 
lever p, which may be held to any point by means of a sector 
ratchet-rack, so as to take off, or put on, the friction-brake at 
pleasure. 

VOL. XXX VI II. u 



174 Recent Patents. 

Figs. 4}, and 5^ represent a somewhat different arrangement 
of parts, — the principle, however, being precisely the same ; 
and, as the same letters of reference are marked on corre- 
sponding parts throughout the figures, it will be unnecessary 
to give any detailed description thereof. It may be well, 
however, to observe, that, instead of placing the driving-shaft 
at or near the middle of the machine, and driving it by means 
of a chain or rack acting upon a toothed wheel, the travelling- 
floor passes over two pulleys, one at each end of the machine ; 
and the axle of the large pulley forms the driving-shaft, — 
thereby somewhat simplifying the arrangement. 

The specification also shews an arrangement wherein the 
travelling-floor is passed round two wheels or rollers, the pe- 
ripheries of which are made angular, to fit the under side of 
the floor, which is driven by the angular parts of the rollers 
being made to ac( on the chain, instead of causing projections 
or teeth on the rollers to take into openings in the chain of 
the travelling-floor, as in the former instance. The travelling- 
floor is further supported by a series of antifriction-rollers, 
secured to any convenient part of the frame. 

The patentee claims making the fly-wheel and its appen- 
dages independent of that part of the mechanism which is 
acted on by the animal; so that when the horse or other 
animal and the travelling endless floor are stopped, the fly- 
wheel and its appendages may continue to rotate without in- 
convenience or risk of deranging the machinery. — [InroUed 
December, 1850.] 



To James Forster, of Liverpool, merchant, for improve- 
ments in filtering water and other liquids. — [Sealed 27th 
June, 1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in an improved apparatus for 
filtering water and other liquids ; and, secondly, in cleansing 
or purifying the filtering material by chemical means, after 
it has been rendered foul by use. 

In Plate VIII., fig. 1, is an external elevation of the filter- 
ing apparatus ; fig. 2, is a vertical section ; and fig. 3, is a 
plan view thereof, a, is a hollow spherical vessel, composed 
of porous stone or other suitable porous material, and enclosed 
within a strong close vessel b. The vessel a, is made in two 
parts, which are securely connected together by cement or 
other suitable means ; and the patentee prefers to construct 
the vessel a, in the form of a sphere, but he does not confine 



Forster^Sffor Filtering Water and other liquids. 175 

himself to that shape. To the top of the vessel b^ is affixed 
a pipe Cy through which the water^ or other liquid to be fil- 
teredy is introduced^ by means of a force-pump^ or supplied 
from a main pipe^ into the space d^ between the inner surface 
of the vessel b, and the outer surface of the vessel a y and^ by 
the pressure exerted, the wster or other liquid is forced 
through the porous substance of the vessel a, into the interior 
thereof; and the filtered water is drawn off therefrom through 
the cock or tap e : the filtration and discharge of the water 
or other liquid will thus depend upon the pressure exerted ; 
as there is no aperture for the admission of air into the appa- 
ratus. At the bottom of the vessel b, a cock^ is affixed, for 
the purpose of drawing off unfiltered water or any liquid 
which may be employed for cleansing the filter. 

The patentee says, he is aware that filtering vessels have 
before been made of stone and other porous matters, and 
placed in cisterns or other open vessels,— the water flowing 
firom the porous vessel by the use of suitable air-pipes or 
passages ; he does not, therefore, claim the same ; but states 
his invention to consist in the mode, above described, of com- 
bining a porous vessel a, with a closed vessel 6, and suitable 
taps or outlets, so that the filtration and discharge of the 
water or other liquid shall be effected by the pressure of the 
fluid, as explained. He further states, that although he has 
described this part of his invention to consist in using onlv 
one porous vessel a, within another close and strong vessel 5, 
yet, for water-works, he recommends that several such vessels 
a, should be placed within one such vessel b. 

The following are the methods, described by the patentee, 
for purifying the filtering material by chemical agency :— 
First, if the pores of the filter should become stopped during 
the process of filtration by aluminous or clayey matter, the 
filtering vessel is to be removed from its outer case, and im- 
mersed in a boiling solution of dilute sulphuric acid, contain- 
ing a small quantity of nitrate of potash ; after remaining so 
immersed for from five to fifteen minutes, it is removed ; and 
then the aluminous matters and any free acid are washed 
from the stone, by passing water through it. The patentee 
states, that in this process he prefers to use a solution com- 
posed of two fluid ounces of sulphuric acid to one pint of 
water, in which is dissolved a quarter of an ounce of nitrate 
of potash. 

Secondly, if the pores of the filter become obstructed by 
lime or its carbonate (in the state of chalk), the filtering vessel 



176 Heceni Patenii. 

is to be tr^lfted with a cold dilute solution of hydrochloric 
acidy in the manner above stated with respect to the solutioQ 
of sulphuric acid; and the impurities are afterwards to be 
washed from the filter by the use of water. The solution of 
hydrochloric acid^ which the patentee employs, is composed 
of two fluid ounces of the acid tp one pint of water. 

Thirdly, in case the pores of the filter are stopped by oxide 
or carbonate of iron, the filtering vessel is treated with a dilute 
solution of hydrochloric acid, formed by adding thereto a 
similar quantity of water to that just mentioned, and used at 
the ordinary temperature : the resulting chloride of iron is 
easily removed by passing water through the filter. 

Fourthly, when the pores of the filter are obstructed by 
oxide of lead, the filtering vessel is immersed in a hot or boil- 
ing solution of dilute nitric acid, for ten or fifteen minutes ; 
and, after this, the resulting nitrate of lead is washed out of 
the filter with water. The solution of nitric acid is made 
by adding three fluid ounces of the add to one pint of 
water. 

Fifthly, if the foulness of the filter is produced by carbo- 
naceous or peaty matters, the same may be dissolved by the 
appUcation of concentrated sulphuric acid, raised a little above 
the common temperature j and, after such treatment, the dis- 
solved carbonaceous matters may be removed from the filter 
by boiling in water. 

Sixthly, when the filter becomes obstructed by the refuse 
or more solid impurities of oily or fatty matters, the filter is 
to be immersed in a hot alkaline solution, consisting of either 
soda or potash, in which such matters become saponified, and 
consequently may be easily removed by hot water. 

With regard to the above method of cleansing by chemical 
agency, the patentee says, he wishes it to be distinctly under- 
stood that he does not confine himself thereto ; as he is aware 
that there are other acids and alkaline substances than those 
above named which are capable of removing the impurities 
resulting from filtration ; but there are none, he believes, at 
present known to chemists, which may be applied so cheaply 
and effiectually as those which he has pointed out. What he 
claims is, the application of chemical bodies, which act, while 
in solution, as solvents of those solid impurities which ob- 
struct the action of filters.— [/nro/ferfDcce«i4er, 1850.] 



[ 177 ] 

To Charles William Bell, of Manchester, in the county 
of Lancaster, for improvements in apparatus connected 
with water-closets, drains, and cesspools, and gas and 
air 'traps. — [Sealed 25 th July, 1850.] 

This invention consists in constructing passages of India* 
rubber in combination with water-closets, drains, and cess- 
pools, and gas and air-traps, in such manner that they will 
permit the passage of sewage and other liquids and matters 
suspended in them, and also of gases and other fluids, in 
one direction, and will, by collapsing, prevent the return of 
vapours or matters in the opposite direction. 

In Plate YIII., figs. 1, and 2, are sectional views of a 
water-closet ; and fig. 3, is a plan view of the under side 
thereof, a, is the pan ; and b, is the pipe by which the soil 
and water are carried away. The connection between the 
lower part of the pan and the pipe b, i^ to be made air-tight 
by any convenient means : the patentee prefers to use a ring 
of vulcanized India-rubber c, for this purpose; but other 
means of producing an air-tight connection may be employed. 
To the bottom of the pan is attached a passage d, of India- 
rubber, the lower part of which is made flat, and has at all 
times a tendency, after opening, to assume a collapsed state ; 
but, when pressed by the fluid above, the collapsed part will 
open and permit the fluid to pass. In order to make passages, 
such as d, of India-rubber, which will have at all times a ten- 
dency to assume the collapsed state, the patentee prefers to 
take a tube of India-rubber, and to cause the part which is to 
assume the collapsed state, when in use, to be collapsed, and 
to be held firmly in that form or state whilst the process of 
vulcanizing is being performed ; or the whole length of tube 
may be treated in a collapsed state, and part thereof drawn 
on the tubular bottom of the pan: the collapsed surfaces 
being kept in contact during the process of vulcanizing, they 
wiU, when the process is completed, retain such form or set ; 
and, after being separated, they will again assume the state 
or form in which they were vulcanized ; and the contact of 
the surfaces will be such as to produce an air-tight joint. 
Although the patentee prefers to use India-rubber for con- 
structing such passages, he does not confine himself thereto, 
as other matters may be combined with it, so long as the 
India-rubber is allowed to retain that degree of elasticity 
which will cause the surfaces of a passage (such as above de- 
scribed) to collapse when free to do so. 

Fig. 4, is a plan view, and fig. 5, a vertical^ section, of a 



178 Recent Patents. 

grating or trap for sinks and other places, provided with an 
India-rubber passage d, which will permit fluids to pass into 
drains or cesspools^ and yet will prevent the escape of any gas 
or foul air therefrom through the trap. In some cases^ the 
India-rubber passages may be applied in pipes, as shewn at 
fig. 6, to act as air-traps ; or they may be simply attached to 
the end of a pipe (as shewn at fig. 7,) which enters a drain or 
cesspool. These passages may also be applied to air-cushions^ 
and other articles which are required to be filled with air or 
gas ; but, in such cases, some means must be provided for 
discharging the air or gas therefrom : this may be effected by 
introducing a tube through the collapsed part of the passage. 
The patentee claims, as his invention, the manufacture of 
collapsable passages of India-rubber, above described, con- 
nected with water-closets, drains, and cesspools, and gas and 
air-traps. — [Inr oiled January, 1851.] 



To James Colman, of Stoke Mills, Stoke, near Norwich, in 
the county of Norfolk, mustard and starch manufacturer, 
for improvements in the manufacture of starch. — [Sealed 
8th June, 1850.] 

This invention consists in the employment of a certain salt or 
salts, or chemical substance or substances, for separating or 
facilitating the separation of the starch, contained in farina- 
ceous and leguminous substances, from the gluten and other 
matters with which it is mixed or combined. 

The patentee describes the method of manufacturing starch 
from rice according to his invention, from which the manner 
of obtaining starch from other farinaceous and leguminous 
substances, by means of these improvements, will be readily 
understood. One ton of rice, either whole or broken, and 
with or without the husks, is subjected to the action of a 
caustic alkaline ley, in the usual manner ; — a ley of soda being 
preferred to one of potash, because it is less expensive and has 
not so great a tendency to cause the starch to be deliquescent. 
When the rice has been steeped in the ley or alkaline solution 
for a sufficient time to destroy the union of, or diminish the 
affinity between the starch and gluten contained therein, it is 
washed and passed through levigating stones in the usual way, 
whereby it is ground or crushed into a pulp ; and this pulp is 
then introduced into a chum, together with forty gallons of a 
solution of borax and lime. To prepare the solution, twenty 
pounds of borax are dissolved in a sufficient quantity of hot 



Pirn' 8y for Constructing Steam-engine Boilers, S^c, 179 

water to form^ when cold^ a saturated solution thereof (i. e., 
twenty parts of water to one of borax) ; forty gallons of this 
solution are poured upon a bushel of fresh-burnt unslaked 
lime, the mixture is well-stirred, and as much water is added 
thereto as will make (with the water previously used) in the 
whole fifty gallons ; then the mixture is allowed to stand until 
the undissolved portions have either precipitated or risen to 
the surface ; and after this the clear solution is drawn off and 
added to the pulp. The mixture is agitated in the churn for 
about three hours, or until the pulpy matter has been properly 
acted upon by the solution ; and then the mixture is trans- 
ferred from the churn into a separating vessel, and as much 
water as will be equal to the contents of the churn is added 
and stirred .up therewith. After this, the starch is washed, 
cleansed, boxed, and dried in the ordinary manner. 

In place of using a solution of borax and lime, a solution 
of bitartrate of potash and lime, or of borax alone, or of bi- 
tartrate of potash alone, may be employed in the above process, 
in the same manner as the first-named solution. 

Starch is extracted bom other farinaceous and leguminous 
substances by reducing such substances to a pulp, and then 
subjecting the same to the process above described. 

The patentee claims, as his invention, the application of a 
solution of borax or bitartrate of potash and lime, or of borax 
or bitartrate of potash only, to act upon the pulpy matters 
from which starch is to be separated, and facilitate or promote 
the separation of the starch from the matters with which it is 
mixed, in manner above described. — [Inrolled December, 
1850.] 

To Wakefield Pim, of the totvn or borough of Kingston- 
upon-Hull, engine and boiler-maker, for certain improve- 
ments in the construction of the boilers and funnels of 
steam-engines. — [Sealed 3rd July, 1850.] 

The patentee commences his specification by stating, that 
tubular boilers, as ordinarily constructed for marine steam- 
engines, are generally superior to those made with flues ; as, 
by reason of their compact form, the space which they occupy 
in the vessel is much reduced, and, from their comparative 
lightness, the draught of water is diminished ; and thereby a 
greater proportion of the tonnage of the vessel is rendered 
available for commercial purposes, and an increased speed is 
obtained with the same propelling power. These advantages 
are usually diminished by the rapid manner in which the 



180 Recent Patents. 

flame and heated gases pass immediately through the tubes^ 
without due circulation^ into the chimney ; whereby much of 
the heat which ought to be absorbed by tne water in the boiler 
is lost ; and the destruction of the boiler and chimney, and 
the consumption of fuel, are increased in a corresponding 
degree. To remedy these evils is the object of the present 
invention ; and the manner in which the patentee proposes 
to effect this is by giving a double circulation to the flame and 
heated gases through the tubes, so that their heating influence 
will be longer exerted upon the water in the boiler : by which 
means much of the heat which usually escapes up the chimney, 
in boilers of the ordinary construction, and occasions the rapid 
destruction of the chimney and an extravagant consumption 
of fuel, is absorbed and beneficially employed. 

In Plate IX., fig. 1, is a longitudinal section, and fig. 2, a 
transverse section, of a tubular boiler, constructed according 
to this invention; and fig. 3, is a longitudinal section of a 
tubular boiler of the ordinary construction : the same letters 
of reference are used in all the figures to indicate similar parts. 
a, is the furnace; b, b, are water-spaces, which divide the 
tubes c, into two distinct tiers ; and d, is the chimney. In 
the improved boiler, the flame, instead of proceeding from the 
furnace direct through the tubes c, into the chimney, as in 
fig. 3, passes first through the lower tier of tubes into the 
chamber e, and thence through the upper tier of tubes into 
the chimney. The patentee remarks^ that the situation and 
construction of the funnel is altered, as shewn in the drawing, 
so as to admit of the circulation of the flame according to his 
invention ; but he does not describe any alterations in the 
construction of the funnel. 

In conclusion, the patentee states, that his invention con- 
sists in constructing the boilers and funnels of steam-engines 
so as to give a double circulation to the flam^ and heated 
gases, generated in furnaces of marine steam-engines, through 
the tubes, as above described. — [Inr oiled December^ 1850.] 



To Frederick Albert Gatty, of Accrington^ in the county 
of Lancaster J manufacturing chemist^ for a certain process 
or certain processes for obtaining carbonate of soda and 
carbonate of potash. — [Sealed llth June, 1850.] 

This invention consists in obtaining the carbonates of potash 
and soda by decomposing a solution of the neutral tartrate pf 
potash or soda^ by means of carbonic acid gas and lime, or 



Gatty'Sf for Obtaining Carbonates of Soda and Potash. 181 

carbonic acid gas and carbonate of lime^ or carbonic acid gas 
and a mixture of lime and carbonate of lime. 

In carrying out the invention, the patentee employs a 
wooden vessel, of a cylindrical form, capable of holding 400 
gallons, and furnished with an air-tight lid. Into this vessel 
300 gallons of a solution of neutral tartrate of potash, at 5^ 
Twaddle, are poured, and 34 gallons of lime-milk (each gallon 
containing 1 lb. of lime) are added thereto: instead of lime, 
carbonate of lime, or a mixture of lime and carbonate of lime, 
may be employed ; but the patentee prefers to use lime. An 
agitator is placed in the liquid contained in the vessel, and 
attached to a shaft, which passes through an air and water- 
tight stuffing-box, and is provided with a handle, whereby it 
can be caused to rotate. A stream of carbonic acid gas is 
passed into the liquid, through a pipe, and mingled with it 
by the rotation of the agitator ; and the supply of carbonic 
acid gas is continued until the liquid is saturated with it. 
The operation is then completed; and the contents of the 
vessel, consisting of a solution of bicarbonate of potash and 
insoluble tartrate of lime, are run off into another vessel, and 
allowed to subside. After this, the liquid containing the bi- 
carbonate of potash is drawn off; but, as some of the bicar- 
bonate of potash remains amongst the tartrate of lime, it is 
requisite to wash it out therefrom. For this purpose, about 
50 gallons of water are added to the tartrate of lime, and 
stirred up therewith; and, when it has subsided again, the 
clear liquid is drawn off. The operation of washing is re- 
peated a second and third time ; and the clear liquid from 
such washings is subsequently used, instead of water, for the 
first washing of the tartrate of lime next produced. The bi- 
carbonate of potash, which is drawn off in the first instance 
after the tartrate of lime has subsided, and the liquid which 
is drawn off after the first washing, are evaporated to dryness 
in an iron pan. By this operation> the bicarbonate of potash 
is changed into subcarbonate of potash, which is then calcined 
in a reverberatory furnace, in the manner well known to, ma- 
nufacturing chemists. In this state, the carbonate of potash 
is sufficiently pure for most manufacturing purposes ; but, if 
it is required to be in a more pure state, it is re-dissolved in 
water, and the clear liquor evaporated again to dryness. 

The tartrate of lime, obtained in the above process, may be 
used in the manufacture of tartaric acid. Carbonate of soda 
is produced by treating the neutral tartrate of soda in the 
manner above described with regard to the neutral tartrate of 
potash. 

The patentee claims, as his invention, obtaining carbonate 

VOL. XXXVIII. X 



182 Recent Patents. 

of soda and carbonate of potash by decomposing solutions of 
either the neutral tartrate of soda or of the neutral tartrate of 
potash with carbonic acid gas and Ume^ or with carbonic acid 
gas and carbonate of lime, or with carbonic acid gas and a 
mixture of lime and carbonate of lime, as above described. — 
[Inrolled December, 1850.] 



To Frank Clarke Hills and George Hills, ofDeptford, 
manufacturing chemists, for certain improvements in ma- 
nufacturing and refining sugar, — [Sealed 1st June, 1850.] 

This invention consists in a process for removing from sac- 
charine solutions any excess of sulphuretted hydrogen or of 
the hydrosulphurets of the earths which may have been used 
to precipitate lead or other metals from such solutions. 

When sulphuretted hydrogen is the agent which has been 
used for precipitating lead or other metals from saccharine 
solutions, and it has been ascertained, by the usual tests, that 
all the metal is precipitated, and that the solution contains an 
excess of sulphuretted hydrogen — the patentees add to the solu- 
tion a quantity of sulphite of lead (made into a cream with 
water),which immediately abstracts the sulphuretted hydrogen. 
The solution is kept during the process at a temperature of 
about 150^ Fahr. ; and the addition of the sulphite of lead is 
continued until, on testing part of the solution (which is first to 
be filtered), it will not change color or become black when a 
solution of acetate of lead is added thereto. Without the 
addition of sulphite of lead, the solution would be found to 
have a most disagreeable taste and smell, owing to the pre- 
sence of the sulphuretted hydrogen, which also interferes with 
the process of crystallization. After being treated with sul- 
phite of lead, the solution is filtered, and boiled down to the 
proper degree for crystallization. 

When the hydrosulphurets of the earths have been used, 
in place of sulphuretted hydrogen, for precipitating lead or 
other metals from saccharine solutions, the excess of the hy- 
drosulphuret may be removed by the employment of sulphite 
of lead, or carbonate of lead, or precipitated protoxide of iron. 

In cases where sulphuretted hydrogen has been employed 
for precipitating lead and other metals from saccharine solu- 
tions, if the solution be made perfectly neutral or charged 
with an excess of base, then carbonate of lead or precipitated 
protoxide of iron may be used instead of sulphite of lead. 

The patentees claim, as their invention, the employment of 
sulphite of lead, or carbonate of lead, or precipitated protoxide 



MilW, for Impts. in Steam-Engines and Pumps, 183 

of iron, to deprive saccharine solutions of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, or of hydro-sulphurets of the earths which may have 
been employed for the purification of such solutions. — [In- 
rolled December, 1850.] 



To Thomas Mills, of Bow, in the county of Middlesex, en- 
ffineer, for improvements in steam-engines and in pumps. 
—[Sealed 22nd July, 1850.] 

The improvements in steam-engines and pumps, which form 
the subject of this invention, consist in a certain method or 
certain methods of causing the packing of the pistons or 
plungers to fit any inequality in the diameter of their cylinders 
or barrels ; — such method or methods afibrding great facilities 
' for increasing the expanding pressure of the packing during 
any temporary stoppage of the steam-engine or pump, and 
without removing the piston or plunger from the steam cyUn- 
der or pump barrel. 

In Plate IX., fig. 1, is a plan view of a piston provided 
with the improved packing ; fig. 2, is a plan view with the junk 
ring removed ; fig. 3, is a vertical section ; and fig. 4, is an 
edge ^ew thereof, with part of the packing rings removed. 
a, is the body of the piston, and b, the junk ring, which are 
similar to those of the ordinary construction, c, c, are the 
packing rings, d, is an inner ring, of nearly the same depth 
as the two packing rings, and turned so as to bear uniformly 
against the inner surface of the same. Out of this ring an 
angular or wedge-shaped piece is cut, as shewn at fig. 4 ; and 
in the space, thus formed, is fitted a wedge e, (shewn detached, 
upon a large scale, at figs. 5, which represent front, edge, and 
plan views thereof) for the purpose of expanding the ring rf, 
sufficiently to cause it to bear against the packing rings. 
Within the wedge a cavity is formed for the reception of a 
nut f, and a spiral spring, which is interposed between the 
nut and the upper part of the wedge, so as to exert a constant % 
upward pressure upon the wedge, in order to keep the ring d, 
in an expanded state ; and this pressure can be increased to 
any desired extent, without taking off the junk ring or even 
removing the piston from the cylinder, by turning the screw 
/ (which works in the nut g,) and thereby compressing the 
spring. The screw/, extends upwards through the junk ring 
and terminates in a rose-head, upon which a spring-catch h, 
acts, in order to retain the screw in any desired position. 
When the packing requires adjustment, the piston is brought 
to the top of the cylinder, and then the screw is turned by 



184 Recent Patents. 

means of a key^ introduced through an orifice in the cylinder 
cover, which is afterwards closed by a screw. The wedge e, 
may be used without the spiral spring, but not with equal 
advantage. 

When the improved packing is used in oscillating and hori- 
zontal cylinders, the back of the wedge should be bevilled, 
and the recess, made in the piston to receive it, should be 
formed with a corresponding bevil ; so that as the wedge is 
pressed upwards (on the packing wearing away) the two be- 
villed surfaces may still keep in contact and impart firmness 
to the piston. This arrangement will be found particularly 
advantageous when the wedge is applied to the lower side of 
the piston in horizontal cylinders. For oscillating cylinders, 
it is best to place the wedge on that side of the piston imme- 
diately opposite the throw of the crank after it has passed the 
top of the stroke. 

Fig. 6, is a transverse section of a piston, furnished with a 
modification of the above arrangement for expanding the 
packing ; and fig. 7, is an edge view thereof, — part of the 
packing rings being broken away, f, is a thin band or hoop 
of steel, carrying several bearing-pieces y, which press against 
the packing rings c, as shewn in the plan view, fig. 8. A 
wedge e, is used in this arrangement, but without the spiral 
spring above mentioned ; for the band t, acts as a spring, 
which yields in the event of an inequality in the diameter of 
the cyUnder requiring a corresponding expansion or contraction 
of the packing to take place during the act of making a stroke. 

Another modification of the means of adjusting the packing 
of steam-engines is represented at fig. 9. k, is a metal ring, 
which is expanded by a wedge e, similar to those before des- 
cribed ; and /, /, are springs, which are interposed between 
the ring k, and the packing rings c. 

Fig. 10, is an elevation and fig. 11, a plan view of a pump 
bucket, constructed according to this invention, and intended 
to be fitted with hempen packing, m, is an expanding metal 
ring, around which the packing is placed ; e, is the wedge 
whereby the ring is expanded; f, is the screw by which 
the wedge is adjusted; and w, n, are two collars, which are 
bevilled or dished on the inner side (as indicated by the dotted 
lines fig. 10,), so as to cause the hempen packing, as it is ex- 
panded, to become more compact on the outer surface, where 
it comes in contact with the pump barrel. 

The patentee claims, Firstly, — constructing pistons for 
steam-engines and pumps with an expanding ring, acted upon 
by a wedge-shaped piece which acts parallel to the line of mo- 
tion of the piston^ as shewn at figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and above 



Scientific Notices. 185 

described. Secondly, — the two modifications thereof shewn 
at figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, and above described. Thirdly, — the con- 
struction of hempen-packed pump buckets and other pistons 
in the manner represented at figs. 10, and 11, and above 
described. — [Inrolled January, 1851.] 



ibcientCfic BotittH^ 



Reports L and IL of the Society of Arts Committee for 
promoting the legislative recognition of the Rights of In" 
ventors. 

The notoriety which the Society of Arts has recently attained 
by its exhibitions of art manufacture, and more particularly 
by its connection with the Great Exhibition, would forbid our 
passing unnoticed the published accounts of its proceedings 
with respect to Patent Law Reform, even if they contained 
nothing specially deserving of comment. It will be remem- 
bered that, in 1849, this subject was brought under the notice 
of the Society ; and the result was, the issuing of a long series 
of questions, with the expectation of collecting information in 
the shape of replies thereto. The formation, therefore, of a 
Committee "to promote the legislative recognition of the 
rights of inventors^' may be considered as the following out 
of a long predetermined policy ; and it might reasonably be 
supposed, that the knowledge gained of the working of the 
patent laws by those members who took part in the former 
discussions, would have been made available in prosecuting this 
object of the Society. In glancing over the names of the 
Committee, however, we find that it is made up, with very 
few exceptions, of gentlemen whose connection with the So- 
ciety could scarcely be counted by months; and, in some 
cases, weeks did not elapse between their election as members 
and their nomination to the Committee. This may be policy; 
but we confess we cannot understand it ; for, where an honest 
desire exists to examine into the merits of a confessedly diffi- 
cult subject, it would seem but rational to appoint tried men, 
or such as have proved themselves fit for the duty to be dis- 
charged ; and that more especially where credit is to be lost 
or gained, according to the nature of the decisions that may be 
arrived at. But the logic of the Council of the Society of Arts 
appears to be of a more recherchS order than that which ap- 
peals to common sense ; and, therefore, the credit of the So- 
ciety has been staked on the result of the deliberations of 
thirty gentlemen, who are, for the most part^ strangers alike 



186 Scientific Notices. 

to the subject under discussion and the object for which they 
have been induced to assume their present position. 

It would be impossible to examine^ analytically^ a statement 
so rambling and incoherent as the Reports now before us ; 
but we will attempt to shew what has been laid down as the 
"principles of jurisprudence which should regulate the recog- 
nition of the rights of inventors/' The greater part of the 
first paper* is devoted to criticising the present system of 
granting patents ; but we may well be excused the duty of 
tracing the anomalies which exist in this branch of jurispru- 
dence^ as they have been most fully dwelt upon in these pages. 
The following is the summing up of this part of the subject : — 

" All experience has proved, that it is hopeless to effect amend- 
ment of the present system of obtaining patents * * * *, 
Whilst the whole superstructure rests upon the fallacy that inven- 
tive rights are boons to be granted or withheld, and not rights of 
intellectual labor, it is idle to attempt to amend the details of 
the system. PubHc opinion and common sense pronounce the 
present forms empty pretences." 

This being disposed of^ the question of protection or no 
protection is entered into^ and is thus argumentatively set- 
tled :— 

"Every one must feel that inventive labor has its rights, 
which are not only entitled to equal recognition [to that of the 
stone-breaker on the road], but, being intellectual, are entitled, 
if possible, to a higher kind of recognition than other kinds of 
human labor. It may be called, for want of a more compre- 
hensive phrase, a natural right, the exercise of which should be 
left perfectly free, and recognized as peculiarly sacred. To have, 
therefore, to beg for the right of enjoying it, is degrading, and is 
almost tantamount to an admission that yon should beff to be 
allowed to Hve. It is altogether at variance with all the other 
rights which a member of the British commonwealth possesses 
at the present time." 

If "every one must feel that inventive labor has its rights, 
which are entitled, if possible, to a higher kind of recognition 
than other kinds of human labor,'' why are we told that the 
policy of a civilized state to grant any rights to inventors is 
" still a question mooted by those whose opinions demand re- 
spectful attention ?^^ Now, assuming this to be really the 
case — and it is an assertion which cannot be denied — surely 
some argument to prove the right of the inventor to a legal 
recognition of property in his discovery would have been more 
in place than an appeal to the feelings ; and the conscious 
inability to substantiate this, the first and simplest position, 
by argument, should have acted as a check to further meddling 



Scientific Notices, 187 

in the matter; for such incompetency could only arise from 
the want of a proper appreciation of the subject. 

The inference drawn from the fact that the inventor pos- 
sesses a '^ natural right ^^ to the results of his mental labor, is 
thus laid down as the conclusion to the first Report^ and is 
the only "principle of jurisprudence** therein enunciated: — 

" It would thus appear, that it is simply the business of the 
State to provide an easy means of registration of claims, which 
the law should regard as valid, until they were proved to be 
otherwise, as is the case in almost every civilized country but our 
own ; and the establishment of any tribunal to investigate claims, 
either before they are disputed or afterwards, appears altogether 
a separate and distinct question, quite independent of the policy 
of recognizing the rights of inventors to the fruits of their labor." 

In their second Report, the Committee, after setting forth 
a string of resolutions, intended to form the heads of a bill^ 
continue their analytical examination, in order to eliminate the 
principles of jurisprudence upon which this bill should be 
founded ; and having already proved that " every one must feel 
that inventive labor has its rights,** they proceed in the following 
strain, to shew upon what tenure these rights may be held : — 

" It has been asked whether, like rights in land, in capital, 
and personal property, they should not be rights in perpetuity ; 
or whether they should be limited in duration, like copyrights in 
art and literature ? Without entering on this question, it appears 
to the Committee to be for the public good that rights in inven- 
tion should not be perpetual. Inventions in science are based 
upon ideas and knowledge, which are the common property of 
the period, and they are the answer to wants previously uttered 
by the public. The discoveries of any one period could hardly 
have been made in any antecedent period, because they are the 
results of the condition of science and knowledge at the particular 
period brought to a practical result by minds specially directing 
themselves to it. It is right policy to reward the^r^^ successful 
discoverer, for that reason ; but it would discourage invention if 
the rights of the first discoverer were perpetual, and in force 
against all others who might and would, independently of the 
first discoverer and his labors, have sooner or later arrived at 
the like result.'' 

Here, however, is no demonstration of the injustice of grant- 
ing a right in perpetuity to the inventor of any new manu- 
facture; but there is still a begging of the question; and 
expediency, or the " public good,** is set in the place of argu- 
ment. There could be no objection to this course in dealing 
with all the points which arise on the discussion of patent law 
reform ; but, having been induced by the tempting title of the 



188 Scientific Notices. 

Reports^ to look for " principles/* in finding none we can- 
not but feel disappointment. 

The following extract will shew the next point brought 
under consideration^ and the mode of treating it : — 

"If it be conceded that the rights of inventors ought not to 
be in perpetuity, it may be asked » What, then, should be their 
duration ? What is the duration of analogous rights 7 In litera- 
ture it is at least 42 years, and it may be longer. In sculpture 
and plastic art the original designer has rights for 14 years, and 
longer. In engravings, 42 years. In ornamental designs for 
manufactm:es it may vary from 9 months to 6 years. In designs 
for articles of utility, dependent on form or configuration, it is for 
3 years. For those other classes of invention, which are the sub- 
ject of letters patent, the duration is 14 years, and may be ex- 
tended to 28 years. And as this period is already recognized, 
the Committee consider that 21 years should be adopted.'* 

This decision of the Committee, that twenty-one years is the 

f)roper period for the duration of a patent, may have, and doubt- 
ess has been arrived at by a process of inferential reasoning; 
but we cannot, for our part, see why the one year, without the 
twenty, should not have been adopted on the same grounds, 
as that is also a '^ period already recognized.** 

But enough, we think, has been said, to shew that, for the 
eliciting of any truths which bear upon the rights of inven- 
tors, these Reports are utterly valueless. Let us now see 
what power is displayed in dealing with some objections to 
the pet schemes of the Committee, viz., the cheap protection 
of an invention by simple registration, without enquiry, or the 
possibility of enquiry. A chief objection to cheap patents is, 
that they would lead to endless litigation ; but, say the Re- 
ports, — 

** Direct experience has proved the contrary. The thousand 
registrations effected under the * Utility ' Designs Act have not 
encouraged litigation. Inventors oppressed by the patent laws 
have taken refuge under this act, and, as we have seen, have 
registered many inventions as being * forms or configurations ;' 
whereas it is notorious that the object of the claims is the pro- 
tection of a new mechanical action or contrivance ; and, besides 
the number of righte thus admitted, there has been the further 
incentive to litigation from the doubts which notoriously hang 
over such registrations. Still, irreconcilable as the Registration 
Act is perfectly well known to be with the common law of pa- 
tents, and questionable as are many of the rights claimed under 
it, it has not been the source of increased litigation, but a much- 
improved tone of morals has been generated among inventors by 
its existence, who respect the registration, notwithstanding its 
illegahty. It is thus proved, that if an inventor declares his right. 



Scientific Notices. 189 

although the law does not strictly recognize it, it becomes re- 
spected. In this case the illegality of the registration is surely 
an additional motive for litigation and piracy ; but there have 
been very few cases of infringement, and it is quite notorious 
that very litUe litigation has arisen out of the ' Utility ' B^s- 
tration Act.*' 

Did it never occor to the Committee^ that two parties are 
necessary to the carrying on of a law-suit ; and that it is not 
the infringer of the alleged right, but the infringed, who usually 
commences the action ; and, further, that the plaintiff seldom 
risks a suit without the prospect of getting a verdict ; and 
that the known illegality of a registration is surely not a very 
strong motive for a registree to test the validity of his claims 
in a court of law ? Yet such is the kind of argument by 
which the Society of Arts seeks to further the cause of patent 
law reform. Again, in answer to the objection, that a simple 
registration afforded no means of ascertaming which of two or 
more claimants was entitled to an invention for which pro- 
tection was sought, and would, therefore, be highly detri- 
mental to the inventive interest, we find the following remark, 
which, like the one last quoted, is also an appeal to " direct 
experience :" — 

*' If ever there seemed to be a likelihood of unconscious in- 
fringement, or an easy road to it, it is here [in cotton prints] : if 
e?er a multitude of rights could create confusion and interruption 
to trade, it would be manifested in calico-printing. But the 
practical working of this act has been such, that there has not 
been an average of twenty convictions per annum dturing the 
creation of at least fifty thousand small rights. As for uncon- 
scious infringement of any one of them, such a thing is hardly 
possible ; no two persons, however alike in taste and education, 
being set apart to devise a pattern on a given subject, would ever 
do precisely the same thing ; and it would be the same with in- 
ventions. It is a law of nature that no two things can be precisely 
alike." 

Could it have been supposed that any one, pretending to 
the least acquaintance with patents, would have asserted, that 
unconscious infringement of one of them was hardly possible ? 
But yet we are gravely told that it is so. The best answer to 
this unfounded assertion of the Committee will be found in 
the evidence given by one of their own members before the 
Committee on the Privy Seal and Signet Offices. Mr. Wood- 
croft, under examination, is reported to have said, — 

*' In the year 1696, Thomas Savery, who is styled ' Grentieman,' 
and who is the person who was the first great improver of the 
steam-engine, took out a patent for improvements in navigation, 

VOL. XXXVIII. Y 



190 Scientific Notices, 

and published a work upon the subject, called ' Navigation Im- 
proved.' This invention for propelling, by Savery, was again pa- 
tented in the year 1830 by a physician in this town, who, in 
ignorance of Savery's invention, obtained a patent for identically 
the same thing ; and if I were to bring the Committee a list of 
all the patents that have ever been granted for improvements in 
navigation, I could find youj perhaps, two scores of patents 
granted for the same thing." 

With such an evidence of incapacity on the part of the Com- 
mittee, for leading the public to a correct appreciation of the 
subject of patent law reform, it seems inexplicable why the 
Council of the Society of Arts should have courted public 
censure by issuing these Reports. The question is undoubt- 
edly a very important one, and well deserving the serious 
attention of any society of men desirous of promoting the 
prosperity of the country ; but there are, as we believe, but 
two classes of persons who have any right to handle the sub- 
ject in the public way in which it has been treated by the 
Committee of the Society of Arts, — ^namely, those who have 
suffered from the insufficiency of the laws to protect their in- 
terests, and those who, knowing the defects of the law, are 
conscious of the ability to suggest a remedy. Without, there- 
fore, a practical knowledge of the question, or a personal ex- 
perience of the defects of the existing system, we hold it 
presumption in any party to appeal to the public on the 
matter ; and, as the thirty gentlemen of the Committee can- 
not, if their Reports are to evidence their ability, take shelter 
under either of these classes, we think their interference alto- 
gether uncalled for. To say that it has as yet been detri- 
mental to the cause of patent law reform, would be, perhaps, 
to set too high a value on the arguments contained in their 
Reports ; but all who have paid any attention to the science 
of agitation, must acknowledge that the constant iteration of 
the greatest balderdash will have its effect ; and we do not 
apprehend that, while the many illustrious names which form 
the Committee remain available for endorsing fresh statements, 
the restless clique which now sways the destinies of the So- 
ciety of Arts will fail to make the most of the opportunity. 
On the banner under which the Council of the Society of 
Arts now marshals its forces, it is easy to read the motto — " to 
ACT IS NOBLER THAN TO THINK ;^' but it should be remem- 
bered by individual members who have the interest of the 
Society at heart, but yet shew a supineness as to the direction 
of its affairs, that although thought without action is nothing 
worth, yet action without thought is worth less than nothing. 
It behoves^ therefore^ the general body of members to look 



Scientific Notices. 191 

closely to the future proceedings of the Patent Committee ; 
for they have added enough to the hitherto sufficiently abund- 
ant evidence^ that ^'ignorance seldom vaults into knowledge '/' 
and it would be well if steps were taken to prevent these im- 
becile attempts at enlightening the legislature from being 
considered as embodying the opinions of the Society at large. 



PROVISIONAL REGISTRATION OF INVENTIONS. 

The demand (which originated^ we believe^ with the Local 
Commissioners for Liverpool) that protection should be granted 
to novel inventions offered for exhibition in Hyde Park^ having 
been re-echoed from all parts of the country^ has induced the 
government to attempt, for the second time, to effect this 
most desirable end. The signal defeat of the former bill, or 
of those parts of it relating to inventions, resulting, as it did, 
from a simple statement of the vast inconveniences which it 
was calculated to create, should have warned the government 
that an Act simply declaring that the exhibition (under certain 
restrictions) of unpatented inventions should not militate 
against their legal claim to novelty, was not sufficient to meet 
the cases ; but, on perusing the draft of a bill recently pre- 
sented to the House of Lords by Earl Granville, for the pro- 
visional registration of inventions (a copy of which is given 
below), we find it almost a repetition in substance of the bill 
of last sessions, — the only difference being, that the power of 
the Act is to cease with the occasion which called it forth. 
We would, therefore, in laying the bill before our readers, 
advise them not to foand any hopes upon it ; '^ for (to repeat 
what we formerly said) this class of Acts has hitherto been 
drawn by parties wholly unqualified for the task ; and we fear 
diat the present specimen will form no exception to the rule.^^ 

" Whereas it is expedient that Such protection as hereinafter 
mentioned should be afforded to persons desirous of exhibiting 
new inventions in the Exhibition of the Works of Industry of 
all Nations in 1851: Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's 
roost Excellent Majesty, by and with tlie advice and consent of 
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present 
parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as 
follows : — 

I. The proprietor of any piece of workmanship, mechanical 
contrivance, or manufacture, being a new invention for the sole 
making, exercising, vending, or using whereof letters patent might 
lawfully be granted to him, may at any time during the year 
1851, but not afterwards, publicly exhibit the same in any place 
preriously certified by the Lords of the Committee of Privy 



192 Scientific Notices. 

Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations to be a place of ex- 
hibition within the meaning of the Designs Act, 1850, without 
prejudice to the validity of any letters patent to be thereafter, 
during the term of the provisional registration hereinafter men- 
tioned, granted for such invention to the proprietor thereof: 
Provided always, that such piece of workmanship, mechanical 
contrivance, or manufacture, have previously to such public ex- 
hibition thereof, been provisionally registered in manner herein- 
afler mentioned ; and provided also, that the same be not other- 
wise publicly exhibited or used prior to the granting of any such 
letters patent as aforesaid. 

II. Tlie Registrar of Designs, acting under the Designs Act, 
1850, upon application by or on behalf of the proprietor of any 
such piece of workmanship, mechanical contrivance, or manufac- 
ture, as aforesaid, and upon being furnished with such drawing 
or description thereof in writing as in the judgment of the Regis- 
trar is sufficient to identify the same, and in which shall be dis- 
tinguished what part of such piece of workmanship, mechanical 
contrivance, or manufacture, is claimed by such proprietors to be 
a new invention, and upon being also furnished with the name 
and address of the person claiming to be the proprietor thereof, 
and with satisfactory evidence that such piece of workmanship, 
mechanical contrivance, or manufacture, is intended to be exhi- 
bited in such place of public exhibition as aforesaid, shall register 
the same for the term of one year ; and any piece of workman- 
ship, mechanical contrivance, or manufacture, so registered, shall 
be deemed to be provisionally registered ; and the words *' pro- 
visionally registered" shall be marked thereupon or attached 
thereto ; and the said Registrar shall certify under his hand and 
seal of office that such piece of workmanship, mechanical con- 
trivance, or manufacture, has been provisionally registered; and 
shall also certify the date of such registration, and the name and 
place of address of the registered proprietor. 

III. Such provisional registration as aforesaid shall, during the 
term thereof, confer on the proprietor of such piece of workman- 
ship, mechanical contrivance, or manufacture, with respect thereto, 
all the protection against piracy and other benefite which, by the 
Designs Act, 1850, are conferred upon the proprietors of designs 
provisionally registered thereunder with respect to such designs 

IV. All letters patent to be thereafter, during the term of any 
such provisional* registration, granted to the proprietor of any 
piece of workmanship, mechanical contrivance, or manufacture 
so provisionally registered in respect of such invention, shall, not- 
withstanding the registration thereof, and notwithstanding the 
exhibition thereof in such place of public exhibition as aforesaid, 
be of the same validity as if such piece of workmanship, mechani- 
cal contrivance, or manufacture, had no tbeen so registered or 
exhibited. 

y . The protection and other benefits given by the said Designs 



Scientific Notices. 193 

Act, 1 850, and this Act, to the proprietors of designs and inven- 
tions provisionally registered, and exhibited in such place of 
public exhibition as aforesaid, shall extend to all proprietors 
whose designs or inventions shall be so exhibited as aforesaid, 
whether they be subjects of Her Majesty or not. 

VI. Ail the provisions of the Designs Act, 1 850, relating or 
applicable to the designs to be provisionally registered thereunder, 
or to the proprietors of such designs, except the provision for ex- 
tending the term of any such provisional registration, shall apply 
to the pieces of workmanship, mechanical contrivances, and manu- 
factures to be provisionally registered under this Act ; and the said 
Designs Act and this Act shall be construed together as one Act.** 



ON THE ODIC PRINCIPLE OF REICHENBACH, 

AND THE RELATION IT BEARS TO THE IMPONDERABLE BODIES 

OF IGNOTDS. 
COcmHnued from page 132, Vol, XXXVIII.) 

Having now endeavoured, in conformity with the views of 
Reichenbach, to shew wJuit od is not, an attempt will be made, 
hypothetically, to consider what it may be. 

That od possesses a degree of materiality, or, more properly 
speaking, ponderosity, is rendered probable by many of the ex- 
periments of Reichenbach; as, for instance, by its divergence 
from a rectilinear course when two streams, passing at an angle, 
are made to impinge on each other ; by its capability of being 
more or less intercepted by various substances, as wool, &c. &c. ; 
by its admitting of accumulation ; and by its slowness of march 
as compared with magnetism or electric action. It may, therefore, 
be regarded as possessing some of the essential principles of pon- 
derable matter, and, as such, more or less subject to the laws of 
chemical action, — in which sense it is intended to regard it. 
Differing from magnetine and electrine, it notwithstanding main- 
tains more or less evident relation to both ; and it is not impos- 
sible that it may be a peculiar compound, derived from their com- 
bination in certain equivalents. It has been assumed by Ignotus, 
that an especial combination of these elements gives rise to the 
matter oxygen, with those consequent effects or manifestations 
which are known by the name of electricity, or, more properly 
speaking, electric action. What the respective equivalents, to 
prodace this particular combination, may be, it is vain at present 
to conjecture ; but there is nothing at variance with the acknow- 
ledged laws of chemistry, in supposing that the given elements 
freqaently, if not always, admit of union in different equivalents. 
This is conceived to be the case in the present instance ; and that 
while oxygen is a magnetidey the odic matter may be a per-^maff- 
netide of electrine. 

In pursuing this view, it will be necessary to detail more fully 
the nature or characters of electrine, magnetine, and the odic 
principle. 



194 Scientific Notices. 

Eleetrine may be described as a ponderable chemical element, 
capable of entering into chemical union with other chemical ele- 
ments, and as being an important constituent in their various 
compounds ; — in the existing state of our temperature it is a subtle 
gaseous body, possessing more levity than any other of the known 
ponderable matters; it is impermeable to some few bodies, as 
glass, — by means of which it may be accumulated, as in the 
Ley den jar ; but passes readily through the pores of most bodies: 
when influenced by its powerful affinity for magnetine as well as 
other matters, it is capable of moving with great velocity, so that 
its vibratory movements admit of giving rise to manifestations of 
luminosity ; — in all cases where it enters into chemical combina- 
tion, it becomes neutralized, and comparatively quiescent. These 
suppositions are apparently realised in that combination with 
magnetine which forms oxygen. 

Magnetine, in its pure and free condition, is inferred to be a 
highly attenuated and subtle matter, evidencing, as far as expe- 
rience goes, not the slightest ponderosity, and capable of pene- 
trating and permeating with the greatest facility the pores of all 
ponderable bodies ; in consequence, it pervades all matter, — the 
pores or interstices existing in which, may be said to be saturated 
with it. Magnetine possesses, among its other important pro- 
perties, a powerful tendency to enter into chemical action ; by 
virtue of which, it is capable of combining with all the various 
chemical elements, becoming then latent, and participating in 
their respective constitutions ; — from such combinations, however, 
it admits of being again eliminated or disengaged in a free state 
when they are subjected to new chemical actions. These effects 
not only occur with respect to terrestrial but also celestial bodies, 
as in the solar orb, — the elimination and transmission of whose 
rays (assumed to consist chiefly of magnetine) are conceived to 
depend on the principle of chemical disengagement. 

The above emanations of free magnetine, more or less rapid or 
energetic, in proportion to the violence of the chemical action by 
which they are disengaged, are materially connected with the 
principle of luminosity. In his original treatise, Ignotus was led 
to adopt the corpuscular theory of light, and regard it as an ad- 
ditiontd imponderable body, which he designated by the term 
lumine and supposed to be associated with the magnetine when- 
ever luminous manifestations took place : subsequent reflection, 
however, has induced him to prefer the vibratory theory, and to 
consider light as always the result of vibratory motion, — ^the dif- 
ference of color arising, like musical tones, from the given num- 
ber of vibrations into which the luminous source may be thrown 
in a given space of time. This difference of opinion does not, 
however, affect or injure the general principles of his hypothesiB, 
but, on the contrary, harmonizes better with it, particularly as 
applied to the explanation of electric, magnetic, or odic pheno- 
mena. 

The assumption of the odic principle being a per-magnetide ef 



Sct&rUific Notices. 195 

electrine, is admitted to be highly speculative ; but probably none 
of the, more subtle principles in nature will ever admit of any 
positive demonstration ; — if, however, the hypothesis advanced, 
on investigation, indicates any capability of accounting for the 
facts which are manifest, and of obviating the difficulties or un- 
certainties with which they are surrounded, it ought to be deemed 
not wholly undeserving the attention of the pschycologist, and 
may prove useful in suggesting new channels of experimental 
enquiry. 

That the presumed chemical combination with electrine, of 
additional equivalents of magnetine, would produce a compound 
9ui generis, widely differing from electrine, oxygen, or magnetine, 
separately, or any other distinct combinations of them, is strictly 
conformable with the well known facts of chemical science. To 
particularize these differences, it may be conceived that electrine, 
containing in its constitution a relatively large proportion of pon- 
derable principle, would not only be of greater specific gravity, 
but less mobile and penetrating, and more readily admit of accu- 
mulation ; at the same time, from its strong affinity to combine 
with magnetine, it does not seem capable of remaining long or 
permanently accumulated, even within the interior of the Leyden 
jar. Similar reasoning applies to the magnetide of electrine or 
oxygen, with this difference, — that this compound possesses, not 
only greater apparent ponderosity than electrine, but is capable 
of assuming a permanent gaseous form ; and is so dense as to 
allow collection by ordinary chemical apparatus. 

When, however, the electrine combines with the magnetine in 
considerably fewer equivalents of the former, and relatively more 
numerous ones of the latter, so as to form the per-magnetide of 
electrine, or presumed odic principle, the ponderosity of the com- 
pound will necessarily be so far diminished, as almost, although 
not entirely, to justify us in ranking it amongst the imponderable 
bodies : at the same time, its tenuity is increased sufficiently to 
permit it to permeate, with more or less facility, the pores of all 
bodies, by which, from its affinity to their molecules, it can, as 
one of its peculiar properties, be attracted, and in a degree accu- 
mulated, in its passage through them. An additional consequence 
is, that the transit of the per-magnetide, as above, will be more 
or less tardy, according to the nature and constitution of the 
body it passes through ; — in these respects conforming precisely 
with the character the Baron Von Beichenbach has assigned to 
his odic force. Another most important illustration is, that the 
per-magnetide of electrine in its movement, according to the 
greater or lesser number of vibrations into which it is thrown, 
gives rise to luminosity of various tints or colors, from the more 
languid blue to the more vivid red ; possessing a degree of pon- 
derosity, it also is susceptible of being deflected, like the solar 
ray, in its passage through the prism* In this way all the lumi- 
nous phenomena, described by Yon Beichenbach as belonging to 
od, may be explained. 



196 Scientific Notices. 

It is DOW proposed to apply the abo^e hypothesis in explana- 
tion of some other leading facts detailed by Yon Reichenbach. 
In the first place, as respects the manifestation of od by the 
maffnet, it may be observed, that we are by no means ac- 
quainted with the true nature of the fluid which circulates through 
that apparatus ; — in fact, we cannot be sure whether it be pure 
magnetine, or is a compound matter which contains the latter in 
its constitution ; — a remark which, in fact, admits of application 
to every known manifestation of magnetic principle observable in 
our system ; even to those emanations which are derived from 
the solar orb. The deflection or refraction of the sola^ rays by 
the prism, indicates that they comprise more or less ponder- 
able principle ; and it is by no means improbable, that they may 
contain a small proportion of electrine, so as to be virtually a 
hyper-magnetide of the latter. 

Ignotus assumes, that the solar rays result from a species of 
chemical action going on at the sun's surface, and analogous with 
terrestrial combustion ; if this be true, it can scarcely be possible 
that the magnetine could be thrown off, entirely divested of elec- 
trine. It is, therefore, fair to infer, that the matter emanated 
(including that principle which circulates through the magnet) is 
not pure magnetine, but probably a hyper-magnetide of electrine, 
containing, it is true, very few atoms of the ktter. If so, there 
yet remains a principle to be investigated, namely, pure magne- 
tine, which may be presumed to be still more subtle and active 
than any hitherto treated of; but on the more intimate nature of 
which it would be vain to speculate. The mesmerist, however, 
might probably regard it as analogous with the mental principle, 
and as the cause of clairvoyance : in fact, according to the opinions 
of some of them, it would almost appear that the will, thought, 
or mind, may be transmitted from the brain in association with 
the odic principle, so as to become motive forces, operating ex- 
ternally to the brain from which they have proceeded ! ! 

Assuming then the possibility that the magnetine emanating 
from the sun, as well as from all other bodies in nature, is not 

Eure magnetine, but a combination of the latter with a portion, 
owever small, of electrine, it will be desirable to enquire how 
such constitution will explain the differences found to exist be- 
tween the magnetic and odic phenomena exhibited by the magnet ; 
or how it is that od is always associated with the magnetic force ; 
and also why the one invariably deflects the needle and attracts 
iron, while the other is entirely divested of these properties. 
According to more recent, but yet unpublished, opinions of Igno- 
tus, the magnetic circulation of the ordinary artificial magnet 
depends on the operations of the great terrestrial magnet ; which, 
receiving the magnetic matter at its northern or negative pole, 
passes it forward to the southern or positive one ; from whence 
it is determined back to the northern pole along the earth's sur- 
face, forming a kind of vortical current : whenever this current, 
in transitu, meets with a ferruginous body, according to the pemi- 



Scientific Notices. 197 

liar condition. of tlie latter, it converts it into either a permanent 
or temporary magnet, capable not only of attracting iron, but, 
according to Reicnenbach, of manifesting odic phenomena. The 
flaid thos circolating through the terrestrial or artificial magnet, 
Ignotus does not suppose to be derived directly or entirely from 
an emanation of magnetine from the sun, but partly by virtue of 
chemical action induced on the earth's surface by the impinge- 
ment of the solar rays thereupon, which he conceives to have the 
effect of decomposing — with the co-operation of the terrestrial 
matters on which they fall — the oxygen existing at that surface, 
and, consequently, liberating its magnetine and electrine, — the 
latter principally passing off in an electric current from west to 
east, in conformity with the course of the earth's diurnal rotation 
in that direction; while the former darts off, at right angles, 
towards the negative pole of the terrestrial magnet, enters into 
conjunction with the magnetic current, and performs a most in- 
fluential part in producing or keeping up the magnetic circulation. 

In conformity with the views previously advanced, the mag- 
netine liberated, as above, at the earth's surface, would necessarily 
be more or less impregnated with electrine ; in which condition, 
as a per-magnetide of the latter, it is made to circulate through 
the magnetic apparatus, where — meeting with opposition from 
the peculiar arrangements of the tubular closed channel, assisted 
probably by an attractive or catalytic influence of the molecular 
particles of which that channel is composed — ^in consequence, a 
considerable portion of the per-magnetide of electrine, or the odic 
principle, is separated from the general mass ; so that, while the 
latter passes off, in the general magnetic current, and in associa- 
ation with the ordinary magnetic force, the former, by virtue of 
its capability of penetration through the substance of all bodies, 
escapes through the sides of the magnetic channel, and odically 
charges the apparatus, whether it be terrestrial or artificial. In 
this way it may be conceived that the whole mass of our globe 
might, by the operation of the terrestrial magnet, in process of 
time, be charged with od, and become capable of emanating it 
again. The same principle might possibly be extended to the 
entire celestial system, which, according to Reichenbach, ema- 
nates od, and in which an analogous kind of magnetic circulation 
may be imagined to exist. 

The distinction between od and the magnetism of Reichenbach, 
therefore, probably depends upon the circumstance that the former 
is a compound of magnetine and electrine, possessing properties 
peculiar to itself, and in which the quantity of the ponderable 
principle, electrine, is sufficient to render its movements compara- 
tively slow or tardy ; while the magnetic matter of the latter is 
of a purer and less ponderable nature, containing insufficient 
electrine to impede sensibly or essentially the energy of its mo- 
tion ; and which, in its transit through the closed channel of the 
apparatus, acquires that degree of momentum which enables it to 
accomplish the ordinary phenomena of the magnet. 

TOL. XXXVIII. z 



198 Scientific Notices. 

Independently of any peculiar property it may possess^ a suf- 
ficient reason why the odic force does not affect iron like mag- 
netism, is, that as soon as it has escaped ftom the circulating 
stream of magnetism, it m no longer under the influence of a closed 
apparattis. This explanation will even apply to magnetism itself, 
BO long as it is not moving in a closed current ; — to the passage 
of magnetine from the sun, or through metallic bodies, iron alone 
excepted ; or to its disengagement by chemical action ; none of 
which shew any ordinary magnetic attraction, or, at least, any 
which is not of a temporary nature 

It has been shewn above in what manner the whole of the 
universe may become charged with od, and be capable of again 
emanating it. This latter is doubtless affected by an exudation 
or passage of the odic fluid through the pores of the body ema- 
nating it, and differs in activity, &c., according to the pecuUar 
constitutions of bodies in this respect. Od, in consequence, 
affects a polarity of its own. The polar arrangement of crystal- 
lized bodies appears to admit of the passage of od with great 
facility; it is not, improbable, however, that the principle of 
crystallic arrangement pervades all bodies ; and to this may be 
attributed the polar circulation which Reichenbach applies to 
them universally. In fact, the whole of the varieties of od which 
he enumerates may be referred to this explanation. 

There are two of Yon Reichenbach' s varieties, or sources of 
od, so interesting, that we will conclude the present paper with 
some observations respecting them. These are what he has de- 
signated by the terms biod and manod, or those manifestations of 
the odic principle which proceed from livinff beings, and which 
evidence some important, if not peculiar phenomena; in fact, 
the vital functions appear intimately associated with them. The 
odic principles applicable to them are apparently regarded by the 
Baron as results of chemical action undergone in the processes of 
digestion, chyUfication, and respiration (p. 174). Ignotus, how- 
ever, pursuing a similar series of causes, has extended the matter 
farther, and referred the production of vital phenomena, particu- 
larly as applies to animal life, to the agency of magnetine, elimi- 
nated, by virtue of catalytic action, from the arterial blood con- 
veyed to the brain. In this opinion he is still inclined to persist, 
modifying it, however, in conformity with his more recent con- 
siderations of the odic principle. He now conceives, that the 
material secreted and accumulated by the brain, which serves to 
produce the vital functions, may be per-magnetide of electrine, 
the source of which will easily be rendered obvious, — namely, 
that the arterial blood, the material from which he supposes the 
nervous power or vital principle to be secreted, is not merely 
rendered, as he formerly conceived, per-magnetenic by the process 
of sanguification in the lungs, but combines vnth it a sv2£cient 
portion of electrine, derived from the oxygen respired, to form 
per-magnetide of electrine ; it is therefore charged with the odic 
principle, which then becomes the support of the vital actions 



Scientific Notices, 199 

This odic or vita] principle, if emanated per se from Uny part of 
the body, with or without the co-operation of the will, might be 
expected to manifest itself by ordinary odic phenomena, in con- 
formity with the opinions of Reichenbach ; and, according to the 
views of the mesmerists, would constitute the basis of animal 
magnetism. That the brain has the power of purifying this odic 
principle, or per-magnetide of electrine, so as to convert it into 
magnetine, and render it the agent in producing mental power, 
Ignotus does not believe ; the supposition would, in his opinion, 
verge into gross materialism : on the contrary, he regards mind 
as a superadded spiritual principle, derived immediately from the 
Divine Creator, in whose proper essence it, however slightly, par- 
ticipates, and which, like Himself, is unalterable and eternals 

P. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

Febrmry 4<A, 1851. 
WILLIAM CUBITT, Esq., Presidbnt,--in the Chaib. 



The paper read was. An enquiry into the nature of patent law 
protection, with a view to the better appreciation and security 
of the rights of inventors^ — by Mr. A. V. Newton. 

The object being rather to elicit facts, with a view to forming 
a basis for some legislative amelioration of the patent laws than 
to detail the anomalies and inconveniences of the present system, 
the paper only touched on such points of the practice of granting 
patents as were conceived to be bad in principle, and but slightly 
touched on the cumbrous and antiquated machinery employed in 
effecting these grants. 

The poUcy of granting any patents was discussed, 'with the 
view of meeting the objections raised against the issuing of these 
privileges ; and, in considering this point, it was found necessary to 
examine the relation of inventions to other creations of the mind, 
— as literary and artistic productions, whose right to protection 
had been universally admitted. It was argued, that a Uterary 
composition, a picture, a statue, a decoration, or an invention, 
resulted from the exercise of the inventive faculty ; and that all 
or none of these results were entitled to protection. The Copy- 
right Acts had secured to the Uterary man, the artist, and the 
designer, the benefits resulting from their mental labours ; and 
the claims of the inventor being based on similar grounds, pro- 
tection could not in justice be denied him. 

The claim which the inventor has upon the public was next 
considered. The oft repeated experience, that an important im- 
provement in the useful arts has emanated from independent 
sources, would go to prove that no useful invention would have 
been lost to the world if it had not been received from the hands 
of its first discoverer. The merit, therefore, of the inventor ap- 



200 Scientific Notices. 

peared to be the fweatalling of time, by realizing some fact in 
pbysical science before the ever-increasing common stock of know- 
ledge had put it in the power of the ordinary obserrer to seize 
npon and apply it. From this it was inferred, that a limited in- 
terest in the pecuniary benefits derivable from his discovery was 
all that the inventor was, by right, entitled to ; and that before 
he was entitled to a legal recognition of his right — the reward of 
merit— he must shew the world wherein, and to what extent, he 
has excelled his fellows : this he is supposed to do when he ap- 
plies for a patent ; and at such time the date of protection should 
commence. 

As regarded the party to whom protection should be granted, 
supposing that several applications were simultaneously made for 
a patent for the same mvention, it was held, that the first ap- 

glicant for a patent, in the absence of all fraud or collusion, should 
ave the grant made to him ; but that no claim should be enter- 
tained without the setting forth of the real inventor's name in 
the title. 

The Act of James I., as to the definition of what was a patent- 
able invention, was examined, and was shewn to be satisfactory ; 
and that its very vagueness constituted its great merit. 

As regarded the cost of patents, evidence was quoted to shew, 
that the maintenance of the present fees were advocated on the 
presumption of their being a sort of check to the patenting of 
useless mventions ; and this they were shewn not to have efiected, 
but rather to have acted as a bar to the introduction of nsefol 
improvements. This was proved by statistical facts, shewing the 
number of inventions patented in foreign countries, from which 
Great Britain derived no benefit. 

The disadvantages arising from the necessity of obtaining dis- 
tinct patents for the three kingdoms were strongly insisted on ; 
and the impossibility of satisfactorily establishing an international 
patent right was clearly proved. 

With respect to the duration of patent grants, it was shewn 
that, if the term of the grant was sufficient to induce inventors 
to bring forward their discoveries, the desired object of granting 
patents was obtained ; and the burden of proof of the insufficiency 
of the term of fourteen years devolved on those who advocated a 
further extension. 

From this enquiry it was concluded — 

That the rights of inventors to the fruits of their labors were 
based on the same grounds as those of artists and literary men. 

That an inventor had no moral right to more than a limited 
interest in his discovery. 

That the proper period for the recognition of an inventor's 
rights was when he applied for a patent. 

That priority of invention should not of necessity confer a legal 
right to a patent; but that it was to the inventor (supposing 
there to be more than one) who first claimed a patent, that the 
privilege should be granted. 



Scientific Notices. 201 

That the definition in the Act of James I., of what was a pa- 
tentable invention, was amply sufficient, and therefore required 
no amendment. 

That the present tax on patents had proved a serious check to 
the development of invention, without conferring any correspond- 
ing advantage. 

That the recognition of the rights of inventors in Great Britain, 
by the grant of three distinct patents, tended to narrow the ap- 
plication of their ingenuity to one division of the United Kingdom. 

That inventions should be protected by one grant in the United 
Kingdom; and that any attempt at international arrangement 
would be impracticable. 

That the existing term of patents required no extension. 

And that patents should not be renewable at the option of the 
patentee. 

The discussion on this paper was commenced, and adjourned 
until the next meeting. 

A model of a self-acting siding stop for railways, designed by 
Mr. Charles Hutton Gregory, M. Inst. C. E., was exhibited and 
explained. 

The stop consisted of a block of wood shod with iron, and 
either turning or falling across the rail. A counter-weight re- 
tained it when down in the iron chairs on each side of the rail ; 
and, being connected with the switch by a wire-rope and two 
bell-cranks, both must be moved simultaneously. When the 
switch was set for the main line, the counter-weight kept the 
stop on the rail, and closed the siding ; but when the switch was 
set for the siding, the weight was drawn up, and the block turned 
over, so as to leave the rail clear ; thus leaving the siding un- 
interrupted. It was explained that, by the same arrangement, a 
block might be made to move sideways, or to slide transversely 
across the rail. The use of this stop involved no extra labor, as 
it was worked simultaneously with the switch ; it was very cheap 
and simple in its construction, not costing more than ^3, and was 
not liable to derangement. It had been made for the Bristol and 
Exeter Railway, by Mr. Hennett, of Bridgewater, and was found 
to act well in practice. 

February 11th and l^th. 

The discussion on Mr. A. V. Newton's paper was renewed, 
and was continued throughout both evenings. 

An appendix to the paper was read, in which it was submitted 
that, if the conclusions drawn by the author were correct, the 
spirit of the existing patent law (considering the Act of James I. 
as such) should remain intact ; and that the aim of patent law 
reformers should be directed to matters of detail. It was urged 
that, by the passing of any measure that would disturb the system 
of judicature, as laid down in the leading decisions of the judges, 
the battle of the inventor, as against the public, would have to be 



202 Scientific Notices. 

fought again and again^ nntil the new ground which the two 
parties had taken came to be thoroughly understood. As the 
result of his enquiry into " the nature of patent law protection, 
with a view to the better appreciation and security of the Rights 
of Inventors/' the author submitted — 

That the patent laws, as at present interpreted and adminis- 
tered, were based upon tiiie spirit of justice ; and that any altera- 
tion therein, tending to set aside the dicta of the judges, would 
be in the highest degree detrimental to the inventor's interest. 
And further, that all suggestions for the amelioration of the 
patent laws, to be judicious and beneficial to inventors, must 
refer solely to the granting of patents, and in no way touch upon 
the validity of patents when granted. 

In the discussion, the subject was first examined legally ; and 
whilst it was admitted that the present patent laws were capable 
of improvement, it was urged, that the question should be very 
carefully argued, under all possible contingencies, and the bear- 
ings of every position be well considered, before any innovations 
were introduced, as the most disastrous consequences would result 
from any proceeding which increased the number of useless pa- 
tents, and interfered with the manufacturers. 

It was argued that, in one respect, the analogy between the 
copyright of a book, a picture, or a design, and the protection 
granted for an invention, would not hold ; and that, therefore, 
these several properties could not be submitted to the same rules. 
The existing facilities for offering opposition to the demands for 
patents were considered to be productive of benefit ; for many 
applications had been successfully contested, which, if they had 
been granted, would have materially interfered with the pubUe 
interest. 

The present high cost of patents was deemed injudicious, as 
having, among other objectionable effects, the tendency to induce 
the introduction of several distinct inventions under the same 
title, in order to save expense ; and thus the system almost offered 
a premium for litigation. 

The mere registration of inventions was then contended for, in 
order to reduce the cost, and avoid the tediousness of the present 
system. 

To this it was replied, that it was sufficiently difficult now for 
a patent agent to advise a client as to the novelty of an invention; 
but that if cheap registration was adopted, it would become im- 
possible for any man, devoting his whole time to reading, to 
make himself acquainted with all that he should know, in order 
to perform the duty of protecting his client's interest. 

As to the cost of patents, it was urged that cheap patents 
would render necessary cheap law, to defend the rights of inven- 
tors, as all profitable patents were certain to be infringed. 

It was contended, in opposition to a statement in Mr. Newton's 
paper, that the fact of so large a per-centage of the patents ap- 
plied for never reaching the last stage, could not be attributed 



Scientific Notices, 203 

to the expense of the different stages, so much as to the discovery 
that the inventions to which these applications referred really 
possessed no intrinsic merit, and that it was only common sense 
to ahandon them. 

It was asserted, that there was always more available capital at 
command for working patents than there were good and useful 
inventions to be brought into general use. Their registration 
was again objected to, on the ground that, in drawing up the 
specification, the legal adviser frequently brought prominently 
forward some important feature of an invention which had not 
been considered of any moment by the author, and whose interests 
would probably have materially suffered if that point had been 
neglected. 

The appointment of a Registrar or Board, to revise specifica- 
tionsy was objected to, as a most destructive measure ; and it was 
asserted, that juries very rarely decided contrary to the justice 
and common sense of a case. That the finding of a jury had 
scarcely ever been reversed in a court of law ; whilst the ruling 
of judges had frequently been admitted by themselves to be erro- 
neous. The examination into patent questions by a jury com- 
posed of men engaged in pursuits analogous to the subject of the 
invention, would be dangerous, as bringing self-interest to bear 
against probity. 

With respect to the practical operation of patents on mecha- 
nical improvements, it was shewn that several important inven- 
tions had never been made the subjects of patents at all, and that 
they had remained unused for terms of years before the public 
had appreciated them. The planing-machine and the key-groove 
engine were examples of this position. 

With respect to the assumed number of useless patents, it was 
asserted, that there was no instance of any machine whose per- 
fection had been hindered by the difficulty of bringing into ac- 
cordance numerous patents taken for the several component parts 
of the machine. Every successive patent might be for a pro- 
gressive step necessary for the eventual combination of a perfect 
machine. This was demonstrated by recent cases of litigation 
on patent cases. 

It was proposed that patents should be granted for a limited 
term, subject to a succession of renewals, up to a certain period, 
by the payment of a gradually increasing tax, which would cause 
useless patents to lapse, and would enable the ingenious poor 
inventor, to obtain the due reward for the exercise of his talents, 
without his resigning to the capitalist the greater portion of the 
profit. 

Although no definite result was arrived at, the general opinion 
appeared to be, that the present cost of patents might be consi- 
derably reduced ; the forms of procedure much simplified ; and, 
by rendering compulsory the depositing of the specification at 
the time of applying for the patent, effective protection would be 
afforded to inventors. 



[ 204 ] 

INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

J. E. Mc CONNELL, Esq , Vice-Presidbnt, — ^in the Chaib. 

January 22nd, 1851. 

Afteb the reading of a congratulatory address from the Council, 
on the prospects of the Institution, and the transaction of certain 
routine business, the following supplementary paper, by Mr. W. A. 
Adams, of Birmingham, was read : — On the improvement of the 
construction of railway carrying stock. 

In the paper laid before the last meeting of the Institution, the 
great increase that has gradually heen made in the dead weight 
of railway carrying stock was pointed out ; — the first-class car- 
riages, carrying 18 passengers, having been increased, in dead 
weight, from 3 j tons to 5 tons ; and the waggons, carrying a max- 
imum load of 5 tons, having reached a dead weight of 4f tons ; 
whereby an important addition was simultaneously made to the 
cost of locomotive power for the nett load carried. 

The great increase in dead weight has arisen from the gradual 
increase in the quantity and weight of material employed in the 
construction of railway carriages and waggons, as a remedy for 
the failure of their different parts ; and that without alteration of 
material or the construction of parts. The reduction of the dead 
weight of railway vehicles is extremely desirable, while such re- 
duction of weight is effected with due regard to efficiency and 
strength to resist the longitudinal strain in buffing, as well as 
the other strains to which they are subjected. The object is to 
produce such vehicles as shall be, all points considered, the most 
economical in first cost, in maintenance, and especially in trac- 
tion ; but it does not follow that reducing the dead weight, and 
improving the quahty of the materials, will add materially, if any, 
to the cost. 

The sole-bar is the most important part of the waggon under- 
frame, as it resists the main force to which the waggon is sub- 
jected, namely, the longitudinal buffing, and also acts as a girder 
to carry the load upon the springs. The ordinary wood sole-bar 
averages from 10 to 12 inches deep, and 3^ to 5 inches thick. 
Although the principal strain is the end-way huffing, the vertical 
strength is required to be so much greater than the lateral strength, 
in consequence of the sole-har being strutted horizontally hy the 
internal framing. 

The author has endeavoured to discover the hest form to attain 
the same strength in wrought-iron with the least material, and 
thereby ascertain whether the same strength can be attained with 
less weight than the ordinary wood sole-bar. 

The average dimensions of the ordinary English oak sole-bar 
are 1 1 inches deep, 4^ inches thick, and 13 feet long, — the total 
weight, in actual practice, is 321 lbs. The correct theoretical sec* 
tion for wrought-iron, to answer the same purpose with the least 



Scientific Notices. 205 

material, would appear to be a box-girder, of similar shape to the 
oak 8o]e-bar. But this cannot be practically adopted, as it would 
be next to impossible to manufactore ; and it is necessary that 
some practical form of roUed-iron be adopted, for economy and 
simplicity of construction. The main force to be resisted is the 
end-way buffing ; and, as the strongest form to resist end pressure 
with the least material would be a tube, (as shewn by dots in 
Plate IX., at fig. 1,) that section which imitates a tube the nearest 
will be the correct form. The strength of the tube arises from 
the metal being distributed at the greatest distance from the 
centre : therefore, in the section, fig. 1, the metal has been prin- 
cipally distributed in three points of the circumference of the 
circle, which points are connected by the thin sides of the iron. 
But, inasmuch as the vertical strength is required to be consider- 
ably greater than the lateral strength, this theoretical section re- 
quires altering to the proportion shewn at fig. 2. The practical 
section proposed to be adopted on this principle is shewn at 
fig. 3, — ^the height being 7. inches, and the width 4 inches; the 
sides being as thin as practicable ; and the metal being thrown 
into the extremities. The thickness of the sides is, therefore, -^ 
inch, and the extremities |- inch. The weight of this section 
(13 feet in length), is 219 lbs., being nearly one-third less than 
the ordinary oak sole-bar, which weighs 321 lbs. 

The following experiments were tried, to ascertain the requisite 
strength of iron to be employed for this purpose. 

An English oak sole-bar, 10 feet long, of the common sectional 
form, of picked quality, and straight-grained, was subjected to 
end-way pressure in a hydraalic press, — being supported only at 
the two ends. 

1 5 tons, deflected it f inch at the centre. 
^^i >f >f a » » 

**" M » 8 ft J» 

35 ,, ,, when it broke. 



The breaking did not appear to be caused by deflection, but by 
the crushing and lateral separation of the fibres ; — the principid 
fracture being several feet in length, and extending from side to 
side on the edgeway of the timber. 

A wrought-iron bar, of the Great Western section, shewn at 
fig. 4, and the same length (10 feet), was fixed in the press in the 
same manner. 

15 tons, deflection none. 

19 tons deflected it ^ inch, without set. 

22f „ „ 4 inches, permanent set 2f in. 

l^e deflection was entirely lateral, and towards the side of the 
larger flange. This bar is inade of two pieces, rivetted together, 
one 7 inches high and i inch thick, with a small flange on one 
side, and an angle iron» 3 inches wide, is rivetted to it on the 
opposite side. 

To ascertain the compirative vertical strength, an English oak 

VOL. SZSYIII. 2 A 



206 Scientific Noiicei. 

•ole-bar was placed edgeways on two sapports, 6 feet apart, and 
the force of die press applied in the centre. 

10 tons deflected it | inch. 
12 „ „ finch. 
16 „ „ broke it. 

The wrought-iron bar of fig. 4, section, was tried in the same 
manner, with the force applied on the edge, and supported on the 
flange. 

10 tons deflected it j- inch. 

12 „ „ i » permanent set f inch. 

From the results of these experiments, it appears that the iron 
bar, fig. 4, is about as strong as the wood sole-bar, to resist 
vertical force, but is somewhat deficient in strength to resist 
the endway buffing. In this section a loss of strength is caused 
by its being made in two pieces rivetted together : l£e deficiency 
is in laterd stiffness, which would be considerably increased if 
it were all one solid bar of iron. It appears from the following 
experiment that the deflection would be on the opposite side to 
the large flange, if the whole were solid. 

A bar 7i feet long, of the section, fig. 5, was subjected to end- 
way pressure in the same manner as before : the depth was 6 inches^ 
the width 3| inches, and thickness f inch. 
23 tons produced no permanent set. 
26 tons produced a permanent set of If inch laterally, 
and If inch vertically, 
the deflection being on the opposite aide to the flange. 

Also a bar, 5f feet long, of the section, fig. 6, was tried in the 
same manner by end pressure : the depth and width were both 
3 inches, and the thickness f inch. 

9 tons produced a permanent set of 1 inch, both laterally 
and vertically the same, 
the deflection being in the opposite direction to the flanges, and 
diagonally, as shewn by the arrow, from the depth and width 
being equal. 

From these results, it appears that the two edges of the bar 
yielded to the pressure more than the rest of the section, and 
allowed the bar to bend outwards. These edges are consequently 
strengthened in the proposed section, fig. 3, by increasing the 
thickness, which will diminish the deflection, and enable the bar 
to resist a greater endway strain without permanent set. 

An important circumstance in the comparison of strengtli be^ 
tween wrought-iron and wood is, that with iron the full experi- 
mental strength is obtained in practice, but in wood the strength 
obtained in practice is considerably less than that shewn by ex- 
periment, on account of the defects to which timber is liable and 
the mortices and bolt-holes cut into it. 

The author stated that he was about to have a quantity of iron 
rolled to the proposed section, fig. 3, for the purpose of con- 
structing certain waggons, and hoped to be enabled, previous to 
the next meeting, to give the results of actual trial. 



Scientific Notices. 207 

A very important advantage woald be obtained by the use of 
iron from its greater dnrability. English oak^ admitted to be the 
best material, cannot be procured in a thoroughly-seasoned state 
in any large quantities, and is consequently, after it is made up, 
in a transition state for a term of years. The timber opens and 
shrinks, and the joints loosen, admitting wet and accelerating 
decay. 

But, presuming that an efficient waggon frame be practicable 
from iron, it is difficult to place a limit upon the period off its 
duration, if well preserved from oxidation by paint or tar. 

It should be noted that the English oak, weighing 72 lbs. per 
cubic foot, is in the unseasoned state in which it is generally used 
for waggons ; and that as it seasons in work it lessens consider- 
ably in weight, but at the same time loses in strength. 

The author had not been enabled to carry out his investigation 
into the application of iron to railway vehicles, further than as 
respects the principal portions of the underframe, but proposes 
to continue the subject practically before the next meeting. 

Mr. T. Thorneycroft observed, that he had witnessed some of 
the experiments that were described in Mr. Adams' paper, and 
could testify to the accuracy with which they were performed. 

It was suggested that it would be difficult to roll a bar of iron 
of the proposed section, fig. 3 ; and a proposition was made that 
it should be rolled with the ends flattened out a little, and that 
they should be closed in at the last time of passing through the 
rolls. 

Mr. Slate remarked, that the author's deductions appeared to 
lead him to the conclusion that the hollow rectangular section 
was the best form, provided the iron could be rolled into that 
shape ; but he diverged into the L-form, because it was the only 
practicable shape. He thought there would be no difficulty about 
rolling the rectangular section, but there would be some difficulty 
about the other ; if it were sufficient for the purpose of fixing the 
cross framing, it could be rolled out as easily as a tube, and, with 
the aid of another mandril, might be flattened into any rectangu- 
lar shape desired, which would probably be less expensive than 
rolling the L section. 

Mr. Cowper remarked, that the cost of rolling the proposed 
L section, fig, 3, might not be more than £2 per ton extra upon 
bar iron. 

Mr. Allan inquired how the Great Western plan was found to 
answer ; for they had some hundred waggons running, made with 
the frame of the section, fig. 4. 

Mr. Barrans suggested the adoption of the rectangular section, 
with wood blocks filled in where required, and bolted through to 
give strength to the frame. He asked if it could not be rolled in 
two parts and rivetted together afterwards. 

Mr. Adams replied, that would bring them to an increase in 
coat per ton, and the expense was an important matter to be taken 



208 ScitiU^c Notices, 

into consideratiou. It was desirable to get a sqnare side aod 
bottom for attaching the spring-riioes, with the cross-bearers 
mersly rivetted through; and he thought a mitre^joint at the 
corners of the frame would be necessary, and that the proposed L 
section was the most convenient for all these purposes. 

Mr. Wright said that, in considering the increase in weight of 
railway-carriages, it must be borne in mind that the public had 
demanded increase of strength and room, as essential to comfort 
and security, more especially in rapid travelhi^. He thought 
the comparison between the common road-coach and the railway- 
carriage would not hold ; because not only did they go at a very 
limited speed, but they were provided by contractors, who, for 
the sake of their horses, had the vehicles as light as possible ; 
and it must be remembered there was no danger arising finom 
collisions ; — there was no buffing, but only traction. The uniform 
requirement oi the public had been for an increase of strength in 
the railway plant ; and they had abundant proc^ that the original 
carriages with open frames had not been strong enough to bear 
concussion ; for, in collisions, such carriages received all the 
damage ; whilst the modem strong-built carriages escaped un- 
injured. According to the views of the writer of the paper, in 
increasing the weight of carriages, as a necessary consequence of 
increased size and strength, they had been going back instead of 
forward ; but he was not of thiat opinion ; on the contrary, he 
thought they were decidedly improving in construction. He 
could not imagine that the iron sole-bar proposed would be so 
strong as the wood ; and he thought good seasoned oak-timber 
would be found preferable for the purpose. 

Mr. Adams observed, that the original carriages had not been 
found strong enough for the duties they had to perform ; but he 
considered that, in increasing their strength, the dead wevht had 
been too much increased, from the want of scientific principles 
in the construction. 

Mr. Cowper remarked, that the observations of the paper were 
directed to find out the best kind of frame, and to discover the 
mode of making a good frame as light as possible, consistent with 
stren^ and durability. He thought that the proposed section 
promised a good result ; and he could speak practically on the 
subject, because he had made a great number of experiments on 
the end thrust of L and T-iron for iron roofs : he had found that, 
when the edges of the fiange were thin, the iron was defective in 
strength to resist an endway thrust. The metal at a distance 
from the general centre of the section was most advantageously 
placed for strength ; and in the section, fig 3, the metal was dis- 
tributed as far as possible from the centre, — thereby securing the 
full advantages obtained by the depth. 

Mr. Slate conceived it a matter of the highest importance to 
diminish dead weight ; and that great improvements had yet to 
be effected in that particular ; — certainly, if they had now 5 tons 
of dead weight where they had formerly 3^ tons, they had not 



Scientific Notices. 209 

mach imiiroTed; for they bad thereby increased the cost of trac- 
tion one-naif. He did not know of any instance where there was 
•0 large a proportion of dead weight in any kind of machinery as 
there was in railway rolling stock ; andf the dividends on railway 
property most be diminished by it. It was surprising that, on a 
road possessing such perfection and advantages, they edioxdd have 
soch an enormous proportion of dead weight ; — in an abstract 
sense, it rendered ihe new railways less perfect than the old 
niada, where the proportion of dead we^t was so much less. 

Mr. Wright thooght it ought to be observed, that railway-car- 
riages had been much incroised in their size, to suit the con- 
venience and comfort of traveUers. Originally, ihef were 15 feet 
long^ 6 feet 6 inches vride, and 4 feet 9 inches high ; but now 
diey were from 18 to 20 feet in length, 7 feet wide, and 5 feet 6 
inches high. The increase in size was of course one element in 
the increase of weight. Originally, in the case of the axle-jour- 
nals, they were 4^ by 2^ inches ; but they had soon increased 
to 5 by 2f inches, and were now much larger ; — also, the wheels 
were originaUy 17cwt.; but now they weighed from 25cwt. to 
27cwt. These had to do the same business; — ^the number of 
passengers were not increased, but the vehicles to carry them 
were heavier. 

Mr. Henson was of opinion that, before long, the dead weight 
would be reduced one-third, while the weight carried was in- 
creaaed one-third ; and that the cost would be also diminished. 
He was engaged in the consideration of the subject, and would 
be g^ad to bring the results before the Institution at a future 
meeting. 

The thanks of the meeting having been voted to Mr. Adams, 
for his communication, the foUowing paper, by Mr. Parkinson, 
<^ London, was then read : — 

On a water-meter. 

lliMre may be considered to be two descriptions of water- 
meters, as is the case with gas-meters ; one in which the meter 
is turned by the pressure arising from Uie elevated source of the 
wapptj, and the other by the gravity or weight of the water ; in 
otha words, one working under pressure and the other not. 
Perhaps the first water-meter ever constructed was similar to a 
steam-engine, with cylinder, piston, crank, &c. This description 
of meter is worked by pressure, and the water will rise be- 
yond the meter to any elevation short of that by whidi it is 
moved, save the friction of the meter. The one moved by the 
weight or gravity of the water will not aUow die water to rise 
above the point of discharge : it is therefore indispensable that 
this meter should be placed above the point where the highest 
supply is required ; and if this should be in the highest room in 
a house, the meter must be placed a Utile above ; and, of course, 
every room below will be easily supplied by the gravity of the 
water. 



210 Scientific Notices. 

Many modificationB of these two plans have been made from 
time to time. 

The chief objection to the high-pressare principle is the diffi- 
culty of making the machines perfectly water-tight, easy to move, 
and of cheap construction, to bear the varieties of pressure and 
speed to which they may be subjected ; and another obstacle is the 
non-elasticity of the water preventing the uniform working, by 
locking the machine, if the valves or flaps open or shut too soon. 
The chief objection to the meters on the gravity principle is, the 
difficulty of any float opening a valve or stop-cock at the proper 
times, to define the proper measurement of the water. 

Looking carefully over all these plans, the writer found none 
so well adapted as the gas-meter : it is as simple as a grindstone, 
and turns with the least possible weight of water. The velocity 
is maintained at a rate as nearly uniform as possible, by means 
of the regulating valve, and will pass the quantities denoted on 
the badges, with a pressure of water varying from 2 feet to 400 
feet. 

In Plate IX., fig. 7, is a front view of the meter, shewing the 
regulating valve ; and fig. 8, is a transverse section of the meter. 
0, is the inlet-valve in the supply-pipe, which is opened by the 
ball-cock by when the water is lowered in the small cistern c, from 
which the water is suppUed for use over the building, d, is the 
regulating valve, for maintaining a uniform level of water in the 
meter ; it is opened by the float e^ and is constructed with a pis- 
ton y^ upon the valve-spindle, of the same area as the valve, which 
balances the pressure on the valve, so that it is not affected by 
the pressure of the water in the supply-pipe, and is easily opened 
or shut by the float e, however great that pressure may be. The 
guard-plates ff, check the force of the water passing the valve, 
and prevent the water in the meter from being agitated. 

The drum A, is similar to that of a gas-meter with four com- 
partments, formed by oblique radiating plates, which overlap each 
other nearly half round the drum ; and each of the compartments 
opens into the outer space t, of the drum, into which the water 
is poured, and from which the water enters each compartment in 
succession. The water escapes on the opposite side of the drum 
into the trough k, and, in passing through the drum, turns it 
round, as the oblique position of the divisions removes the outlet- 
opening of each compartment nearly half a revolution from its 
inlet. The drum revolves freely in the trough k, and the water 
flows through it with very slight resistance, registering itself by 
the revolution of the drum as it passes through, and then over- 
flows the side of the trough k, and passes into the supply-cistern c. 
The spindle of the drum moves wheelwork by the worm /, like a 
gas-meter, to register the number of gallons on a dial. The 
trough k, is suspended by the hoop m, with an adjusting-screw n, 
at the top ; by means of which, it can be raised or lowered, so as 
to adjust the meter accurately in measurement : as the quantity 
of water that the drum measures in each revolution depends upon 



Scientific Noticei. 211 

the depth of its immersion in the trough^ the deeper it is im- 
mersed the more water it takes to turn it round, and vice versd. 

The Telocity of the meter should be kept tolerably uniform ; as 
the trough which holds the water will vary slightly, according to 
the quantity suppUed to it. This is but a trifle, as the overflow 
is all round the trough; and therefore the meter is made to 
measure the water correctly when going rather below its full 
speed ; so that, when used at full speed, it will give a trifle over, 
but less than one per cent., in favor of the consumer. 

Mr. Clift observed, that he had carefully tested this meter, and 
found that it measured liquids very accurately; and, indeed, small 
quantities were measured by it more accurately tiian could be 
effected by pouring from one vessel into another. It was a very 
ingenious contrivance ; for the valve took off the pressure, and 
allowed the meter to work with a heavy pressure exactly the same 
as with a small pressure. Meters had heretofore been made to 
work under pressure ; but it became impracticable to use them 
for common purposes, in consequence of their great expense, 
caused by the strengdi necessary to stand the heavy pressure. 
This meter was placed at the top of the building, and registered 
the water that passed down to supply the house; the cistern 
below was always kept full, and not more than full, in conse- 
quence of the float-valve, which stopped off the supply when the 
water was not being used. He had been informed by Mr. Par- 
kinson (who was unable to attend the present meeting), that he 
had so many applications for these meters from different Water 
Works Companies, that he could not supply them fast enough. 
The Sanitary Commissioners had recommended the employment 
of meters for the supply of water to all small houses in large 
towns, as the small consumers were at present supplied at a 
higher rate than others ; and it was probable that some meter 
would ultimately be adopted by all Water Companies. 

The Chairman thought it very likely that this plan of measur- 
ing water would be very useful ; and a meter was much wanted, 
particularly by those who purchase large quantities of water, as 
Railway Companies, — the only means of ascertaining the quantity 
consumed being by measuring it into tanks. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, 



HENRY THOS. HOPE, Esq., M.P., ViCE-PREsmEHT,— in the Chjlib. 

Jcmuary 15ih, 1851. 

Mb. Henbt Cole read a Report from the Council on the policy 
intended to be pursued in the conduct of the Society during the 
presoit Session. 

In the absence of Mr. Henderson, who was prevented from 



212 Scientific Notices. 

reading his promised paper on the Statistics of the Material and 
Labour employed in the Building for the Great Exhibition, Mr. 
Fox attended the meeting, and expressed his wiUingness to answer 
any questions as to the details of construction, &c., of the edifice. 

The following remarks were then elicited from Mr. Fox : — He 
believed the building would be one of the dryest ever constructed, 
as it would always be acting on the principle of a still. Any 
exhalation that might arise from the soil would naturally rise till 
it came in contact with the glass at the top, where it would be 
condensed, and must trickle down by capillary attraction, and 
find its way to the small groove on each side of the Faxton gut- 
ters, and be eventually carried into the sewer ; so that evaporation 
would never have the power of returning, because the moment 
condensation took place, the moisture woidd escape through the 
gutters. The grooves not only took away the condensed water, 
but, supposing a pane not to be sufficiently tight in the roof, any 
•mall quantity of water that might escape through the edge of 
the glass, and get underneath, would find its way to the groove 
and thence pass away. The transept roof and the skylight bars 
were what was commonly called " herring-boned ;" in fact, they 
were angular, both horizontally and vertically at the same time. 
So that in the transept roof, from top to bottom, the same prin- 
ciple of capillary action was at work and provided for ; and every 
skylight was arranged on a slope of two and a half to one, which 
is the same as in the horizontal roof. 

Respecting the capacity of the building to withstand the effects 
of the wind, Mr. Fox remarked, that the building rested on 1060 
columns, and the most likely direction for the wind to have any 
injurious effect on the building must of course be that of its 
greatest width, which was 1800 feet, as compared with 400 in the 
opposite direction. These columns rested on cast-iron plates, 
based upon concrete ; and they could not rock about without 
the base plates being broken. Above these plates were sleepers, 
to carry the floor ; they were 13 inches in depth, fitted accurately 
between the columns, and running transversely from one side of 
the building to the other ; so that not one of these columns could 
possibly be upset until it was actually broken in two. Again, at 
the top, the columns are united by cast-iron girders, three feet 
deep, and four columns are framed together very much as a table 
is framed. Now, to break the column, they must exert a force 
equal to that of twice its transverse strength. From experiment, 
it was found that twelve tons was the breaking weight of the 
columns in the centre. Now, 1060 columns multiplied by six 
tons (half the breaking weight) was equal to 6360 tons ; so that 
it would be necessary to exert a force equal to 6360 tons, at a 
height of 24 feet from the ground, before the building could be 
blown down — without taking any bracing into account. Taking 
28 lbs. on the square foot as the force of the wind, and assuming 
a gust of wind which would strike the whole side of the building 
at the same moment, the total force would be from 1400 to IdOO 



Scientific Notices, 213 

tons. Now they had got a power to resist it of 6360 tons, — not 
taking into account the bracings, nor the offices and other con- 
structions within the building, and which must, of course, add 
to its strength. The late gale, when Colonel Reid ascertained the 
force of the wind to be 19|-lbs., did no harm whatever, at a time 
when the roof was not on, and the building was quite exposed. 

The effects of contraction or expansion due to atmospheric 
changes had been taken into account and fully provided for. 
In relation to this point, Mr. Fox said that the length of the 
building, from centre to centre at each end, was 1 840 feet, and 
the width of its general rectangle 408 feet. The total difference 
in length of a cast-iron bar 408 feet long, between the extremes 
of summer and winter, would be about 1|- inch. The building 
was divided into two by the nave, — the only connection between 
the two sides being the wrought-iron trusses and the roof. The 
greatest difference which could by any possibility take place in 
the perpendicularity of the columns, from the effects of a change 
in the atmosphere, would be about a quarter of an inch, while it 
would be perfectly safe to bend any of them to the extent of two 
inches. In order to provide for stiffness, they had determined 
that, in the lengthway of the building, the expansion and con- 
traction should be entirely provided for by the elasticity of the 
columns themselves, which were all " keyed up " hard and fast 
together for distances of 200 feet at each end, and for a similar 
distance on each side of the transept. The girders would have 
the opportunity of sliding upon the brackets which supported 
them. The flooring of the galleries, running the whole length 
of the building, served, with the Paxton gutters, as a continuous 
wooden tie, leaving the cast-iron in a condition to move, as it 
was acted upon by the various changes of the atmosphere. 

With respect to the glass, Mr. Fox said, he thought the glass 
quite strong enough, or he would have made it stronger, as he 
had to keep it in repair for twelve months. There was an im- 
portant point, which few considered when they put questions 
regarding glass ; — they only asked what thickness it was. Now 
its thickness was very important, but the width was equally so. 
If a piece of glass, of a certain thickness and width, broke with 
hailstones, reduce the width, and it would be found to bear their 
force. The panes used by his firm were sixteen ounces to the 
foot, forty-nine inches long, and ten in width. During the last 
twelve years they had used upwards of thirty acres of glass, — ^a 
great deal of it being used at the royal dockyards and at railway 
stations. It had idmost all been sixteen-ounce glass, though 
some was as low as thirteen-ounce ; and, although it was spread 
over twelve years, they had no difficulty with it. But if, instead 
of ten-inch width, they had made it fifteen, it would have broken 
in every hailstorm : therefore the width must always be con- 
sidered with the thickness. 

For the supply of water to the building, to be used in the event 
of fire, and for other purposes, the Chelsea Water Works Com- 
VOL. xxxviii. 2 B 



214 Scientific Notices, 

pany were laying a 9-mch main, with a column of 70 feet con- 
stantly on it, and a 6-inch pipe running across the building ; a 
6-inch pipe will run round the whole of the outside of the build- 
ing, with sixteen branches into the interior ; by which, with one 
length of hose, and without the aid of a fire-engine, they would 
be able to control the whole area. A special arrangement had 
been made with the Chelsea Water Works Company for the water 
to be always on ; and the Company had been at the expense of 
an additional auxiliary engine, for the purpose of insuring a con- 
stant supply ; whilst, in ordinary cases, they were bound to sup- 
ply 300,000 gallons per day. 



January 22ndy 1851. 

THOMAS WINKWORTH, Esq.,— in the Chaib. 

Vn the history and construction of latches and locks. — 

By Mr. John Chubb, Member. 

The paper commenced by pointing out the necessity of adopt- 
ing whatever will add to the security of property. Wise laws 
and prompt administration do little to prevent or deter the depre- 
dations of the cunning thief. The history of the contrivances 
adopted, from time to time, for this end, was a very interesting 
one ; and the author proposed to enter fully into the subject of 
both latches and locks. 

The latches described were the simple cottage thumb-latch, in 
wood and in iron ; the " drop-key latch," which opens by a 
jointed key ; the " French latch," in which the key lifts ver- 
tically ; the " bevil-bolt latch," ordinarily applied with Bramah's 
lock to street doors ; and, lastly, Mr. Chubb's own '* combination 
latch." 

The first description of fastening, at all approaching to the 
character of a lock, of which we have any knowledge, consisted 
of a horizontal bar, moving into a staple or hole in the door-post. 
There is, in the Egyptian Room of the British Museum, a model 
of a granary found at Thebes, where a fastening of this kind is 
applied to the door, — a hole being made in the door, below the 
bar, for the purpose, it is presumed, of allowing a crooked key 
to be inserted, to move the bar backwards and forwards. 

The Egyptian lock contains three loose pins, which, being situ- 
ated in the staple of the door, drop into corresponding holes in 
the bolt, when the bolt is in its place. The key has wires or 
prongs, answering to the pins, by which they can be lifted to the 
level of the top side of the bolt, which can then be withdrawn. 
These pins are, in fact, tumblers. This lock is still in use in 
Egypt, and is to be found in some parts of Cornwall, whither it 
was probably brought by the Phoenicians. 

The "letter lock" was invented by Cardon, about the year 
1590 : it consists of a combination of metal rings, bearing letters, 
moving round a fixed cylinder, and can only be opened when a 



Scientific Notices. 215 

eertain word is fonned, by which the internal notches are brought 
into a line, so as to permit the hasp to be raised. Cardon's locks 
only permitted the use of one word ; but by M. Begnier's sub- 
sequent improTement, a great extent of permutation was effected. 

The "warded lock" differs entirely in principle from the 
Egyptian lock, having fixed instead of moveable obstructions 
to the ingress of any key or instrument intended to grapple with 
the bolt. It cannot be too strongly insisted on, that a warded 
lock, however complicated in its arrangements and beautiful in 
its workmanship, is, for any purpose of security, utterly worth- 
less. An impression of the wards can easily be taken in wax, 
and VLfac-simUe key made, or a picklock, which, escaping all the 
wards, opens the bolt with as much ease as the key itself. 

The true principle of safety is, after all, found in the Egyptian 
lock ; viz., that of several separate independent and moveable 
tumblers, or detainers of the bolt, — each being lifted to its proper 
place by corresponding projections or parts of the key. Mr. 
Barron, in the year 1 774, was the first to apply this principle ; 
and he also effected a great improvement by means of the over- 
lift. His lock has two tumblers, each of which must be raised 
simultaneously to the precise height required, so as to allow the 
studs to pass through the slot in the bolt. There are upper 
transverse notches in the bolt ; so that you cannot tell, in any 
trial to pick it, when either tumbler, much less both, is in its 
proper position to let the bolt pass. 

The author next proceeded to explain '* Bramah's lock," pa- 
tented ten years after, which consists, as is well known, of move- 
able notched sliders, inserted in a barrel, radiating from the key- 
pin, and wiU not allow of the bolt being thrown until these notches 
come into a line. 

He then proceeded to describe his own construction of lock, 
the peculiarity of which is, that it has six separate and distinct 
double-acting tumblers, with the addition of a "detector;" by 
which, any attempt to pick or open the lock by a false key ia 
immediately notified on the next application of the proper one. 

In order to shew the necessity for secure locks and safe de- 
positories for property, especially in banking establishments, the 
author gave an insight into the mode of planning large burglaries. 
" You will bear in mind," he said, " that an unsuccessful attempt 
is seldom made where the booty is of any magnitude. The first- 
rate ' cracksmen' always know beforehand where to go, when to 
go, and what they are going for. When a ' plant,' as it is termed, 
is made upon a house or a bank, precise information is gained, if 
possible, as to the depository of the valuables ; and, if it is found 
that the safeguards are too strong in themselves, and that the 
locks are invulnerable, the affisur is quietly dropped. But if 
otherwise, then no expenditure of time, or misapplied ingenuity, 
ia spared to gain the desired end. The house is constantly 
watched ; the habits of its inmates are observed ; their ordinary 
times of going out and coming in are noted \ the confidentiid 



216 Scientific Notices. 

•ervants are bribed or cajoled, and induced to leave the premises 
when their employers are absent, so that impressions may be 
taken from the locks, and false keys made. When all the keys 
required are made, one or two men who have not been previously 
initiated are genendly called in, and receive their instructions to 
be ready at a certain hour on the followinfi; day to enter the house. 
A plan of the premises is put into their hands ; they are cautioned 
to step over a certain creaking stair or plank ; and the keys of 
the different doors are given them. The day or evening is chosen, 
when it is known that the inmates will be from home — the ser- 
vant, taking advantage of their absence, fulfils a long-standing 
engagement with his new and liberal friends — a signal is given — 
the two confederates enter — ^the so-called safe is swept of its con- 
tents—all the doors are carefully re-locked — and not until the bank 
is opened for business next morning is the robbery discovered. 

"When a large amount of property, consisting of either 
cash, plate, or jewels, is deposited, it is, in fact, offering a pre- 
mium to robbers, unless fit receptacles for such property are 
provided. Notwithstanding the cunning, ingenuity, or violence 
of the professional burglars, means are at hand by which they 
may be effectually baffled; and all who are interested in the 
matter should see that their so-called ' patent' locks, on iron safes, 
are really what they ought to be — impervious to fraud and force." 

Gottlieb's, Parsons', and Strutt's locks, were said to be modi- 
fications of the tumbler lock. In various other locks, simplicity 
seems not to have been studied, but rather how complex both 
lock and key could be made, and, therefore, how inconvenient 
for general use. 

The author remarked that, until very lately, the lock-manu- 
facturers of England have not attended to the ornamental and 
decorative part of their trade. This has been caused mainly 
through excessive competition, and a desire to produce a cheap 
article ; and the consequence is, that the specimens of locks and 
keys in use three or four hundred years since, in workmanship and 
finish, put to shame the rubbish now sold as sham " Bramah's," 
"improved patent detector," and "warranted secure" locks. 

The true principles of perfect security, strength, simplicity, 
and durability, should be combined in every good lock. 

1st. Perfect security is the principal point to be attended to; 
as, without it, no lock can be considered as answering the in- 
tended purpose. 

2ndly . The works of a lock should, in all cases, possess strength, 
and be well adapted, especially in the larger ones, to resist all 
attempts to force them open ; and, both in the larger and the 
smaller kinds, the works should not be susceptible of injury or 
derangement from attempts with picklocks or false keys. 

3rdly. Simplicity of action is requisite; so that any person 
having the key, and being unacquainted with the mechanism of 
the lock, should not be able to put it out of order. 

4thly. The workmanship, materials, and interior anraDgement 



Scientific Notices. 217 

of a lock should be so combined as to insure the permanent and 
perfect action of all its parts, and its durability uncter all ordinary 
circumstances. 

Some beautiful drawings of ancient locks and keys were exhi- 
bited, to illustrate the paper. 



Jcmuary 29£^ 1851. 

The Right Hoh. THOMAS MILNER GIBSON, M.P., 
Vioe-President,— nr the Chair. 

On the history and construction of the Britannia Bridge. 
By Mr. Gsoboe Gboye, Secretary. 

It was originally intended that the Chester and Holyhead Rail- 
way should cross the Menai Straits by Telford's well-known sus- 
pension bridge; but this plan was abandoned on account of 
engineering difficulties; and the site occupied by the present 
bridge was fixed on. It takes its name from the Britannia Rock, 
lying in mid-channel ; on which its centre pier is founded. At 
this place Mr. R. Stephenson proposed to build a bridge of two 
cast-iron arches, each of 350 feet span and 100 feet in height, 
which were to be erected without the use of centres, by con- 
tinued additions to the spandrils, — each piece being connected 
to its fellow on the opposite side of the pier by tie-rods. An end 
was put to this design by the requirement of the Admiralty that 
the same height should be preserved at the springing of the arch 
as at the crown ; in other words, that its under side should be a 
straight line. 

In this position of affairs, the conception of at ube occurred to 
Mr. Stephenson ; and to determine its shape and the details of 
its construction, he was empowered by the directors of the line 
to make a magnificent series of experiments, which were con- 
ducted at the worics, and under the care of Mr. Wm. Fairbaim, 
at Millwall. The first series of experiments was on 34 tubes, of 
three difierent sections, round, oval, and square or rectangular, 
varying in length from 18 to 27 feet, and in diameter from 9 to 
18 inches. They were, in all cases, supported at their ends, — the 
testing weight being hung at the middle, till fracture took place. 
The rectangular form was found to be much the strongest : it was 
the only one in which failure did not take place in the upper side. 

When a beam, supported at its ends, is loaded at the middle, 
the fibres of the top, or upper side, are compressed ; while those 
of the bottom are stretched. When, therefore, a beam of uniform 
shape is broken by the failure of the top, it is evident that the 
strength of the material to resist compression is not equal to that 
with which it resists tension ; and the reverse. The power of 
cast-iron to resist compression is to its power of resisting tension 
as 5 to 1 ; while, by these experiments, it was discovered that 
in wrought-iron the proportion is reversed,— its power to resist 
compression being to its power to resist tension as 9 to 11. 

The second series was on a model tube, one-sixth of the dimen- 



21 8 Scientific Notices. 

sions assumed for the real bridge, 75 feet long, 4 feet high, 2 feet 
9 inches wide. The sides and bottom were of single plate ; but 
the top contained six cells, or flues, running from end to end. 
Six experiments were made with this model^ to determine the 
proper proportion to be kept between the material of the top and 
of the bottom. In the last experiment, the tube broke with 86 
tons suspended — equal to 1 72 tons distributed over its length — 
the sectional area of the top being 26^ inches, and that of the bot- 
tom 22^, or as 1 1 to 9 very nearly. 

During these experiments, the masonry of the bridge was pro- 
ceeding rapidly. 

The Britannia Rock is in mid-channel ; and upon it is the tower 
called by its name, which, at its base, is 60 feet by 50 feet 5 
inches. Its entire height is 221 feet 3 inches. It is not of soUd 
masonry ; but contains a centre wall, dividing it into two wells, 
which are arched over under the tubes at a height of 97 feet from 
the base. The sides are tapered, so that at the level of the bot- 
tom of the tubes it is 51 feet 4 inches by 45 feet 5 inches. 

At a distance of 460 feet on each side of the Britannia Tower 
stand the two land-towers on the Carnarvon and Anglesey shores. 
At their base they are 60 feet by 37 feet ; and at the level of the 
tubes 51 feet 4 inches by 32 feet. 

From the land-towers to the face of the abutments, which' 
stand still further inland, is a space of 230 feet. The abutments 
themselves are in all 176 feet long. Each entrance is guarded 
by a pair of gigantic lions, carved in limestone, from the design 
of Mr. Thomas. The external parts of the masonry are of " An- 
glesey marble :" a hard mountain-Umestone, full of fossils, ex- 
tremelv durable, and with an appearance of great solidity. This 
stone IS backed in with Runcorn red sandstone, and with brick- 
work in cement. 

A large number of cast-iron girders was built in to the soUd 
stonework, for the purpose of effectually distributing the pressures 
of the enormous weights which were carried by certain spots 
during the lifting of the tube. Of these, the Britannia Tower 
contains no less a weight than 394 tons, — the total weight in the 
towers and abutments being 929 tons. 

The scaffolding employed was constructed on the modem plan, 
with whole balks of very large timber. 

The dimensions of the tubes having been definitely fixed, it was 
determined to build the four large ones on platforms or jetties, 
lying along the high-water mark of the Carnarvon shore ; then 
to float them to the foot of the towers ; and finally raise them to 
their places by hydraulic power. The land-tubes were to be built 
in their places on scaffolding. 

Supposing one of the large tubes to be completed, and lying 
ready to be floated on the platform ; — it is 472 feet long, — 3 feet 
higher at the end which is to enter the Britannia Tower than at 
the other, which is 27 feet high. It has eight cells in the top, 
and six in the bottom ; in both cases 1 foot 9 inches high, but of 



Scienttfic Notices. 219 

different width. The platforms, forming the upper and lower sides 
of the top cells, are of single thickness ; and tney are connected 
with the upright plates of the cells by two angle-irons, matched 
on the opposite side of the plate by a flat strip. These junctions 
are formed by rivets, which are inserted at a red heat, and, while 
hot, are closed up— exerting, by their contraction, a great power 
on the plates through which they pass. The rivetting of the 
lower part of the top cells is performed with ease before the top 
platform is put on ; but, to accomplish the rivetting of the latter, 
it is necessary that the "holder up*' (the man who keeps the 
rivet in its place whilst its head is oeing beaten up) and his boy 
should be inside the cells ; — which they are for hours together. 
While in this position, the rivets are supplied to them through 
small holes, left for that purpose. 

The plates, forming the sides, run vertically ; and they are joined 
together by double T-irons, which form a pillar of great strength 
at every two feet distance throughout the tubes. These T-irons 
are bent round at right angles, and rivetted to the platforms of 
the top and bottom ; and a triangular plate, called a gusset, is 
used to fill the comers, with great effect, against the twisting 
strain exerted by the wind. The platforms of the bottom cells 
are of double tluckness of plates, arranged so as to break joint ; 
the covers (plates rivetted over the joints) being large and strong ; 
the whole forming, in fact, a chain to resist tension ; — ^while the 
top b constructed with small covers and nicely-executed joints, 
so as to act as a pillar to resist compression. The sectional area 
of the '* top " of the tube, at the Britannia tower, is 648, — that of 
the *' bottom/' 585 square inches. 

Cast-iron frames, of ereat strength, are fitted into each end of 
the tubes, and into the lower set of cells, to resist the great crush- 
ing or "shearing" strain occurring at the points of support in 
the towers. To these frames are fitted the iron beams to which 
the lifting chains are subseiquently attached, and which consist 
of three very strong cast-iron girders, accurately fitted, having 
pillars of iron jammed between them, and a strap of wrought- 
iron passing completely round them, so as to make them all into 
one solid mass. 

The tubes having been completed on the platforms, it was 
necessary that they should be cut away, that room might be 
made for the pontoons, by which the work of transport was to be 
done. Temporary stone towers were therefore built under each 
end, and a packing of elm planks inserted to receive the pressure 
of the tube. The platforms had been built with an upward curve 
of 9 inches ; and it was found that, after they were cut away, and 
the tube took its own bearing, the deflection only slightly ex- 
ceeded this. 

The rocky beach, beneath the tubes, was next excavated to 
admit the pontoons. These were eight in number — six of wood, 
100 feet in length, 25 feet wide, and 10 feet deep ; and two of 
iron, of the same lengthy but 31 feet wide and 8 feet 9 inches 



220 Scientific Notices. 

deep. They were arraoged below the tube in two groups, and 
were divided by partitions, or bulkheads, into several compart- 
ments, each having a valve, which could be shut or opened by 
screws on deck, and by which any amount of water could be 
admitted to diminish or wholly destroy their buoyancy: they 
were also provided with pumps for removing this water, or any 
that might leak in. By keeping these valves open, the pontoons 
remained perfectly still below the tube till the time came for 
floating. 

The principle on which it was determined to conduct the float- 
ing of the first tube was, that the tube should be hauled out into 
the flowing or rising tide, which runs in the required direction, 
when the velocity of the tide was such as to bring the tube to the 
foot of the piers just at the time of high water ; — the ends of the 
tube being brought over stone shelves, prepared at the bases of the 
towers, on which, as the tide descended, it would be left resting. 
Thus, the tide itself was made to do the work of transport, and 
no exertion would be wanted, except for the purpose of pilotage. 

The difficulties which had to be guarded against were enormous. 
A mass of 2000 tons in weight, and of the most cumbrous awk- 
ward shape imaginable, had to be navigated in a tideway where 
the current is often eight miles per hour, with the risk of a 
capricious wind springing up (as in every mountainous country 
they unexpectedly do), which would act with fearful effect on the 
huge sail-surface of the tube; this unwieldy mass had to be 
turned half round on its passage, and guided safely past the 
points of the Britannia Rock ; and, lastiy, there was the absolute 
impossibility of making any change in the arrangements as un- 
foreseen emergencies might occur. 

Two 12-inch ropes were laid down the stream from a sunk 
mooring, opposite the farthest tube, to two capstans on the other 
side of the Anglesey land-tower ; and on them the tube was to 
travel, as a ferry-boat, on its guide-lines. They ran over the 
pontoons, where they passed through cable-stoppers, or con- 
trivances by which the rope could, on occasion, be gripped so 
hard as to stop the motion of the whole mass. These guide- 
lines were buoyed up by casks, attached at intervals, to protect 
them ^m the sharp rocks of the bottom. Two 8-inch lines, 
leading from moorings on the opposite shore to capstans on the 
pontoons, were employed to haul the tube out into the stream ; 
and five other lines, connected to powerful capstans on (he shores 
and on the Britannia Rock, were to effect the last delicate opem- 
tion of placing the tube in its ultimate position. 

These capstans were fully manned by 1 1 superintendents, 450 
labourers, 65 sailors, and 12 carpenters. Each capstan had 48 
men; each set of pontoons carried 105 hands; and six boats, 
with spare line, attended the tube in its outward progress. The 
capstans were signalled-to from the tube by holding up the dis- 
tinguishing letter of the capstan and a flag, — the color and 
position of which indicated what was required. 



Scientific Notices. 231 

On the evening of the 20th of Jane the floating took place. 
The pontoons, having been rendered buoyant by the closing of 
the valves, rose with the tide until they reached the bottom of 
the tube, which was lifted clear off the temporary piers at half- 
past seven. The land attachments being cast off, and the cap- 
stans of the hauling-out lines set in motion, the mass swung out 
into the stream at a rapid pace. When the proper distance from 
shore had been reached, a chain, made fast to the back of the 
tube, was cast off, and the onward progress began. By means 
of the cable-stoppers, which acted admirably, the speed was kept 
at about \i mile per hour. When about three-quarters of the 
journey had been performed, and the tube had begun to take a 
position close to the Britannia Rock, and oblique to the course 
of the tide, a delay arose, owing to an accident at the " Llanfair 
Capstan," on the Anglesey shore, where the coils of the rope 
over-rode one another, and prevented the motion of the capstan ; 
as the tube, therefore, floated on, it dragged the capstan from its 
frame ; and, but for the supenutendant of the capstan inducing 
the crowd of lookers-on to take hold of the long end of the rope, 
and by the weight of hundreds prevent its further slipping, there 
is much cause to fear that the pontoons would have grounded on 
the Britannia Rock, and the whole have been wrecked. 

The key to the concluding steps of the floating was a pile of 
timber and stonework, beyond, but close to, the Anglesey land- 
tower, called the " Anglesey Butt :" against this, as a pivot, the 
tube was to bear while being veered across the opening, at right 
angles to the line of the current. Up to this it was. hauled by 
a powerful crab behind the Butt ; after which, the delicate opera- 
tions necessary for inserting the high end into the recess in the 
Britannia tower (only two inches wider than the tube in its obliqe 
position) were performed by the two capstans and the large crab 
on the Britannia Rock. The tube having been hauled home at 
the Britannia Tower, it only remained to bring it into the open 
recess in the land-tower, which was done at twenty-two minutes 
past nine, when the welcome *'All right!" of Mr. Stephenson 
was the signal for loud and prolonged cheering and firing of 
cannon. As the tide ebbed, the pontoons floated away from 
below, leaving the tube to span the opening with no real or ima- 
ginary assistance. 

The tube having reached its destination at the foot of the piers, 
the next operation was to lift it through the 100 feet between 
that position and its ultimate place. This was done by hydraulic 
presses of enormous dimensions ; that at the Anglesey end having a 
lam of 20 inches diameter, and a cylinder 1 inches thick ; and that 
at the Britannia end, two cylinders, with rams 18 inches diameter. 
The ram carried a crosshead of prodigious strength, of cast-iron, 
strengthened on the top side by wrought-iron links, put on hot ; 
horn it depended the lifting-chains, — the loiver ends of which 
were secured to the beams in the end of the tube. The " stroke" 
oi the press, or the height which it was capable of lifting through, 

VOL. xxxviii. 2 c 



222 Scientific Notices. 

was six feet, and each link of the lifting-chains corresponded in 
length. These were formed like those of a suspension bridge^ 
alternately of eight and nine bars. On the upper part of the 
frame of the press, 1 2 feet below the top of the crosshead when 
at the highest point of its lift, was an arrangement of " clams," 
which were blocks of iron, planed accurately to fit the square 
shoulders of the head of the chain : by screws and gearing these 
clams could be opened or closed, so as to let the chain pass, or 
to embrace and hold it firmly. On the crosshead was a precisely 
similar arrangement. When, therefore, the press had completed 
its lift of six feet, the head of the third link had just reached the 
level of the clams. These being brought in under the shoulders 
of the link, transferred to themselves the weight of the dependent 
tube. The clams on the crossheads were then opened, the ram 
lowered, the top link taken off, the crosshead claMs closed, and 
the bottom clams opened, when all was ready for another lift of 
six feet. 

The whole of this ponderous machinery was supported on 
beams of wrought-iron, of immense strength, which spanned the 
tower above the tube. 

The time occupied in making each lift of six feet vas about 38 
minutes. The precaution was taken to underbuild the tube with 
brickwork in cement, filling up the recess in the towers. During 
the lift, a packing of thin wood was introduced between the top 
of the brickwork and the bottom of the tube, that, in case of 
accident, an inch might be the greatest distance fallen through. 
That these precautions were not needless was shewn on the 1 7th 
of August, when the bottom of the cylinder of the single press 
broke, and allowed the tube to descend on to the packing. No 
serious injury was done to the tube, though the delay in procuring 
a new cylinder was considerable. On the 13th of October the 
full height was reached. 

The expansion and contraction of such a length of metal is 
considerable, even under ordinary changes of temperature. Its 
effects are rendered more manageable by allowing the tube to rest in 
the Britannia tower, and to expand outwards in both directions, — 
there being arrangements of rollers, &c., in the land towers and 
abutments, to facilitate its motion. The greatest motion hitherto 
observed in each half is 3^ inches. By a simple arrangement 
of clockwork moving a ruled paper (the tube itself carrying a 
pencil), a daily register of this motion is kept. 

The second tube was floated on the 4th of December, and lifted 
to its place on the 7th January, 1850. The last of the land 
tubes of the first line was lowered to its place on the 4th March^ 
and on the 5th, Mr. Stephenson and staff passed through with a 
monster train, drawn by three locomotives. 

Ten days after this, the line was tested by the Government 
Inspector, with a train 434 feet long, — causing a deflection of 
not i inch. 

The third tube was floated on the 10th June^ and deposited on 



Scientific Adjudication. 223 

its permanent bed on the 1 1th July. The fourth tube was floated 
on the 25th of the same month, and placed on the 1 2th September. 

The total weight of the tubes is nearly 11,000 tons. This 
weight is made up of 9360 tons of wrought-iron, and more than 
1 200 tons of cast-iron and timber. They are composed of about 
186,000 separate pieces of iron, pierced by more than 7,000,000 
of holes, and united by upwards of 2,000,000 of rivets, — the 
angle and T-iron being not less than 83 miles in length. The 
weight of the lifting chains alone, at each end of the tube, was 
more than 40 tons, which, with the cross-head and ram of the 
press, made a total of more than 60 tons to be lifted before any 
effect could be produced on the tube itself. Of the masonry in 
the towers and abutments, there were about 1,500,000 of cubic 
feet; — the weight in all being 150,000 tons. Allowing twelve 
working hours in the day, and six days to the week, this masonry 
was prepared and laid at the rate of three cubic feet per minute 
during the whole time of its construction. 

The resident engineers, to whose charge the execution of the 
masonry and ironwork was confided, were, respectively, Mr. Frank 
Forster and Mr. Edwin Clark. The designs for the masonry 
were by Mr. Francis Thomson. 

One of the tubes was constructed by Messrs. Garforth ; and the 
remainder by Mr. Charles Mare. The hydraulic presses and lifting 
arrangements were elaborated by Messrs. Easton and Amos ; and 
the contractors for the masonry were Messrs. Nowell, Hemingway, 
and Pearson. 

Jbctenttftc Sltrfutrtcatton* 

JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

Februaey 10th, 1851. 

Pre$enL, — Lord Lanodale ; The Right Hon. T. Pemberton Leigh ; The 
Right Hon. Dr. Lushington ; & The Kight Hon. Sir E. Ryan. 

COOKE AND WHEATSTONE's PATENT. 

This was an application by the Electric Telegraph Company for 
the extension of a patent granted to Mr. Wm. Fothergill Cooke 
and Charles Wheatstone, on June 12th, 1837, for "improvements 
in giving signals and sounding alarms at distant places by means 
of electric currents transmitted through metallic circuits ;" — which 
patent had become the property of the Company by purchase. 
The petitioners presented a statement of their receipts and dis- 
bursments up to December 3Jst, 1850, to prove that they had 
Hot received an adequate return upon the amount of capital in- 
vested. Evidence was given as to the general management and 
position of the undertaking — the accuracy of the accounts — the 
reasonable charges made by the Company for the transmission of 
intelligence, &c. 

Lord Langdale, in giving judgment, said it appeared that 
the inventors (Cooke and Wheatstone) had been sufficiently re- 



224 Scientific Adjudication. 

warded for their ingenuity by the Urge sums of money receiyed 
for the patent right. He also stated that if the Company's spec- 
nhition had been clearly made oat to be a losing concern, it would, 
perhaps, have been matter for consideration whether there was 
not some good ground for a renewal ; but their Lordships were 
of opinion that the speculation had proved to be profitable : 
although, instead of paying dividends, the profits had been carried 
to the capital account to relieve the shfljieholders^ that did not 
make it less a profitable concern. 

The judgment of their Lordships was, therefore, against the 
renewal of the patent. 



COURT OF COMMON PLEAS. 

Westminster Hall. — ^Feb. ^llth, 1851. 
Sittings at NUi JFVtW, — before Lokd Chibp Justice Jeevis. 

DENLET V. BLOBS. 

This was an action for the infringement of a patent granted to 
William Denley, the plaintiff, on the 2l8t September, 1843, for 
*' certain improvements in the construction of fire-places, flues, 
and chimneys." The part of the invention which it was idleged 
had beent infringed consisted in constructing flues or chimneys of 
a series of earthenware tubes or pipes, either round, oval, or of 
any other convenient form, and set in brick-work in a peculiar 
manner. The defendant was the architect under whose directions 
the alterations at Buckingham Palace were made ; and it was 
stated that in this building the plaintifiTs invention had been 
adopted without his permission or license. 

The Lord Chief Justice suggested that the action had been 
brought against the wrong party, and that it was the contractor 
for the alterations in the building, and not the architect, who 
should be sued for the infringement of the patent right. The 
counsel for the plaintifi* took the same view of the case. The 
plaintiff was therefore non-suited by consent. 



COURT OF QUEEN'S BENCH, 

Guildhall, Feb. 20th, 1861. 

Sittings at Nisi Prius^ — before Lord Campbell and a Special Jury. 

NEWALL V. WILKINS AND ANOTHEB. 

Sir F. Thesiger, Mr. Watson, Q.C., Mr. Webster, and Mr. Denison 
appeared for the plaintiflF; and the Sohcitor-General, Mr. M. 
Chambers, Q.C., and Mr. Hindmarch, for the defendants. 

This was an action to recover damages for the infringement, by 
the defendants, of a patent granted to &e plaintiff on the 7th of 
August, 1840, for "improvements in wire ropes, and in ma- 
chinery for making such ropes." The plaintiff had, for the last 
ten years, been carrying on the manufacture of these ropes at 
Gateshead, and had also a place of business in the Strand, near 



Newall V. Wilkins and another. 225 

Waterloo-bridge. The defendants, Messrs. Wilkins and Wetherby, 
carried on their business in High-street, Wapping, and professed 
to manufacture ropes according to a patent which had been pre- 
viously granted to Mr. Andrew Smithy whose licensees they 
were in the month of March, 1839. The method of making 
ropes of wires was of comparatively recent introduction. In 
the first instance they were made of wires laid horizontally, and 
bound together with bands. Subsequently they were made in 
the same manner as hempen ropes. In making ordinary ropes, 
the hemp was first spun into yam, and the yams were ^en 
twisted into strands, and several of these strands were again 
twisted, so as to form a rope. But, in making wire ropes, it was 
found that the twist whieh was given to the wire in forming the 
strands, and afterwards to the strands in making them into ropes, 
was injurious to the strength of the rope. It was therefore a 
great object to make wires in such a way that the twist in the 
strands might be avoided, and also the twists which were given to 
the strands in forming them into ropes. It was chiefly for effect^ 
ing this improvement that the plaintiff had obtained his patent. 
There were also some other improvements which the plaintiff 
claimed, which he summed up thus : — " I claim, first, the method 
of making ropes, whereby the individual wires are prevented from 
being twisted in themselves. Secondly, the method of making 
wire ropes by laying wires round a core to form a strand, and by 
laying strands round a core to form a rope, when the number of 
wires or strands exceeds three : whereby the wires forming the 
strands, and the strands forming the rope, are kept at equal dis- 
tances from their centres. Thirdly, the laying wires into strands 
and the strands into ropes at one and the same time." The de- 
fendants, as is usual in actions of this kind, pleaded a great 
number of pleas ; the principal of which were, that the specifica- 
tion was defective, and that the plaintiff's invention was not a 
new invention. 

In support of the plaintiff^ s case, several witnesses were called 
to prove that the specification was sufficient ; that the invention 
was properly described therein ; and that any mechanic, of ordi- 
nary skill, could make the machine from the description and 
drawings. Other witnesses were called to prove the utility and 
novelty of the invention ; and it was stated, on behalf of the 
plaintiff, that, before the date of his patent, wire ropes had never 
been made without the individual wires having been twisted, which 
injured the fibres of the metal, and, consequently, impaired the 
quality of the rope. Reference having been made to some pro- 
ceedings in Chancery, relating to the plaintifi^s patent, wherein 
the parties to the present suit were interested, it was further stated 
on behalf of the plaintiff, that it would be impossible to make 
wire rope, with the wires untwisted in themselves, on any of the 
machines employed for making hempen rope prior to 1840, the 
date of the plaintiff's patent. 

The defendants endeavoured to shew that the manufacture of 



226 Scientific Adjudication. 

wire rope» in which the individual wires were untwisted in them- 
selves, was not a new invention in 1840, inasmuch as it had al- 
ready been made public by a patent granted to Mr. Andrew Smith 
in the year 1839. It appeared by Mr. Smith's specification that 
his invention was for making ropes of wire, instead of hemp, by 
any of the processes by which rope was then made ; and the ques- 
tion raised by the defendants was, chiefly, as to whether by the me- 
thods in common use ropes could be made without giving a twist 
to the individual wires or strands. In support of this view, wit- 
nesses were called to shew that it was perfectly possible to make 
wire ropes on machines known and in use long prior to 1840, 
without twisting the individual wires. It was shewn that Grim- 
Shaw's, Huddart's, and other rope-making machines would (by 
simply altering to a very slight extent the number of the teeth in 
some of the wheels) make the wire rope in the manner proposed 
by the plaintiff. Mr. Smith was called, and stated that he had, 
before the date of the plaintifi^s patent, made wire rope in which the 
individual wires were untwisted ; and that he deposited specimens 
of the said untwisted wire rope at the Polytechnic Institution in 
1838, and with the Admiralty in the early part of 1840. These 
specimens were produced by the officers with whom they were 
deposited, and were identified by Mr. Smith as his manufacture. 

In order to rebut this testimony, which, if true, would be fatal 
to the plaintiff's claim of novelty, the witnesses on behalf of the 
defendant were submitted to a very rigid cross-examination, for 
the purpose of shewing that the specimens produced as Mr. 
Smi til's manufacture, were mixed up with specimens of wire rope 
made by other persons ; and that, during the changes and alter- 
ations that had from time to time been made at the Polytechnic 
Institution, in the arrangement and classification of the numerous 
articles there deposited, it was possible that mistakes might have 
arisen in renumbering and cataloguing the articles. It appeared 
that Messrs. Hyman and Cupar, in the year 1841, also deposited 
several specimens of wire rope at the Polytechnic Institution; 
and upon Mr. Cupar being examined, he stated that the speci- 
mens claimed by Mr. Smith, were, in fact, made and deposited 
by him. In support of Mr. Cupar's evidence one of his foremen 
was called, who swore that he himself made, under Mr.^Cupar's 
directions, the specimens of wire rope claimed by Mr. Smith. 

The Solicitor-General then addressed the jury upon the evidence 
that had been brought forward by the plaintiff on this point, and 
pointed out the improbability of the story told on behalf of the 
plaintiff, — stating, that the officers of the Polytechnic Institution 
could have no object or interest in stating that which was untrue, 
and that the probabilities of the case were in favor of the state- 
ment made on behalf of the defendants, viz., — ^that the specimens 
were made and deposited by Mr. Smith, as alleged by him and 
supported by other testimony. 

The Lord Chief Justice, in summing up, recapitulated the 
whole of the evidence, and dwelt upon those points which he 



Scotch Patents. 227 

thought most worthy of the attention of the jury. He stated 
that all sides were agreed as to. the utility of the invention^ but 
that the evidence as to the novelty of the invention was most 
conflicting ; and it would be for them to decide whether, before 
the date of the plaintiff's patent, wire rope with untwisted wires 
had been, or could be made by the machinery then known and 
in use. His Lordship then read over the evidence relating to 
the specimens deposited at the Polytechnic Institution ; remark- 
ing upon its contradictory character, and leaving it to the jury to 
decide as to which statement they should believe. 

After a long absence firom court, the jury returned and gave a 
verdict for the plaintiff on all the issues, with damages one 
shilling. 

%t0t Of l^atentd 

Granted for SCOTLAND^ subsequent to January 22nd, 1851, 

To James Slater and John Nuttall Slater, of Dunscar, near Bolton- 
le-Moors, county of Lancaster, bleachers, for certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for the purpose of stretching 
and opening textile or woven fabrics. — Sealed 23rd January. 

James Hamilton, of London, engineer, for improvements in machi- 
nery for sawing, boring, and shaping wood. — Sealed 23rd Jan. 

Julian Bernard, of Green-street, Grosvenor-square, London, for 
improvements in the manufacture or production of boots and 
shoes, and other articles made of leather, dressed skins, or 
other materials ; and in the materials and machinery or appa- 
ratus to be employed therein, — ^being a communication. — Sealed 
24th January. 

Bichard Archibald Brooman, of the firm of Messrs. J. C. Robertson 
and Co., of 166, Fleet-street, London, patent agents, for certain 
improvements in steam machinery, and apparatus connected 
therewith, — being a communication. — Sealed 24th January. 

Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet-street, London, for an im- 
provement or improvements in abdominal supporters, — being a 
communication. — Sealed 24th January. 

Charles de Bergue, of Arthur-street West, London, engineer, for 
improvements on and in ,the construction of the permanent 
way of railways. — Sealed 27th January. 

Samuel Clift, of Bradford, manufacturing chemist, for improve- 
ments in the manufacture of muriatic acid, soda, potash, and 
glass, and of chlorine. — Sealed 27th January. 

William Beckett Johnson, of Manchester, manager for Messrs. 
Ormerod and Son, engineers, for certain improvements in steam- 
engines, and in apparatus for generating steam ; such improve- 
ments in engines being wholly or in part applicable where 
either vapour or gases are used as the motive power. — Sealed 
^9th January. 

Samuel Morand, of Manchester, for improvements in apparatus 
used when stretching and drying fabrics. — Sealed 29th January. 



238 Scotch Patents. 

Edward David Ashe, of Brompton, London, Lieatenant R. N., for 
a new or improved nautical instrument or instruments applica- 
ble especially, among other purposes, to those of great circle 
sailing. — Sealed 29th January. 

William Mc Gavin, of Glasgow, for certain improvements in steam- 
boilers, and furnaces, and fire-places, and in the prevention of 
smoke. — Sealed 29th January 

Joshua Horton, of ^tna Works, Sraethwick, in the county of 
Stafford, steam-engine boiler and gas-holder manufacturer, 
trading under the firm and style of Joshua and William Horton, 
for improvements in the construction of gas-holders. — Sealed 
30th January. 

Peter Fairbairn, of Leeds, machinist, and John Hetherington, of 
Manchester, machinist, for certain improvements in moulding 
for casting pipes, railings, gates, agricultural implements, and 
other metal articles ; and idso in preparing patterns or models 
for the same. — Sealed 31st January. 

John Stopporton, of the Isle of Man, engineer, for certain improve- 
ments in propelling vessels ; parts of which improvements are 
applicable to steam-engines and pumps. — Sealed 3]8t January. 

Benjamin Rotch, of Lowlands, Middlesex, for a factitious saltpetre, 
and a mode by which factitious saltpetre may be obtained for 
commercial purposes, — being a communication. — Sealed 3id 
February. 

Nathaniel Jones Amies, of Manchester, for certain improvements 
in the manufacture of braid, and in the machinery or apparatus 
connected therewith. — Sealed 3rd February. 

Frederick Watson, of Moss-lane, Hulme, Manchester, for im- 
provements in sails, rigging, and ships' fittings, and machinery 
and apparatus employed therein.— Sealed 3rd February. 

James Webster, of Leicester, engineer, for improvements in the 
construction and means of applying carriage and certain other 
springs. — Sealed 5th February. 

Henry Bessemer, of Baxter House, civil engineer, for certain im- 
provements in the sugar-cane press. — Sealed 6th February. 

Selim Richard St. Clair Massiah, of Alderman-walk, New Broad- 
street, London, for improvements in the manu£eictnre of arti- 
ficial marble and stone, and in treating marble and stone. — 
Sealed 7th February, 

Joseph Shaw, of Paddock, near Huddersfield, cloth- finisher, for 
improvements in constructing and working certain parts of 
railways. — Sealed 7th February. 

Francis Clark Monatis, of Earlston, Berwickshire, builder, for an 
improved hydraulic sjrphon. — Sealed 7th February. 

Richard Stuart Norris, of Warrington, for certain improvements 
in the construction of the permanent way of railways, bridges, 
locks, and other erections wholly or in part constructed- of 
metal ; also improvements in brakes for ndlway carnages.-— 
Sealed 10th February. 



New Patents Sealed 229 

William Weild^ of Manchester, engineer, for improvements in 
machinery for turning and burnishing. — Sealed 10th February. 

William Edward Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, London, civil engineer, for improvements in machinery 
or apparatus for producing ice, and for general refrigeratory 
purposes, — being a communication. — Sealed 11th February. 

Ewald Biepe, of Finsbury-square, London, merchant, for im- 
provements in refining steel,— being a communication. — Sealed 
12th February. 

Peter Clanssen, of Cranbourne-street, London, for certain im- 
provements in bleaching ; in the preparation of materials for 
spinning and felting ; in yams and felts ; and in the machinery 
employed therein; part of which improvements have been 
communicated to him by a foreigner residing abroad. — Sealed 
1 2th February. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, London^ mechanical draughtsman, for improvements in 
manufacturing looped and other woven fabrics,— being a com- 
munication. — Sealed 14th February. 

Charles Gotthelf Kind, of Paris, engineer, and Charles Alexis de 
Wendel, of Paris, iron-master, for improvements in the process 
and instruments to be used for boring the earth and sinking 
shafts, of any given diameter, for mining and other purposes ; 
and in the means of lining such shafts. — Sealed 14th February. 

James Thomson Wilson, of Stratford-le-Bow, London, chemist, 
for improvements in the manufacture of alum, and in obtaining 
ammonia. — Sealed 14th February. 

David Ferdinand Masnata, of Golden-square, London, for a new 
mechanical system with compressed air, adapted to obtain a 
new moving power. — Sealed 17th February. 

William Burgess, of Newgate-street, London, gutta-percha dealer, 
for improvements in machinery for cutting turnips and other 
substances. — Sealed 17th February. 

Thomas Wicksteed, of Old Ford, in the county of Middlesex, civil 
engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of manure. — 
Sealed 1 7th February. 

Bennet Woodcroft, of Furnival's Inn, for improvements in ma- 
chinery for propelling vessels. — Sealed 21st February. 



SEALED IN ENGLAND. 

1851. 



To Samuel Morand, of Manchester, for improvements in appara- 
tus used when stretching and drying fabrics. Sealed 30th 
January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Bennet Woodcroft, of Furnival's Inn, for improvements in ma- 
VOL. xzxviii. 2 D 



230 New Patents Sealed. 

chinery for propelling Tessels. Sealed 30th January — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

James Murdock, of Staple Inn, in the county of Middlesex, patent 
agent, for certain improvements in preserving animal and vege- 
table substances, — being a communication. Sealed 30th Ja- 
nuary — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Gotthelf Kind, of Paris, in the Republic of France, engi- 
neer, and Charles Alexis de Wendel, iron-master, also of Paris, 
in the Republic of France, for improvements in the process 
and instruments to be used for boring the earth and sinking 
shafts, of any given diameter, for mining and other purposes, 
and in the means of lining such shafts. Sealed 30th January 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, ^^^ Chancery- 
lane, mechanical draughtsman, for improvements in manufac- 
turing looped and other woven fabrics, — being a communica- 
tion. Sealed 30th January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Richard Johnson, of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, 
wire-drawer, for certain improvements in annealing articles of 
iron and other materials. Sealed 3l8t January — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Juan Nepomuceno Adomo, of Golden-square, in the county of 
Middlesex, Gent., for improvements in the construction of 
maps and globes, and in apparatus for mounting the same. 
Seded 31st January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Marsden, of Kingsland-road, in the county of Middlesex, 
engineer, for certain improvements in boots and shoes. Sealed 
3l8t January — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Bradshaw, of Bishopsgate-street Within, in the City of 
London, hosier, for certain improvements in fastenings for 
garments. Sealed 3 1st January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Jean Paul Gage, of Paris, in the Republic of France, chemist, 
for improved chemical compounds for tissue bandages, wafers, 
and also for surgical purposes. Sealed 3 1 st January — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

David Davies, of Wigmore-street, Cavendish-square, in the county 
of Middlesex, coach maker, for certain improvements in the 
construction of wheel carriages; and in appendages thereto. 
Sealed 3 1st January — 6 months for inrolment. 

John Davie Morris Stirling, of Black Grange, North Britain, Esq., 
for improvements in the manufacture of metallic sheets; in 
coating metals; in metallic compounds; and in welding. 
Sealed 3l8t January — 6 months for inrolment. 

Samuel Allen, jun., of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, 
manufacturer, for certain improvements in the manufacture of 
buttons. Sealed Ist February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Nathaniel Jones Amies, of Manchester, manufacturer, for certain 
improvements in the manufacture of braid ; and in the machi- 
nery or apparatus connected therewith. Sealed 1st February — 
6 months for inrolment. "^ 



New Patents Sealed. 231 

Alfired Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, ^^^ Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical draughtsman, for 
improvements in communicating intelligence by electricity, — 
being a communication. Sealed 3rd February — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Alexander Alliott, of Lenton Works, in the county of Nottingham, 
engineer, for improvements in cleaning, dyeing, and drying 
machines ; and in machinery to be used in sugar, soap, metal, 
and colour manufacturing. Sealed 3rd February — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

Benjamin Ledger Shaw, of Haddersfield, for improvements in 
cleaning and preparing wool and other fibrous or textile ma- 
terials ; and in the manufacture of coloured yarns, of wool, and 
other fibres ; and in weaving. Sealed 5th February — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

Angier March Perkins, of Francis-street, Regent-square, in the 
county of Middlesex, engineer, for improvements in railway 
axles and boxes. Sealed 5th February — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Charles De Bergue, of Arthur-street West, in the City of London, 
engineer, for improvements in, and in the construction of, the 
permanent way of railways. Sealed 7th February — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

Frederick B. Robinson, of Boston, in the state of Massachusetts, 
of the United States of North America, for a new and useful 
sewing machine. Sealed 5th February — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

William Onions, of Southwark, in the county of Surrey, engineer, 
for improvements in the manufacture of certain parts of machi- 
nery used in spinning. Sealed 7th February — 6 months for 
inrolment 

William Onions, of Southwark, in the county of Surrey, engineer, 
for certain improvements in the manufacture of steel. Sealed 
7th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Francois Marcelin Aristide Dumont, of Paris, engineer, for im- 
proved means and electric apparatus for transmitting intelli- 
gence. Sealed 7th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Edward Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improve- 
ments in apparatus for milking animals, — being a communica- 
tion. Sealed 10th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Peter Fairbaim, of Leeds, in the county of York, machinist, and 
John Hetherington, of Manchester, machinist, for certain im- 
provements in moulding for casting pipes, railings, gates, agri- 
cultural implements, and other metal articles ; and also in 
preparing patterns or models for the same. Sealed 10th Febru- 
ary — 6 months for inrolment. 

Richard Stuart Nonis, of Warrington, in the county of Lancaster, 
civil engineer, for certain improvements in the construction of 



282 New Patents Sealed. 

the peimanent way of railways, bridges, locks, and other erec- 
tions, wholly or in part constructed of metal ; also improve- 
ments in brakes for railway carriages. Sealed 1 0th February 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

John Stephens, of the Albynes, in the parish of Astley Abbotts, 
in the county of Salop, Gent., for certain improvements in 
thrashing machinery. Sealed 10th February — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Joseph Haythome Reed, late of the 1 7th Lancers, of the Harrow- 
road, in the county of Middlesex, Gent., for improvements in 
saddlery and harness. Sealed 10th February — 6 months fnr 
inrolment. 

John Harcourt Brown, of Fir Cottage, Putney, Surrey, Gent., for 
certain improvements in the construction and building of ships, 
boats, buoys, rafts, and other vessels and appliances for preser- 
ying life and property at sea. Sealed 1 0th February — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

Charles Xavier Thomas (de Colmar), Chevalier de la Legion d'Hon- 
neur, of Paris, in France, for an improved calculating machine, 
which he calls "arithmometer." — Sealed 10th February — 6 
months for inrolment. 

William Weild, of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, engi- 
neer, for improvements in machinery for turning and burnish- 
ing. Sealed 1 1th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Benjamin Heywood, of Water-street, Manchester, coach-builder, 
for certain improvements in railway and other carriages. 
Sealed 1 1th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Briand, of Nicholas-lane, in the City of London, surveyor, 
and Richard Fell, of the City-road, in the county of Middlesex, 
engineer, for certain improvements in obtaining fresh and pure 
water from salt sea and other waters. Sealed 1 1th February — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Rowland, of New York, in the United States of America, 
engineer, for improvements in bell telegraphs, — being a com- 
munication. Sealed 11th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Angier March Perkins, of Francis-street, Regent-square, in the 
county of Middlesex, engineer, for improvements in construct- 
ing and heating ovens. Sealed 11th February — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

James Webster, of Leicester, engineer, for improvements in the 
construction and means of applying carriage and certain other 
springs. Sealed 11th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Edwin Ullmer, of the firm of Edwin and William Ullmer, of Fet- 
ter-lane, in the City of London, printing press makers, for 
certain improvements in printing presses. Sealed 1 2th Febru- 
ary — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles William Tupper, of Oxford-terrace, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, Gent., and ^phonse Ren^ le Mire de Normandy, of 
Dalston, in the same county, Gent., for improvements in the 



New Patents Sealed. 233 

manufacture of iron coated with other metal, commonly called 
galvanized iron. Sealed 12th February — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Charles Cowper, of 20, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, 
patent agent, for improvements in moulds for electro-metallurgy. 
Sealed 1 7th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Fran9ois Marie de Pons, of 24, Boulevart Poissonniere, 
Paris, in France, G^nt., for improvements in constructing roads 
and ways, and pavements of streets, and the ballast of railways. 
Sealed 17th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Oustav Adolph Bucholz, of Norfolk-street, Strand, in the county 
of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improvements in motive power; 
and in propulsion. Sealed 1 7th February — 6 months for in- 
rolment. 

David Ferdinand Masuata, of Golden-square, Regent-street, in the 
county of Middlesex, Gent., for a new mechanical system with 
compressed air, adapted to obtain a new moving power. 
Sealed 18th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Dickason Botch, of Fumival's-inn, Gent., for improve- 
ments in centrifugal apparatus for separating fluid from other 
matters. Sealed 18th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Beadon, jun., of Taunton, in the county of Somerset, 
Grent., for improvements applicable to the roofing of houses, 
buildings, and other structures. Sealed 18th February — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Hugh Lee Pattinson, of Scots House, Gateshead, manufacturing 
chemist, for improvements in the manufacture of Pattinson's 
oxichloride of lead. Sealed 18th February — 6 months for in- 
rolment. 

Henry Richardson, of Aber Hourant Bala, North Wales, Esq., for 
certain improvements in life boats. Sealed 22nd February — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Edward Lloyd, of Dee Valley, near Corwen, Merionethshire, North 
Wales, engineer, for certain improvements in steam-engines ; 
which improvements are in part or on the whole applicable to 
other motive engines. Sealed 24th February — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Peter Wood, of the firm of Bury & Co., dyers, finishers, and cal- 
enderers, of Salford, in the county of Lancaster, for improve- 
ments in printing, staining, figuring, and ornamenting woven 
and textile fabrics, wood, leather, or any other material, sub- 
stance, or composition ; and in machinery and apparatus em- 
ployed therein. Sealed 24th February — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

John Hinks, of Birmingham, manufacturer, and James Yero, of 
Burbage, in the county of Leicester, manufacturer, for certain 
improvements in the manufacture of hats, caps, bonnets, and 
other coverings for the head. Sealed 24th February — 6 months 
for inrolment. 



234 New Patents Sealed. 

Gabriel Didier Fevre, of Paris, Gent., for certain improvements in 
apparatus for manufacturing and containing soda-water and 
other gaseous liquids ; and also in preserving other substances 
from evaporation. Sealed 24th February — 6 months for in- 
rolment. 

Thomas Wicksteed, of Old Ford, in the county of Middlesex, 
civil engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of manure, 
and in machinery to be used therein. Sealed 24th February — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Robert Adams, of King William-street, in the City of LondoD, 
gun-maker, for improvements in rifles and other fire-arms,—^ 
being a communication. Sealed 24th February — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

Francis Clark Monatis, of Earlston, in the county of Warwick, 
builder, for an improved hydraulic syphon, — being a commu- 
nication. Sealed 24th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Isaac Lowthian Bell, of Washington Chemical Works, near New- 
castle-upon-l^e, chemical manufacturer, for improvements in 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Sealed 24th February — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Henry Dircks, of Moorgate-street, in the City of London, engi- 
neer, for improvements in the manufacture of gas, in gas- 
burners, and in apparatus for heating by gas. Sealed 24th 
February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Frederick Bielefeld, of Wellington-street North, Strand, 
in the county of Middlesex, papier-mach6 manufacturer, for 
improvements in the manufacture of sheets of papier-mach^ or 
substances in the nature thereof. Sealed 24th February — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Samuel Cunlifie Lister, of Manningham, near Bradford, in the 
county of York, for improvements in preparing and combing 
wool and other fibrous materials. Sealed 24th February — 6 
months for inrolment. 

Robert Hawthorn, and William Hawthorn, of the borough and 
county of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, engineers and partners, for 
improvements in locomotive engines ; part of which are ap- 
plicable to other steam-engines. Sealed 24th February — 6 
months for inrolment. 

William Stones, of Queenhithe, in the City of London, stationer, 
for improvements in the manufacture of safety-paper for 
bankers' cheques, bills of exchange, and other like purposes. 
Sealed 24th February. — 6 months for inrolment. 

Am^^ Francois Remond, of Birmingham, Gent., for improve- 
ments in the manufacture of metaUic tubes or pipes, and the 
machinery or apparatus connected therewith ; which improve- 
ments are applicable to other like purposes. . Sealed 26th 
February — 6 months for inrolment. 



[ 235 ] 

BiMlaimtw aim 9liitenliiitntt0 

OF PARTS OF INVENTIONS 

Made under Lord BroughcurCs Act^ — subsequent to October Ist^ 1850. 



Disclaimer and memorandum of alteration filed with the Clerk 
of the Patents of England, on the 16th day of November, 1850, 
by John Ridgway, of Cauldon-place, in the county of Stafford, 
china manu^turer, assignee of a patent granted to George 
Robins Booth, of Hanley, in the county of Stafford, manufac- 
turer and chemist, and bearing date at Westminster, the 15th 
day of June, 1843, for an invention of " a certain improved 
mode of applying heat, from various combustibles, to manu- 
fecturing and other useful purposes." 

Disclaimer filed with the Clerk of the Patents of England, on 
the 7th day of December, 1850, to part of the title of a patent 
granted to William Newton, of Chancery- lane, in the county of 
Middlesex, civil engineer, on the 8th day of June, 1850, for 
an invention of ^* certain improvements in the manufacture of 
cords, ropes, bands, strong cloths, quiltings, sacks, and cushions, 
and in elastic material for stuffing the latter ; in which manu- 
facture caoutchouc forms an essential ingredient ; and in the 
application of parts of these improvements to the manufacture 
of pads, stoppers, tubes, boxes, baskets, coverings, wrappers, 
and other like articles of utility," — being a communication. 

Disclaimer and memorandum of alteration filed with the Clerk 
of the Patents of England, on the 19th day of December, 1850, 
by Charles Greenway, to the titie of a patent granted to him on 
the 19th day of June, 1850, for an invention of *^ improvements 
in diips' i^d othe; pumps, in anchors, and in propelling 
yessels.'* 

Disclaimer filed with the Clerk of the Patents of England, on the 
1 1th day of January, 1851, by John Mc Bride, of the Firm of 
Mc Bride and Company, cotton spinners, and power-loom cloth 
manufacturers, Albyn Works, Glasgow, to parts of a specifica- 
tion of a patent granted to him on the 12th day of November, 
1846, for an invention of '* improvements in weaving." 

Disclaimer and memorandum of alteration filed with the Clerk 
of the Patents of England, on the 6th day of February, 1851, 
by John Aston, of Birmingham, assigneee of a patent granted 
to John Fielding Empson, of Birmingham, for *' certain im- 
provements in the construction and manufacture of buttons 
and other fastenings for dress," dated 16th January, 1844, 
whereby he disclaims certain parts of the specification of the 
said patent. 



[ 236 ] 



CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for March, 1851. 



D. R. M. 

1 Clock before the 12m. 408. 

— > ]) rises 6h. 28m. M. 

— '• ]) pass mer. llh. 10m. M. 

— D sets dh. 57m. A. 
3 D in Apogee 

3 1 15 Ecliptic conj. or new mooQ 

4 1 88 It's first sat. will im. 

4 22 48 Vesta in Q with the Q 

5 Clock before the 011m. 498. 

— D rises 7h. 57m. M. 

— D pass mer. 2h. 2m. A. 

— D sets 8h. 18m. A. 

13 31 1^ in conj. with the }) diff.ofdec. 
5. 52. N. 

6 5 57 ^inconj. with the ]) diff.ofdec. 

4. 55, N. 

7 Occul. B.A.C., 845, im. 8h. 43m. 

em. 9h. 42m. 

8 10 30 It's second sat will im. 

9 Occul. 63 Tauri, im. 6h. 56m. 

em. 7h. 48m. 
9 31 %*B third sat will im. 

10 Clock before the 10m. 36s. 

— D rises lOh. 3m. M. 

— D pass mer. 5h. 57m. A. 

— D sets Oh. 50m. M. 

2 %*B third sat will em. 
9 45 D in a or first quarter 

11 Occul. y Geminorum, im. 12h. 

48m. em. 13h. 27m. 
3 32 %*B first, sat. will im. 

12 10 'U's first sat will im. 

13 Occul. d^ Cancri, im. 9h. 21m. 

em. lOh. 10m. 
— • OccuL $ Cancrii im 13h. 10m. 
em. 14h. 6m. 

14 Mercury R. A. 22h. 39m. dec. 

10. 57. S. 

— Venus R.'A. 20h. 37m. dec. 17. 

0. S. 

— Mars R. A. 2lh. 58m. dec. 13. 

36. S. 

— Vesta, R. A., 17h. 6m. dec. 16. 

1. S. 

— Juno, R. A., 17h. 40m. dec. 10. 

U.S. 
-^ Pallas, R. A., 23h. 46m. dec. 3. | 
29. S. 



D. H. 

14 



15 



16 






1 




2 


17 


1 




1 




13 


18 


4 




13 


19 


11 




15 


20 






16 


23 


3 


24 


1 


25 




27 


1 




1 


28 


4 




8 




11 


29 


12 




18 



M. 

Ceres R. A. Ih. 40m. dec. 4. 7. N. 
Jupiter R. A. 13h. 20m. dec. 6. 

47. S. 
Saturn R. A. Ih 17m. dec. 5. 

46. N. 
Uranus R. A. Ih. 45m. dec. 10. 

23. N. 
Mercury pass mer. 23h. 15m. 
Venus pass mer. 21h. 12m. 
Mars pass mer. 22h. 31m. 
Jupiter pass mer. 13h. 51m. 
Saturn pass mer. Ih. 5lm. 
Uranus pass mer. 2h. 19m. 
Clock before the 9m. 13s. 
D rises 3h. 20m. A. 
D pass mer. lOh. 48m. A. 
D sets 5h. 28m. M. 
D in Perigee 
5 It's second sat will im. 

46 Juno in D with the 
29 It's third sat will im. 

49 Ecliptic oppo. or Q fiill moon 

53 Pallas in conj. with the 

Ceres in conj. with ^di£ of dec. 
5. 38. S. 
59 % in conj. with the ]> difil of dec. 
u. u8. S. 

54 It's first sat will im. 
23 li greatest hel. lat S. 

Clock before the 7m. 458. 

D rises lOh. 11m. A. 

D pass mer. 2h. 26m. M. 

D sets 7h. 48m. M. 
25 , enters Aries 
40 It's second sat will im. 
26 D in D or last quarter 

Clock before the 6m. 13s. 

]) rises 2h. 34m. M. 

D pass mer. 6h. 44m. M. 

D sets lOh. 54m. M. 

47 %*s first sat will im. 
53 9 in conj. with Pallas 

5 $ in conj. with the D difl^ of dec. 

2. 3. N. 
16 It's fii^t sat. will im. 

D in Apogee 
45 ^ in coi^. with the 

i greatest heL lat S. 



J. LEWTHWAITE, Rotfaerbidie. 



THE 

LONDON JOURNAL, 

AND 

REPERTORY 

OP 



CONJOINED SERIES. 



No. CCXXXII. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

To William Joseph Hobsfall and Thomas James^ both 
of the Mersey Steel and Iron Works, Toxteth Park, Liver ^ 
pool, in the county of Lancaster^ for improvements in the 
rolling of iron and other metals. — [Sealed 19th March, 
1850.] 

This invention refers principally to the rolling of iron for the 
Diannfactore of tyres of wheels and for other purposes ; but 
other ductile metals may be similarly rolled, if thought de- 
sirable. 

In manufacturing tyres for wheels, according to the ordi- 
nary method, the iron, to form a tyre, is heated and submitted 
to the roughing-rolls, to bring it to shape ; it is then passed 
successiyely through the several grooves of the finishing-rolls, 
until it is brought down to the required size, when it is passed 
out of the rolls as a straight flat bar of iron, — which, when its 
ends are welded together, will form a cyUndrical hoop. But, 
as tyres of wheels have frequently to fit a chamfered or bevilled 
periphery, it is necessary, in such cases, to submit the cylin- 
drical hoops, thus formed, to a tedious and costly process of 
hammering, in order to bring them to the requisite sectional 
figure for forming a wheel-tyre. Now, the object of this in- 
vention, so far as it refers to the rolling of metals for the 
manufacture of tyres for wheels, is to obviate the necessity 
for hammering the metal, after it has left the rollers, to bring 
it to a conical instead of a cylindrical shape when welded into 
a hoop. This object is eflFected by the employment of a pecu- 
liar construction of finishing-rolls, which will roll the metal 

VOL. ZXXVIII. 2 E 



238 Recent Patents. 

into flat curved strips^ instead of into straigbt lengths; so 
that^ wben formed into tyres^ these tyres will^ of necessity^ fit 
the bevilled periphery of the wheels to which they are in- 
tended to be apphed. 

In carrying out the invention, the patentees take a pile or 
bloom of iron of any description, according to the quality 
required, and submit it, in a heated state, to roughing-rolls, 
to bring it down to a shape nearly approaching that of the 
first groove in the fiinishing-rolls j and, when thus prepared, 
they subject the iron (still hot) to the action of an improved 
construction of fiinishing-rolls, shewn in Plate X. ; fig. 1, 
being a front view and fig. 2, a plan view of the same. For 
the manufacture of a tyre, the heated bar is first passed be- 
tween the rolling surfaces a, a ; which surfaces are disposed 
so as to form an angle to each other, — the design being to 
roll the metal to unequal thicknesses at its opposite edges. 
When it has been thus acted upon, it is immediately passed 
between the rolling surfaces b, which are parallel to each 
other, and its sectional diameter is thereby reduced; after 
which it is passed between the rolling surfaces c, also parallel 
to each other ; and the bar is then made to assume the curved 
shape shewn at fig. 2. While yet in a heated state, the bar 
or rolled strip is carried to the machine shewn in plan view 
at fig. 3, where it is bent round into the form of a conical 
hoop, which may then be welded, and the tyre is complete. 

This machine consists of a circular frame or table a, mounted 
on a central shaft b, which is properly supported in a vertical 
position. The shaft b, with its table, is rotated by a bevil- 
wheel, connected with any suitable motive power machinery, 
taking into a similar wheel, keyed on to the shaft b. The 
table a, is provided with a series of radial slots, which form 
guides for a series of adjustable stop-pieces j^ capable of being 
fixed, in any required position, by means of bolts (as shewn 
in the drawing), so that they will hold firmly a ring ff, of any 
required diameter, which forms a sort of core, round which 
the strip of heated metal is to be lapped to form a tjnre. Be- 
tween this ring and the lug of the sliding stop-piece/*, one 
end of the heated strip of rolled metal is secured by a wedge, — 
the stop /*, having previously been brought round in front 
of the fixed guide h, which is mtended to guide the strip on 
to the frame or table a. Mounted in a sliding frame t, is a 
pressing-roller k, which is brought into contact with the heated 
bar or strip of metal, for the purpose of causing it, when the 
table a, is rotated in the direction of the arrow, to lap round 
the ring g, and thereby form a hoop. The contact of the 



HonftUl and Jame9^,for Impts. in Rolling Iron, SfC. 239 

roller k, with the heated strip^ is effected by means of a hand- 
lever I, which has its fulcrum on the fixed guide m, (in which 
the guide-rod of the frame i, slides) and is also connected to 
that frame by a pin of the lever dropping into one of a series 
of slot-holes made in the upper edge of the guide-rod. During 
the operation of bending a strip of metal into a hoop^ the 
lever I, is held in the position shewn at fig. 3^ to keep the 
roller k, up to its work ; and when the strip of metal has 
been lapped round the ring ff, the roller k, is drawn back^ 
the wedge stf*, is knocked away^ and the hoop^ thus formed^ 
is removed from the table. It is then ready for welding; 
and when it has undergone this operation^ a tyre will be con- 
structed of the form required^ — the inner face being conical 
and suitable for fitting the bevilled or chamfered periphery of 
a cart-wheel. It is obvious that hoops for tyres of various 
diameters may be made by increasing or diminishing the 
length of the strip of metal^ and by shifting the stop-pieces^ 
of the table a, nearer to or further from the centre^ to allow 
of their holding a ring ff, of a lesser or greater diameter^ cor- 
responding to the size of the wheels which are to receive the 
tyres ; and also that the difference of angle between the roll- 
ing surfaces^ which produce the varied sectional thickness of 
the rolled bars^ must be determined by the amount of bevil 
of the periphery of the wheels to which the tyres^ formed from 
the rolled bars^ are intended to be applied. 

The patentees remark, that instead of subjecting the bar to 
the action of the bending-machine, above described, or to 
other similar apparatus, it may be allowed to remain in the 
form produced by the operation of their improved finishing- 
rollers ; in which state it may be applied to any purposes 
where a flat ring or hoop of metal is required : for instance, 
the curve produced may constitute a ring, suitable for the 
shrouding or ring of a paddle or water-power wheel, — the 
necessary diameter being acquired by suitably adjusting the 
angle of the rolling surfaces, as before mentioned. 

This method of rolling metals may be also employed for 
rolling zinc, and other like metals, into thin sheets or lengths, 
forming the segment of a circle ; and which, when divided by 
lines radiating from the centre of that circle, and cut into 
pieces at those lines, may be formed into conical pipes and 
vessels, with little or no scrap-waste occurring in the manu- 
facture. 

The patentees claim the rolling of iron and other metals 
(which it may be desirable to submit to the improved rolling 
operation) into bars or strips and sheets, by first passing the 

2 £ 2 



240 Recent Patents. 

metal^ under operation^ between rolling surfaces which are 
set at an angle to each other^ and afterwards submitting such 
metal to rolling surfaces which are parallel to each other^ 
whereby the advantages^ hereinbefore described^ may be ob- 
tained. — [Inr oiled September, 1850.] 



To Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, 
Chancery-lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical 
draughtsman, for an invention of improvements in the 
production of gases, to be used for lighting, heating, and 
motive power purposes, — being a foreign communication, — 
[Sealed 12th June, 1850.] 

This invention, which has recently been the subject of much 
comment, both in this country ana in the United States, under 
the title of " Mr. Paints discovery/^ mainly consists in certain 
improvements in magneto-electrical apparatus,for decomposing 
water or other fluids, in order that the gases evolved there- 
from may be appUed to various useful purposes. 

The improvements effected in the construction of magneto- 
electrical machines are intended to increase the decomposing 
power of the electric current, and cause it to act with great 
effect upon the fluid it is intended to resolve into its elements. 
Adhering generally to the ordinary form of the helices, the 
inventor substitutes for the common helical coil a coil of tubing, 
made of copper or other good conducting metal ; and this he 
fills at pleasure with water or other electrical absorbent. The 
object of this arrangement is not merely to obtain an increased 
sinrface for the electrical currents (by reason of the inner and 
outer surfaces of the coils being conductors), but also to accu- 
mulate electricity, — the water or other absorbent taking up 
the excess during each revolution of the heUces, and retaining 
the same till relieved by the action of the dischargers, as 
hereinafter explained. These tubular coils may be made of 
some metal that will not easily corrode or oxidate, — the same 
being insulated externally; or they may be made of some 
non-conducting substance (such as gutta-percha tubing), filled 
with the Uquid, and a metallic conducting-wire inserted therein. 
It has been found that electricity, when applied in a continu- 
ous or unintermitting current, cannot be used successfully 
as an agent for decomposing water or other fluid in sufficient 
quantities and at a cost that will allow of the application 
of the products to general purposes; but, by causing the 
electric current to enter the water in a series of discharges 



Newton* 8, for Impts. in Producing Gases. 241 

or pulsations^ large volumes of gases may be evolved^ and at 
a moderate cost. These improvements admits not only of the 
discharge of the electric fluid in such pulsations^ but of the 
accumulation to any required extent between any two pulsa- 
tions or discharges. 

In order to prevent the injurious effects of too great in- 
tensity in the electric current^ and to ensure a safe and con- 
tinuous action, the inventor passes the current of electricity 
(obtained from the electro-magnetic apparatus hereafter to be 
described, or any other suitable arrangement of electro-mag- 
netic apparatus) through an improved arrangement of go- 
vernor, which, when the current of electricity is too intense, 
will cause it to be discharged into the earth, mstead of being 
allowed to pass to the electrodes. 

This invention also includes some improvements in the 
construction of electrodes, which will be fully described here- 
after. 

In Plate XI., at figs. 1, 3, and 4, a, a, are two helices, 
the interiors or cores c, of which are formed of soft iron (or 
they may consist of tubing, filled with water); and t, t, are 
the coils of the helices, also filled with water. These coils /, /, 
are wound round the cores c ; and they are connected toge- 
ther, as at A:, fig. 3. The revolution of the helices is effected 
by clockwork, or other simple motive power ; and they are 
mounted so as to turn between the poles of a pair of perma- 
nent magnets b, b, upon one common spindle c. On the 
head of the spindle is an insulating cap d, carrying two me- 
tallic rings, one placed around its vertical edge e, and the 
other around its top e^,— each being insulated from the other. 
The termini f, f, of the helical coils are attached one to each ring 
E, E^. (The small rod that connects the discharging-rings 
E, E^, on the spindle-head d, with the hollow helical coils, 
should be split its entire length, in order that, when it enters 
the hollow coil, it may convey the fluid up towards the ring, 
and allow the electricity to enter the water). Now, instead 
of having friction-dischargers pressing against these rings, the 
dischargers are made as follows : — A wheel g, of the required 
diameter, with its periphery covered with some good non- 
conducting substance, except at one point h, (which must be 
a good conductor), is made to press, by means of a spring- 
arm I, against the ring e, on the spindle-head ; — the stud k, 
which supports the spring-arm, being insulated ; and the con- 
ducting-wires J, starting from the arm i. By this arrange- 
ment, no discharge from the helices can take place until the 
non-insulated point h, on the discharging-wheel, comes in 



242 Recent Patents. 

contact with the ring e ; and^ consequently^ according to the 
relative proportions in the diameters of the ring and the 
wheels^ so will the amount of accumulation between the dis- 
chargers be. 

One of the improved arrangements of electrode is shewn^ in 
connection with the electro-magnetic apparatus, at fig. 8, and 
in sectional elevation, on an enlarged scale and detached from 
the machine, at fig. 5. In this arrangement, the negative 
wire of platinum n, is soldered, at one end, to one of the con- 
ductors i, t, and its other end is wound into a coil, making a 
cylinder of any convenient size ; into which coil the positive 
vdre />, (connected by soldering to the other conductor i,) is 
inserted; — the lower end of this wire/>, is soldered to a me- 
tallic button at the lower end of the negative coil. This ar- 
rangement may be reversed when opposite efiects are desired. 
The electrode is enclosed in a cylindrical casing/, being a 
non-conductor; the upper end of which is pierced with nu- 
merous small holes, to allow of the escape of the gases evolved; 
and its bottom has an aperture of about one-sixth of the 
diameter of the case, to allow of water entering therein from 
the tank or vessel in which it is immersed. 

Another arrangement of electrodes is constructed in the 
following manner : — The negative pole is attached to the in- 
ner side or top of the ceU or casing. The positive pole 
passes down into the cell to about one-third its depth, and 
terminates in a horizontal plate of copper or other good con- 
ducting metal. From this plate a number of platinum wires 
or points extend downwards into the centre of a corresponding 
number of coils, also of platinum, which are attached to the 
bottom of the cell or casing. In this arrangement (as well 
as in the one last described) the exterior of each coil must be 
covered with a non-conducting substance; and so in like 
manner must the surfaces of the cell or casing be coated. 

Another arrangement of electrode is shewn in plan and 
sectional elevation at figs. 6. This electrode is constructed 
upon the principle of conveying the currents on large free 
conductors, terminating in a great number of radial points 
1, 1, — ^the negative pole 2, or pole-points, radiating from a 
common centre around and along the conductor's terminus, 
and the positive pole-points 3, converging from the interior 
of a cylinder or cell 4, to which the positive conductor 3, is 
attached; and so, vice versd, when the positive pole enters 
the cell and the negative is attached to its interior. The 
casing of the electrode must be made a non-conductor on its 
outer surface, by applying to it a coating of sealing-wax, or 



Newton* »^ for Impts. in Producing Gases. 243 

other insulating substance. The top of the casing 5^ is pierced 
with numerous small holes^ and its bottom 6, with an aperture 
of about one-sixth its diameter. The conductors should be 
insulated, so as not to come in contact with the water at any 
time or place. This may be effected either by passing them 
through glass tubes, or by coating them with some non-con- 
ductmg substance. Copper or other metallic cells or casings 
may be used ; but the electrodes and the radial points are pre- 
ferred to be of fine platinum. The points on the interior of 
tlie cell or cylinder may be dispensed with, and the central or 
radial points of the electrode be made to come nearly in con- 
tact with the cylinder's surface ; but practice has proved that 
this arrangement is not so good as the double sets of points. 

In decomposing water, the cell or casing, with the elec- 
trodes properly arranged and attached, is plunged into a tank 
or vessel, of convenient shape, filled with water. 

The effect of these arrangements of electrodes is to isolate, 
as it were, a certain quantity of water in the casing or coil, 
and to bring to bear upon it, by a series of pulsations or in- 
termittent discharges, the accumulated force of the electric 
fluid, and thus evolve the gases with extraordinary rapidity. 
The water to be operated upon should be distilled or boiled, 
in order to get rid of the atmospheric air which it generally 
contains. 

It appears that a given quantity or force of the electric 
fluid is required to decompose water ; and that any excess 
interferes with its decomposing power, and causes a repulsive 
action of the electrodes, — subjecting them to injurious action^ 
In order to guard against this difficulty, the electric current 
is passed to a governor, as before mentioned, previous to con- 
ducting it to the electrode. The construction of this governor, 
which is shewn in sectional elevation, in connection with an 
electro-magnetic apparatus, at fig. 3, wiU be readily under- 
stood from the following description thereof: — ^The conduct- 
ors J, from the electro-magnetic apparatus, are connected 
with the helices around an electro-magnet n, and then pass 
along a conductor o, to the insulated mercurial cylinder p. 
A platinum bar q, pendent from the end of a balance-beam b, 
dips into the mercury of this cylinder ; and at the opposite 
end of the balance-beam a similar platinum bar and mercurial 
cylinder, q*, and p^, are provided. From the cylinder p^, 
proceeds the conductor t, to the electrodes in the water or 
other fluid to be decomposed. Attached to the beam b, 
directly above the poles of the electro-magnet N, is an arma- 
ture w. Taking advantage of the well-known law, that the 



244 Recent Patents, 

more intense the current passing around the legs of an 
electro-magnet, the greater the power — it is readily perceived, 
that, as all currents, passed into the fluid to be decomposed, 
are first made to pass around the electro-magnet n, there is, 
consequently, a continued force acting on the beam b, through 
the armature w. The action of this force may be easily gra- 
duated and governed, by placing a spring s, so as to act on 
the beam on the opposite side of its Ailcrum to that on which 
the armature is placed. Now, if the beam be so adjusted 
that, when the proper decomposing action is obtained, the 
spring balances the power of the magnet while a current of 
the ordinary intensity is passing through the coil, it will be 
evident that, when the intensity increases, the power of the 
magnet will overcome that of the spring, and that end of the 
beam which carries the platinum bar q, will be drawn down, 
and, consequently, the platinum bar q^, will be raised out of 
contact with the mercury in the cyhnder p^, whereby the con- 
nection with the electrode will be broken. It has been some- 
times found that, when the current is suddenly broken by 
drawing out the bar in the cylinder p^, a vacuum, or partial 
vacuum, is formed ; into which the mercury rises, and, con- 
sequently, the metal is spilt, — ^a result which terminates the 
action of the machine until the mercury is replaced. To 
avoid this difficulty, an auxiliary cylinder z, is placed under 
the beam, between the conducting cylinder p, and the electro- 
magnet N. This cylinder is filled with mercury like the other, 
and into it a platinum bar x, attached to the beam b, dips, in 
manner similar to the other bars. The mercury is gauged in 
this cylinder, so that the bar shall enter the mercury before 
the bar q^, leaves its bath; and, by this means, the current is 
turned into the cylinder z, and thence passes off into the 
earth, or to a reservoir of water, by means of the conductor a. 
To render hydrogen gas, obtained by the decomposition of 
water, suitable for the purposes of illumination, it is passed 
through spirits of turpentine, or any other suitable fluid hy- 
drocarbon. The chief matter to be attended to in this ope- 
ration is to prolong, to the proper extent, the passage of the 
gas through the hydrocarbon ; as a given time is necessary, in 
order that the hydrogen may become effectually endowed with 
the luminiferous property : the inventor, therefore, employs a 
means of retarding the passage of the current, whereby it is 
made to bubble through the liquid. The method preferred is 
to attach cotton wick, or the hollow wick of an argand burner, 
or some such substances, to the end of the gas tube that dips 
into the turpentine, or to perforate the end of the tube with 



Newton^ 8j for Impts. in Prodtidnff Gases. 245 

numerous small holes ; and^ by passing the gas through the 
interstices of the fabric^ or the pierced tube^ to cause it to 
divide into minute globules. By this means a greater amount 
of fictional contact is obtained oetween the hydrocarbon and 
the gas. It is stated that when the pipes^ which lead from 
the decomposing tank to the hydrocarbon^ are made of non- 
conducting materials^ or are coated on their interior with 
sealing-wax^ or other insulating substance^ the effect is the 
most brilliant. The hydrogen should^ therefore^ be conveyed 
by means of such tubes from the decomposing cells^ and passed 
with all possible speed into the hydrocarbon ; after which it 
may be collected in gasometers or other reservoirs. These 
latter may also be insulated by position^ or by the use of in- 
sulating materials; and^ in practice^ it may be found highly 
advantageous to use pipes and tubes of non-conducting mate- 
rials to convey the gas to the points of consumption. It de- 
serves also to be borne in mind^ that the vessel containing the 
turpentine or other hydrocarbon^ should be of some non- 
conducting substance; since it appears to be essential to the 
complete luminiferating or catalysing of the hydrogen^ that it 
should come in contact with the hydrocarbon whilst in a 
highly-electrified state. The height of the column of the 
hydrocarbon should be nearly equal to that of the column of 
water around the gasometer^ to prevent the hydrogen from 
passing too rapidly through. 

The following is a description of what the inventor terms 
his magneto-electric decomposer. 

Fig. 1^ represents the machine in horizontal section : it 
contains three sets of horse-shoe magnets, of which the three 
lower ones are shewn resting on the frame, with their re- 
spective helices. Fig. 2, shews the three upper magnets, and 
also the three pairs of discharging-wheels, in their relative 
positions, with the spring, arms, studs, &c., by which they 
are supported. Fig. 3, is a vertical section of a part of the 
supporting.frame, of one pair of magnets, one pah- of helices, 
one pair of insulated rings on the head of the helix spindle, of 
one pair of discharging-wheels, of the governor or regulator, 
the decomposing-jar or tank, with an electrode immersed 
therein ; also shewing the different conductors, and the man- 
ner of insulating the different parts : the other figures, which 
have been already referred to, shew, in detail, some of the 
most important parts of the machine. 

By means of a weight, or spring, or other convenient power, 
motion is given to a train of geared wheels, which, in their 
turn, cause the helices to revolve between the poles of the 



246 Recent Patents. 

magnets. These magnets need not be permanent; but^ if 
not^ should be inducted immediately before putting the ma- 
chine in action. The discharging-wheels being of much larger 
diameter than the rings on the spindle-head^ the helices ne- 
cessarily revolve several times before a discharge can take 
place. The electricity is consequently accumulated in the 
helices^ and passes off with proportionate intensity at the 
periodic times. The conducting-wires should be of the best 
conducting material^ and of large surface ; and; in operating 
upon a great scale, they are made tubular, and filled with 
water, as before mentioned. The cells and coils are important 
parts of the arrangement; and, in their construction, the 
conditions above mentioned should be well observed. 

Throughout the foregoing specification, water has been 
spoken of as being decomposed by the electric currents ; but 
it is desired to be understood, that this has been done merely in 
accordance with the generally-received chemical doctrines and 
phraseology. It is suggested that water may be found to be 
a simple element ; but whether or not, all that is desired to 
be laid down as certain is the fact that, by discharging elec- 
tricity through water, in the modes above described, large 
quantities of gases are evolved ; and that one at least of the 
gases so evolved, when passed through spirits of turpentine 
by the means above explained, becomes highly luminiferous. 

The patentee claims. First, — ^the use of helices, furnished 
with hollow helical coils or tubes, to be filled, at pleasure, 
with water or other electrical absorbent. Secondly, — the con- 
struction and use of electrodes, as above described. Thirdly, 
— applying electricity to the decomposition of fluids by pulsa- 
tions or intermittent discharges. Fourthly, — the construction 
and use of the governor, for regulating the electric currents, as 
above described. Fifthly, — the mode of catalysing or render- 
ing hydrogen gas luminiferous, by passing it through spirits 
of turpentine or other hydrocarbon, at common temperatures. 
Sixthly, — the use of non-conducting pipes and insulated gas- 
ometers for conveying and receiving the gases for the purposes 
of this invention. — [Inrolled December, 1850.] 



To Joseph Foot, of SpttaUsquare, in the county of Middle- 
seXy for improvements in bolters. — [Scaled 27th June, 
1850.] 

This invention relates to the apparatus commonly used tot 
dressing flour, and known by the name of bolters. The pa- 



Dick's, for Manufactunng Steel and Gas. 247 

tentee states that the cyUnders of such machines have been 
heretofore made of fabrics composed of yams of wool ; but 
such yams have numerous fibres projecting therefrom^ which 
tend to obstract the meshes of the fabric and impede the ope- 
ration of bolting I and he therefore proposes to use silk in 
the manufacture of bolters — ^whereby the operation of bolting 
will be facilitated^ and the product of flour mcreased. 

The patentee prefers to use Italian silk^ thrown in the 
manner of organzine, but with more twisty so as to make the 
same as wiry as possible; and he weaves the same into a 
fabric of a tubular form^ in the manner well understood. In 
order that the tubular fabrics^ thus made^ may be larger at 
one end than at the other (as is generally preferred for bolters)^ 
the work is moistened with water from a sponge, applied from 
time to time thereto between the reed and the breast-roll ; 
and, in winding up the fabric, the weaver adjusts the work to 
the required width, which it will retain when dry. The fabrics 
are then completed by attaching the ordinary head and tail 
leathers thereto. Although these fabrics are made by using 
silk alone for both the warp and weft, yet yam made of wool 
may be used in combination with silk, particularly as weft. 

The patentee claims, as his invention, the employment of 
silk in the manufacture of bolters. — [Inrolled December, 
1850.] 

To William Dick, of (he City of Edinburgh, professor of 
veterinary medicine in the Edinburgh Veterinary College, 
for improvements in the manufacture of steel and gas. — 
[Sealed 22nd August, 1850.] 

This invention consists in making steel and gas in the same 
retorts or furnaces at one and the same time. 

In carrying out this invention, the patentee employs the 
common fire-clay gas retorts. When the retort is heated to 
the temperature required for the production of gas, the iron 
that is to be converted into steel (and which is preferred to be 
in bars of a similar length to the retort) is introduced and laid 
horizontally upon a thin layer of coke in the lower part thereof. 
The retort is then charged with coal or other suitable material 
for making gas ; and the operation of manufacturing gas is 
conducted in the ordinary manner; — the retort being charged 
with fresh quantities of coal or other material at the usual 
intervals of time ; and the bars of iron remaining in the re- 
tort for a longer or shorter period, according to their size or 
thickness, and being turned over at intervals of two or three 



248 Recent Patents. 

days, at tbe time when the retort is charged with fresh sup* 
plies of coal or other material. The bars are allowed to remain 
m the retort until the process of cementation is completed, 
and they have been converted into steel. The progress of the 
operation of converting the iron into steel is tested from time 
to time, by suddenly cooling one of the bars and breaking it ; 
and the operation is continued until the disappearance of the 
" pith '^ in the centre indicates the completion of the process 
of cementation. 

The patentee states, that he does not claim the conversion 
of iron into steel by the action of carburettcd hydrogen gas 
on iron shut up along with the gas ; but what he claims is, 
the process of making steel and gas in the same retorts or 
furnaces, at one and the same time. — [Inrolled February , 
1851.] 



To John Saul, of Manchester y cotton-spinner, for certain 
improvements in machinery or apparatus for spinning and 
ttvisting cotton and other fibrous substances. — [Sealed 5 th 
September, 1850.] 

The machines for spinning and twisting fibrous substances, 
referred to in the title of this patent, are those known by the 
name of throstle-frames. The invention relates to that par- 
ticular construction or arrangement of the spindle and flyer 
which formed the subject of a patent granted to Henry Gore, 
December 22, 1831*; and it consists in the application of a 
loose tube between the fixed or steadying-tube (described in 
Grore^s specification) and the bobbin ; whereby the lower bush 
of the bobbin is prevented from coming into contact with the 
fixed or steadying-tube ; and the friction, which has heretofore 
taken place between the lower bush of the bobbin and the 
fibced tube, is transferred to tjie loose tube, and may be regu- 
lated by the application of cloth, leather, or other washers, 
above and below a flange or collar formed at the bottom of 
the loose tube ; — such flange or collar having about the same 
diameter as the bottom of the bobbin, and being turned either 
flat, rounded, or dished, as may be most suitable for the work 
to be performed. The amount of friction to which the bob- 
bins are subjected, being by this means considerably reduced, 
their durabiUtv will be increased, and much higher numbers 
or finer qualities of yam may be spun or doubled than could 

* For description of this inyention see Vol. III. of our present Series, 
p. 142. 



Newton^ 8 f for Constructing Ships' Magazines. 249 

heretofore be produced on this description of spinning or 
doubling frame. The bobbins may be constructed either 
with or without metal bushes. In spinning fine numbers^ 
when a high velocity is required, it is desirable to attach a 
fly-wheel to each throstle-frame, in order to prevent the same 
from being stopped or started too rapidly, and thus to obviate 
the over-running of the bobbins. 

In Plate X., fig. 1, is a sectional elevation of a spindle 
and its appendages, shewing a loose tube applied thereto, ac- 
cording to this invention ; and fig. 2, is an external view of 
the loose tube, a, is the spindle ; b, the flyer ; c, the copping- 
rail ; d, the bobbin ; e, the fixed or steadying tube ; f, the 
loose tube, with a flange or collar ff, at the lower part thereof; 
and h, h, are washers of cloth, leather, or other suitable ma- 
terial, interposed between the bottom of the bobbin and the 
flange^, and between this flange and the flange at the bottom 
of the tube e. 

The patentee claims the application, employment, or use 
of a loose tube betwixt the ordinary flxed (or " Gore's ") tube 
and the bobbins in the aforesaid description of machines, in 
the manner and for the purpose above particularly set forth, 
and as represented ^t f,f, g, g, in the drawings annexed. — 
[Inrolled March, 1851.] 



To William Edwabd Newton, of the Office for Patents, 
66, Chancery-lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engi- 
neer,for an invention of improvements in the construction 
of ship^ magazines, — being a communication from abroad. 
—[Sealed 22nd August, 1850.] 

This invention relates to improvements in gunpowder maga- 
zines for ships, — the object being to protect them from the 
action of fire, either in the time of battle, or from accidental 
conflagration. 

Attached to the magazine are certain pipes, which lead to 
and terminate at the sides of the ship, — through which open- 
ings are made to allow of water flowing into the pipes. These 
pipes are provided with valves or cocks, by turning which 
water may be allowed to flow into the magazine and fill it, if 
required. 

The invention consists, firstly, in the adaptation, to the 
said cocks and pipes, of an apparatus, which is of such nature 
that the presence of heat, arising from combustion, will cause 
the cocks or valves to open, and allow of the flooding of the. 



"Yi 



250 Recent Patents. 

magazine with water long before fire shall actually come in 
contact with the magazine^ and thereby save the ship from 
the effect of an explosion. 

The invention consists^ secondly^ in applying to the im- 
proved magazines a certain contrivance for entering and leav- 
mg the same, and removing the powder therefrom, if neces- 
r, while the ship itself may be on fire, 
[n Plate XII., fig. 1, is a side elevation, shewing so much 
of the magazine as is necessary to exhibit the manner of 
attaching the pipes and the apparatus connected therewith ; 
and fig. 2, is a plan view of this apparatus detached. The 
magazine should be composed of sheet-metal, and be made 
water-tight. In the side of the magazine there is inserted 
the usual lens for lighting the interior ; and at the bottom 
there is also a cock, of common construction, for discharging 
the water after the operation of flooding has been performed, 
c, d, are the flooding-pipes, which, it will be seen, are placed 
in different parts of the magazine, c, enters the magazine 
near the top, and its opposite end terminates at the side of 
the vessel ; while d, is connected with the magazine at or near 
the bottom, and passes out at the bottom of the vessel. The 
object of this is to produce a circulation of water in the ma- 
gazine by a well-known law, whereby heat, acting on fluids 
in certain places, causes a change in the specific gravity of 
the parts thereof; so that the equilibrium of the mass being 
disturbed, the rarefied parts seek their proper level. Thus, if 
the magazine a, is full of water, and heat is applied externally, 
it would soon change the gravity of a portion of the fluid, so 
that a current would be produced, which would flow outward 
through the pipe c, and inwards through the pipe d. Thus 
a complete circulation is produced in the magazine, by which 
any material increase of the temperature of the water is pre- 
vented, e, f, are stop-cocks on the pipes c, and d, to cut off 
or admit the water for flooding the magazine. These are 
connected together by a rod g, so that they may be opened 
simultaneously. A, is a weight, fixed to the rod g, in order 
to give it a tendency to fall and open the cocks e, and/. The 
rod g, is retained in its elevated position (at which time the 
cocks are closed) by the apparatus shewn at i, k, L It con- 
sists of a rod and spiral 8p^g;-the spring being attached, 
at one end, to the magazine at /, and, at its opposite end i, 
to the connecting-rod g. This spring is of sufficient power 
to support the weight h, and keep the rod g, elevated, imd 
the cocks consequently closed. A portion of this rod, as at k, 
is made of some substance which will yield — ^that is, melt, give 



Newton^ 8y for Constructing Ships' Magazines, 251 

way^ or expand, by the action of a moderate degree of heat, 
without coming in direct contact with fire; and, for this 
purpose, the article known as gutta-percha is preferred; as 
that substance is known to possess the quality of being easily 
softened and rendered quite plastic at comparatively low tem- 
peratures. 

The operation of this part of the invention is as follows : — 
Suppose the hold of a ship to be on fire, — ^the moment the 
temperature of the air surrounding the magazine becomes 
sufficiently high to soften the gutta-percha bar k, so that it 
will no longer have the strength to overcome the tension 
caused by the weighted rod g, and spring /, the weighted rod 
g, will faU, and immediately open the cocks and fiood the ma- 
gazine with water. At m, is a rod, connecting the two cocks 
e, f, by additional handles or levers on their plugs. The 
length of this rod is such that it may extend up through the 
deck, and thus afibrd means of flooding the magazine at any 
moment by hand from above. 

The means of entering or leaving the magazine, without 
exposing the interior thereof to danger from fire, is shewn in 
vertical section at fig. 3, and in horizontal section at figs. 4, 
and 5. The apparatus consists of two cylinders, the one fitted 
closely within the other, but so that the inner one may revolve ; 
for this purpose it plays upon a centre or pivot e, projecting 
through the bottom of the outer cylinder. In the side of 
each cylinder a door is cut, as at a, b, figs. 4, and 5 ; the 
inner cylinder terminates in a cap m, with a ring or handle 
affixed to it ; and both the outer and the inner cylinders have 
closed or solid bottoms. A hole is made in the top of the 
magazine to receive the cylinders, as combined together, and 
shewn by the dotted lines in fig. 1 : — the plate of the maga- 
zine, around the hole, has a packing ring o, o, fig. 3. 

When it is required to bring this part of the invention into 
use, the cylinders are drawn out by the ring in the cap m, 
until the bottom of the outer cylinder shall be above the level 
of the top of the magazine. Next, the inner one is turned, 
until the opening or door b, made in its side, comes opposite 
to the opening a, in the outer cylinder, as shewn at fig. 5. 
The person to be sent into the magazine now enters the inner 
cylinder, which is again turned until b, is passed around to 
the opposite side, and thus the door a, is closed, as shewn at 
fig. 4. The cylinders are now lowered into the magazine, 
until the fiange edge of the cap m, rests upon the top of the 
magazine. Hie inner cylinder is revolved once more, until 
the doors are again opposite, when the party can quit the 



252 Recent Patents. 

cylinder and go to any part of the magazine^ and then return 
with powder^ and be raised from the magazine. 

The patentee claims the attaching of a connecting-piece^ 
made of some easily melting or fusible material, to, and com- 
bining the same with, the governing-cocks of the ejection and 
injection-pipes employed for keeping a circulation of cold 
water through magazines, or for flooding the same when re- 
quired, — such connecting-piece being made of such materials, 
and adapted to the magazine or governing-cocks connected 
therewith, in such a manner as to be affected by heat without 
necessarily coming in contact with fire ; — this connecting-piece 
being also governed by a spring, and being capable, when 
acted on by heat, of liberating certain other parts, which will 
open cocks and flood the magazine. He also claims attaching 
and combining with the magazine a double tube or cylinder, 
or equivalent arrangement, by which articles may be conveyed 
into or from the magazine without in any way exposing the 
interior of the magazine to fire from without ; — by which se- 
veral arrangements, a perfect security is effected against firing 
the magazines of vessels of war. — [Inr oiled February, 1851.] 



To AsTLET Paston Pbice, of Margate, in the county of 
Kent, chemist, and James Heywood Whitehead, of the 
Royal George Mills, Saddleworth, near Manchester, for 
improvements in filters. — [Sealed 12th September, 1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in making filters by drawing 
a tubular fabric into itself; secondly, in making filters by 
drawing one tubular fabric into another, in such manner that 
filtration shall take place inwards as well as outwards, and 
combining them with an external case or sheath (of smaller 
diameter than the tubular fabrics), and with nozzles at each 
end; thirdly, in making filters by combining a filter-bag, 
drawn within itself, with a supply tube and an external sheath 
or case of smaller diameter ; and fourthly, in manufacturing 
filters of certain kinds of fabrics hereafter described. 

In Plate XI., fig. 1, is a vertical section, and fig. 2, an ex- 
ternal view of a filter made according to the first part of this 
invention. It consists of a tube a, b, made of any suitable 
fabric,— the part *, of which, is drawn within the part a; the 
ends of the tubular fabric are secured to a nozzle or supply- 
tube c ; and then the filter is inserted into a sheath or case 
of netting d, which is of less diameter than the tube a, by so 
that it will cause the formation of folds in the direction of 



Price and Whitehead's, for Impts. in Filters, 253 

the length of the fabric^ and thus produce a greater extent of 
filtering surface in a given space. The fluid to be filtered 
enters through the supply-tube c, into the annular space 
formed by drawing the part 6, into the part a ; and then it 
not only filters outwards through the interstices of the part 
a, but sdso inwards through the part by into the central space 
Cy from which it escapes at the bottom thereof. In order to 
cleanse this filter^ it must first be withdrawn from its sheath 
or case di and then the tube a> b, must be disengaged from 
the supply-tube c, and drawn out to its full length, in such 
manner that the surface retaining the sediment will become 
the outer surface^ and may therefore be readily cleansed. 

Fig. 3^ is a vertical section of a filter, constructed according 
to the second part of this invention, by drawing a tubular 
fabric b, into another tubular fabric a, and attaching the ends 
of such tubes to a supply-tube or nozzle c, at the top, and to 
a discharge-tube or nozzle c^, at the bottom. The fluid (as 
in the filter previously described) filters outwards through the 
fabric a, and inwards through the fabric b, into the space e, 
from which it escapes through the tube or nozzle c^ To 
cleanse this filter, *it is withdrawn from its sheath or case of 
netting ; the tubes a, and i, are detached from the supply- 
tube c ; and then the inner tube b, with the nozzle or tube c*, 
is drawn through the tube a, so as to turn the inner surface 
of such tube a, outwards : by this means, the whole of the 
sediment will be brought to the outer surface of the tubes a, 
and b, and can be easily removed. 

Fig. 4, is an external elevation, and fig. 5, is a vertical sec- 
tion of the third kind of filter, which is produced by drawing 
a filter-bag^ within itself, securing the ends of the bag to a 
supply-tube c, and enclosing the bag in a sheath or case of 
netting of smaller diameter than such bag. The patentees 
state, that they are aware that several years ago a Mr. Schroeder 
obtained letters patent for a mode of constructing filters, which 
consisted in drawing a long bag within an external sheath or 
case of considerably smaller diameter than the bag ; and this 
part of their invention is similar thereto, inasmuch as the bag 
is drawn within a case of smaller diameter, but it differs 
therefrom in that the bag is drawn within itself: in conse- 
quence whereof, filters made according to this third part of 
their invention offer a similar extent of surface to a Schroeder's 
bag, but occupy, longitudinally, only half the space. 

The last part of the invention consists in making filter- 
bags of fabrics composed of a combination of cotton yarn and 
woollen or worsted yam — of yam consisting of a mixture of 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 F 



254 Recent Patents, 

flax and cotton^ carded and spun together — of such yarn, 
consisting of a mixture of flax and cotton^ and woollen or 
worsted yam— of yam formed of wool and cotton, carded and 
spun together — and of yam made of flax and wool, or of cot- 
ton, flax, and wool, carded and spun together. The patentees 
state, that they believe that the best method of making the 
fabrics is to weave the same twilled, as fllter-doths have here- 
tofore been made of cotton yam ; and the same may be woven 
in a circular or tubular form, as is well understood. In car- 
rying out this part of the invention, the warp may be made 
of cotton, and the weft of woollen or worsted yam, or vice 
versd. Or the warp may be made of cotton and flax, carded 
and spun together (by preference, in equal quantities), and 
the weft of woollen or worsted yam ; but this may be reversed. 
Or the fabric may be made entirely of yam, composed of the 
mixture of cotton and flax, carded and spun together: for 
this purpose, the patentees prefer to use these materials in 
equal proportions ; but they do not confine themselves thereto. 
Or the fabric may be manufactured wholly or partially of 
yam, composed of cotton and wool, carded and spun together 
m the proportion of two of the former to one of the latter : 
these proportions are considered by the patentees to be the 
best ; but they do not confine themselves thereto. Or the 
fabric may be made wholly or partially of yam, composed of 
flax and wool, or of cotton, flax, and wool, carded and spun 
together in about equal proportions. 

The patentees claim, First, — the making of filters by draw- 
ing a tubular fabric into itself, as above described. Secondly, — 
making filters by drawing one tubular fabric into another, 
and combining them with an external sheath or case of smaller 
diameter, and with parts c, c^ Thirdly, — making filters by 
combining a filter-bag, drawn within itself, with a supply- 
tube c, and an external sheath or case of smaller diameter. 
Fourthly, — the manufacture of filters of the fabrics above 
described. — [Inrolled March, 1851.] 



To Robert Longdon, the younger, of Derby, glove manu- 
facturer, and Thomas Pabker Tabberer, of Derby, afore- 
said, manufacturer of elastic fabrics, for improvements in 
the manufacture of looped fabrics. — [Sealed 12th Septem- 
ber, 1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in a mode of narrowing or 
shaping knitted fabrics while in course of manufacture in 



Longdon and Tabberer^s^forlmpts. in Looped Fabrics, 255 

knitting-machines. To effect this^ it is usual to employ^ at 
the selvages or edges of the work^ what are termed '^ tickung- 
points/^ of which four or five are generally used at each sel- 
vage where the narrowing or shaping is to take place; and^ 
in making the ends of the fingers of gloves and similar work^ 
the work at the end of each finger has to be divided and made 
inta two scoll(q>ed pieces^ which require separate pieces of 
thread to be laid on by hand^ — the thread-carrier, which lays 
on the thread for making the other part of the finger, being 
put out of action, or only used for laying the thread for one 
of the two divided ends. Now, the patentees propose to nar- 
row or shape the work by using a larger number of tickling- 
points, and by carrying the work back, not only at the sel- 
vages or edges, but also at the interior of the work : whereby 
they render it unnecessary to divide the ends of those parts 
of the work which are to form the fingers of gloves, &c. 

In carrying out this part of the invention, the ticklers are 
used in two rows ; and those points which are to work at the 
selvages or edges (being five at each selvage) are bent down 
into a lower row than the others, so that they may be used 
without bringing the others into action. The operation of 
narrowing or shaping is conducted as follows : — The action of 
the knitting-machine having proceeded in the usual manner 
until the narrowing or shaping is to take place, and the course 
being worked in the ordinary way, the lower or selvage-ticklers 
are brought down on to their needles, and the loops are shifted 
in the usual manner. In the next shaping of the loops, all 
the tickling-points come into action, — the selvage-points bend- 
ing down their needles, for a distance equal to the distance 
between those points and the upper tickling-points, and the 
upper points coming into action on their needles, and shifting 
the work therefrom into or towards the centre portion of the 
work. In such cases as the formation of the ends of the 
fingers of gloves and other narrow work, when the narrowing 
has been carried on to some extent, then, in the further work- 
ing, it will not be desirable to bring the selvage tickling-points 
into action, and there will be no necessity for dividing or 
spUtting the work at the end of the fingers of gloves. By 
this means, the operator will be enabled, not only to tickle at 
the selvages, but also at any part or parts of the body of the 
work, according to the arrangement of the ticklers. 

The second part of the invention relates to the needles used 
in machines for manufacturing looped fabrics, and consists in 
a mode of rendering the stems thereof (beyond where the 
work comes) of greater strength than usual. 



256 Recent Patents. 

Heretofore^ in making needles for knitting-machines, the 
wire has been of the same diameter or substance from end to 
end, and the flattening of the part of the wire intended to 
form the stem of the needle, has reduced its strength at that 
part in a lateral direction. Now, this part of the invention 
consists in making the needles of wire which is of less diameter 
or gauge at one end than at the other : the decreased diameter 
of the wire may be obtained by reducing or removing the 
metal at the desired part ; or by drawing such part of the 
wire through smaller dies than those through which the re- 
maining portion of the wire is drawn. The patentees prefer 
to effect the reduction of the wire by chemical action, as fol- 
lows : — They take a number of pieces of wire, of the proper 
length for making the needles, and of suitable diameter for 
forming the stems thereof, and insert such wires into a thin 
board, with the parts which are to be reduced, in order to 
form the bearded ends of the needles, projecting downwards. 
They then immerse such parts in a solution of sulphate of 
copper, prepared by dissolving one pound of the sulphate of 
copper in a gallon of distilled water. The lower parts of the 
wires are kept immersed in the solution until they are suffi- 
ciently reduced in diameter ; and then they are ready to be 
made into needles in the ordinary way. The upper parts of 
the wires are protected from the action of the solution by 
forming a ledge or rim around the top of the board, and then 
pouring melted fat into such receptacle around the stems of 
the needles. 

The third part of this invention consists in a mode of mak- 
ing knitted fabrics with fleece or projecting-loops on one side 
thereof. 

Such fabrics have been hitherto made by the employment 
of double-knibbed sinkers, having one knib lower than the 
other, so as to produce the projecting loops or fleece by making 
such loops longer than the others. In the improved mode of 
manufacturing such fabrics (which constitutes this part of the 
invention), the ordinary sinkers are used, together with needles 
alternately having long and short beards; so that at one time 
the presser may press the loops off all the beards, and at an- 
other time only off the beards of every alternate needle ; and 
thereby the loops upon the long bearded needles may be^ 
knocked over, — the needles with the short beards receiving 
and holding the work. In working according to this improved 
mode, the loops for the body of the work are produced in the 
ordinary manner. The projecting loops are obtained by laying 
the thread, drawing the jacks, and lowering the lead-sinkers 



Longdon and Tabberer^s^for Impis. in Looped Fabrics. 257 

in the usual way; then the needles are pressed whilst over 
the arch, and the work, being brought forward, is pressed off 
every alternate needle (i. e., every needle with a long beard); 
and the work is received and held by the needles with the 
short beards. The working is continued in the usual manner 
until the next row of projecting loops is to be formed ; and 
then the above operation is repeated. Hitherto, in making 
like descriptions of fleecy fabrics in knitting-machines, the 
fleece has been formed on every needle ; but, in this case, it 
is produced on every alternate needle ; and a finer and more 
elastic fabric is obtained. 

The fourth part of this invention consists in a mode of 
manufacturing knitted fabrics ribbed on one side. This is 
effected by the employment of sinkers having two knibs of a 
like length, together with needles alternately having long 
and short beards, and by using two threads of the same or 
different sizes and of the same or different color of material. 
The course is worked in the manner usually practised with 
double-knibbed sinkers, except that the pressing takes place 
twice in each course — once over the arch and once off the 
arch. In pressing over the arch, the front loops are pressed 
off the long bearded needles, and the work is caught by the 
short bearded needles only. The back thread being brought 
under the long beards, the frame is then thrown up ; in doing 
which, the back thread is moved behind the short beards; 
and the course is then worked in the ordinary way. The 
fabric, thus produced, has ribs or stripes on one side and 
a satin appearance on the other side. 

The fifth part of this invention consists in a mode of ma- 
nufacturing looped fabrics with India-rubber threads therein. 

Heretofore, in such manufacture, it has been the practice 
either to use the India-rubber threads in a non-elastic state, 
and to restore the elasticity thereof by heat after the fabric is 
made, — or else to employ them in an elastic state, but without 
stretching the same during the process of manufacture ; so 
that the fabric, when made, will not contract to the desired 
extent. The improvement consists in introducing elastic In- 
dia-rubber threads, in a stretched state, into the fabric, whilst 
the same is being manufactured. For this purpose a tubular 
carrier is employed, as represented in Plate XII., at figs. 1, 
2, and 3 : — fig. 1, being a plan view and figs. 2, and 3, sec- 
tional elevations thereof, a, is the carrier ; 6, is a rod, which 
extends horizontally through holes in the side of the carrier, 
and has a hole formed through its centre ; and c, is the In- 
dia-rubber thread, which passes downwards through the hole 



258 Receni Patents. 

in tbe rod b, and is delivered from the lower end ol the car- 
rier. The rod b, accompanies the carrier in its movements ; 
and^ so long as the hole in it coincides with the central line 
of the tubular carrier (as in fig. 2,)^ the India-rubber thread 
will be delivered freely; but when the hole in the rod is 
moved to the side of the cftrrier (as in fig. 3^)^ the India-rubber 
thread will be securely retained and prevented firom passing 
through the hole ; and, as the carrier continues to move on- 
ward^ the India-rubber will be stretched to an extent depend- 
ing upon the distance which the carrier travels before the 
India-rubber thread is again released. A cord d, is attached 
to each end of the rod b, by which the workman is enabled 
to move it at pleasure^ and thus to regulate the degree of 
stretching to which the India-rubber thr^id is to be subjected. 
To prevent the needles from being drawn on one side by the 
stretching operation^ the patentees use pins, as shewn at e, 
in fig. 4, which exhibits some of the working parts of a knit- 
ting-machine : the pins are affixed to the rs^rs, and project 
upwards between the needles/. 

The last part of this invention consists in a mode of making 
the socks or ''uppers^' of boots. 

The sock is formed of knitted fabric, with an elastic band 
at the top (but the application of this band is not claimed); 
and the lining is made of brown hoUand, or similar fabric, in 
which, at each side, over the ankles, a piece of India-rubber 
fabric is inserted and stitched thereto ; — ^the object being to 
obtain additional strength, in combination with elasticity, over 
the ankles. 

The patentees claim. First, — ^the improvements, above de- 
scribed, in the means of narrowing or shaping knit fabrics. 
Secondly, — ^the improvement in needles used in machines 
employed in the manufacture of looped fabrics. Thirdly, — 
the mode, above described, of making knitted fabrics with 
fleece or projecting-loops on one side, produced by the alter- 
nate needles. Fourthly, — the mode of making knitted fabrics 
with a ribbed appearance on one side, by the employment of 
needles with long and short beards in combination with two- 
knibbed sinkers. Fifthly, — ^the mode of making looped fabrics 
with India-rubber therein, as above described. Sixthly, — 
the mode of making the socks or uppers of boots, as above 
described. — [Inrolled March, 1851.] 



[ 259 ] 

7b RoDOLFHE Helbronneb^ of Regent'Street, in the county 
of Middlesex, for improvements in preventing the external 
air and dtist and noise from entering apartments, — being 
a communication. — [Sealed 3l8t July^ 1850.] 

This invention consists in certain means of making rolls of 
fabric or fibrous material^ and applying the same to fill the 
spaces between the sashes and frames of windows^ the edges 
and frames of doors^ &c.^ and thus to prevent the entrance of 
the external air, dust, and noise into apartments. 

The apparatus employed by the patentee consists princi- 
pally of a table, with a hinged flap, and two long wires, ex- 
tending across the same. Part of the apparatus is represented 
in Plate X., at figs. 1, 2, and 3; — ^fig. 1, being a vertical 
section of the table, taken near one end; fig. 2, a section 
taken across the centre of the table; and fig. 3, an end 
view thereof, a, is the table, at one end of which a short 
shaft or spindle is mounted in suitable bearings ; and the end 
of the shaft that is nearest to the table is provided with a disc 
or boss bj to which the two long wires c, d, are attached, — 
the wire c, being placed in a line with the centre of the shaft, 
and the wire d, at some distance from such centre. A groove 
or recess is formed in the table a, and in the flap a^, at the 
end which is nearest the disc b, (see fig. 1,) in order that, 
when the flap is in the position indicated by dotted lines, the 
wires may be able to turn freely with the short shaft ; and 
such shaft receives motion, through endless bands, from an- 
other shaft, which is turned by a winch-handle. To prepare 
a roll according to this invention, the edge of a sheet of fibrous 
material (similar to wadding) is introduced between the wires 
c, d, in the manner represented at fig. 1, and the hinged flap 
is brought down ; the shaft being then caused to rotate, the 
fibrous material is wound upon the wires as exhibited at fig. 
8, — ^the requisite tension being obtained by the fibrous mate- 
rial passing over the rib e; and, when a roll of the desired 
thickness has been formed upon the wires, the motion of the 
shaft is stopped, the central wire c, is disengaged from the 
shaft and drawn out, and then the roll is drawn ofi* the wire d. 
The rolls, obtained in this way, are coated with cement, to 
render the surface uniform and secure the edge of the sheet 
of fibrous material ; — if required, they may be rendered water- 
proof by the application of a solution of India-rubber or gutta- 
percha. The rolls may be secured by glue, or other suitable 
means, in the places wnere they are to be applied, in order to 
efiect the objects of this invention. 



2G0 Recent Patents. 

The patentee claims " the means of making rolls suitable 
for and applying them to prevent external air^ dust^ and noise 
entering apartments/' — [Inrolled January^ 1851.] 



To Thomas Dickason Rotch, of Drumlamford House, in 
the county of Ayr, N. B., Esq,, for an improved mode of 
manufacturing soap. — [Sealed 31 st July, 1850.] 

The improved mode of manufacturing soap, which forms the 
subject of this invention, consists in introducing certain sul- 
phites, bisulphites, and polysulphites into the fatty and other 
matters during the process of saponification. 

When bisulphite of soda is to be introduced into the mass, 
during the saponifying process, the ordinary soap pan is used, 
and the process is conducted in the usual way, by putting in 
the caustic lyes and fatty or other matter in proper propor- 
tions, and heating the mass to the requisite temperature; 
when the process arrives at this point, an addition is made of 
twenty parts of bisulphite of soda, dissolved in water, to every 
thousand parts of fatty or other matter to be saponified ; and, 
after this, the operation is concluded in the ordinary manner, 
without any alteration being made in consequence of the 
addition of the bisulphite of soda. 

If potash is to be employed instead of soda, it is added to 
the saponifying mass, in the proportion of twenty-five parts 
of bisulphite of potash, dissolved in water, to every thousand 
parts of the fatty or other matter to be converted into soap : 
in other respects, the operation is conducted in the way usually 
practised when potashes are used. 

When lime is to be introduced into the saponifying mass, 
twenty parts of bisulphite of lime are added to every thousand 
parts of fatty or other matter in the soap-pan, — ^the bisul- 
phite of lime being carefully diluted with water into a kind of 
milk of lime before it is poured into the mass ; and the re- 
mainder of the operation is carried on in the ordinary manner. 

Another mode of carrying out the invention (which, under 
some circumstances, may be cheaper and preferable) consists 
in passing a current of sulphurous acid through the mass of 
boiling fatty or other matter, during the whole of the ordinary 
process of saponification, in the proportion of six ^^nr parts 
of sulphurous acid to every thousand parts of fatty or other 
matter. This is effected by decomposing sulphuric acid in 
the apparatus represented in Plate X. a, is a close vessel 
or boiler, formed with a flange b, which rests on a perforated 



Christen^Sffor Impts. in Cylinder Printing. 261 

plate c, set in the brickwork d. The cover of the boiler is 
furnished with a safety-gauge e, a feed-pipe/^ and a leaden 
pipe ff, through which the sulphurous acid passes into the 
lower part of the soap-pan^ and then rises through the boiling 
mass of saponifying matter. About two pounds of charcoal 
being introduced into the boiler or vessel a, with twenty 
pounds of sulphuric acid at 66° Beaume^ heat is applied (by 
lighting a fire below the boiler) to efiect the decomposition 
of the sulphuric acid ; and such heat is maintained through- 
out the process of saponification. 

In conclusion^ the patentee states that sulphites^ bisul- 
phites^ and polysulphites are equally applicable to the manu- 
facture of soap according to his invention, — the quantity used 
being varied according as the one or the other is employed. 
He claims, as his improved mode of manufacturing soap, the 
introduction of suitable sulphites, bisulphites, and polysul- 
phites, into the saponifying masses of fatty or other matter, as 
above described. — [Inr oiled January^ 1851.] 



To Henri Jeremy Christen, of Paris, engraver, for im^ 
provementsin cylinder printing. — [Sealed 19th September, 
1850.] 

This invention consists in so printing with cylinders, having 
the whole of their surfaces engraved, as to leave blank or un- 
printed spaces on the printed fabrics of any desired shape or 
design. 

The invention is applicable to all descriptions of cylinder 
printing-machines ; and it is carried into effect by placing, at 
the back of the fabric that is to be printed, a design or pat- 
tern, hollow and in relief, which will cause parts of the fabric 
to be pressed in contact with the engraved surface of the 
cylinder ; whilst other parts of the fabric, where the hollow 
parts of the pattern are situate, will not be pressed upon, and 
therefore will not be printed by the engraved cylinder. 

The application of this invention to a roller-machine is ex- 
hibited by a sectional view in Plate X., where a, is an endless 
fabric, placed at the back of the fabric or cloth to be printed. 
The length of the endless fabric may be varied according to 
the design; and the width of it will be regulated by the 
width of the fabric to be printed. It is made by cementing 
together four or other suitable number of thicknesses of cot- 
ton, or other fabric, by a flexible cement (gutta-percha cement 
is preferred), and then cementing a surface of woollen fabric 

VOL. XXXYIII. 2 G 



262 Recent Patentw. 

upon the same ; — the pattern of the plain part^ or the part 
which is not to be printed^ being produced by removing or 
cutting away parts of the surface of woollen cloth^ so that the 
fabric to be printed will not be pressed in contact with the 
engraved cylinder at such parts^ and they will therefore be 
left plain. Other suitable materials^ which possess sufficient 
flexibility^ may be used for this purpose. It is not essential 
that the pattern a, should be endless ; as it may^ when de- 
sired^ be of the same length as the fabric to be printed ; or^ 
in place of using a fabric for this purpose^ a roller or cylinder 
may be employdl^ when the extent of the pattern will admit 
of it^ — ^hollows being made in the surface of such roller or 
cylinder at those parts where the engraved cylinder is not 
intended to print upon the cloth or fabric. 

The printing is^ in other respects, to be performed in the 
usual manner. — \Inrolled March^ 1851.] 



To Peter Glaussen, of Great Charlotte-street y Blackfriars, 
in the county of Surrey, manufacturer, for certain improve- 
ments in bleaching, and in the preparation of materials for 
spinning and felting, and in yams and felts, — being partly 
a communication, — [Sealed 16th August, 1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in improvements in bleaching 
all kinds of vegetable productions, and fabrics or articles com- 
posed of such productions. 

The ordinary process of bleaching fabrics, such as calico, 
consists in first immersing them in a bleaching liquor (com- 
monly a solution of hypochlorite of Ume — the chloride of lime 
of commerce), and then steeping them in a bath of water 
acidulated with sulphuric acid : by this means the chlorine is 
set free in its simple form, or in combination with oxygen (as 
chlorous or hydrochlorous acid), or in chemical union with 
the hydrogen of the water (as hydrochloric acid) ; and thus 
it is either wasted by escaping, or else, by its remaining 
too long in contact with the &brics, the latter are injured. 
Whereas, in bleaching according to this invention, the whole 
or a gi'eat part of the chlorine or '' chloro-compound " is kept 
in a combined state, and recovered for future use. The pa- 
tentee states that, by the term " chloro-compound,'' he does 
not mean a salt containing chlorine, but an acid having chlo- 
rine for its base, — such as chlorous or hypochlorous acid. 

In bleaching according to this invention, the goods, after 
they have passed through the bleaching liquor (say a solution 



Claussen^Jbr Impts. in Bleaching, S^c. 263 

of hypochlorite of lime), are steeped in a strong solution of 
some salt whose acid has a greater affinity for lime than hy- 
pochlorous acid : thus a strong solution of sulphate of mag- 
nesia may be used, the sulphuric acid of which, having a 
strong affinity for lime, combines with the earthy base of the 
bleaching salt, and forms sulphate of lime ; and the chloro- 
compound, being thereby liberated, unites with the magnesia 
and forms hypochlorite of magnesia, which has bleaching 
properties similar to those of the hypochlorite of lime. This 
newly-formed compound may, in the next instance, be used 
as a primary bleaching agent, and be subjected to the process 
of double decomposition, as in the example just given : thus 
the goods, after being subjected to the action of a solution of 
hjrpochlorite of magnesia, may be steeped in a liquid holding 
in solution some carbonate or other salt for whose base the 
hypochlorous acid has a greater affinity than for the magnesia ; 
in which case the carbonic acid (if a carbonate be used), hav- 
ing a great affinity for the magnesia, combines therewith and 
forms carbonate of magnesia ; and the liberated chloro-com- 
pound combines with the base of the carbonate employed to 
produce decomposition and forms a new bleaching salt. This 
salt may also be employed as a primary bleaching agent, and 
be subjected to the process of double decomposition with si- 
milar results to those above stated: thus if the carbonate 
used in the preceding example be carbonate of barytes, and a 
solution of sulphate of magnesia or of lime be brought into 
contact with the resulting chloro-ccmipound sidt of barytes, 
sulphate of barytes will be precipitated, and the chloro-com- 
pound will unite with the magnesia or lime and form a bleach- 
ing salt. 

In Ueacbing flax or other like vegetable material for ma- 
king linen, no compounds should be used which are likely, 
during the decomposition of the same, to evolve any gaseous 
matters, such as carbonic acid or chlorine ; as, by the develop- 
ment and expansion of the gas in the fibrous tubes, the flax 
or similar material would be rendered not so fit to be spun by 
the common flax spinning machinery ; but in bleaching flax 
or similar material which is to be combined with other mate- 
rials for spinning and felting according to this invention, 
compounds evolving gas may be safely used, as hereafter 
explained. 

The patentee does not confine himself to the use of the above- 
mentioned compounds for the purpose of bleaching by the 
method of double decomposition, nor to any particular salt or 
daas of salts ; but he claims a right to use any which, under 



264 Recent Patents. 

the like circamstances^ will be subject to the same chemical 
law of decomposition^ and will produce the same result. He 
however points out^ as among the salts suitable for decompo- 
sing the chloro-compound salts^ or assisting in the process of 
bleaching^ the carbonates (such as carbonate or bicarbonate of 
soda), sulphates (as sulphate of magnesia)^ nitrates (as nitrate 
of soda), acetates (as the acetates of potash and of lead), prus- 
siates (as prussiate of potash), chromates (as chromate and 
bichromate of potash), and tartrates (as tartrate and bitartrate 
of potash). 

Another method of bleaching, which is especially applicable 
to goods composed of both animal and vegetable fibres, con- 
sists in exposing the goods — after they have been steeped in 
any of the ordinary bleaching liquors (such as the solution 
of hypochlorite of lime), and while they are still wet — to the 
fumes of sulphur, produced by burning the same slowly in a 
suitable chamber or stove. In this case two powerful bleach- 
ing agents are brought into operation, viz., the hypochloritic 
compound and the sulphurous acid produced by the combus- 
tion of the sulphur. Part of the sulphurous acid combines 
with the base of the chloro-compound salt to form a sulphite 
of lime or magnesia, as the case may be; and a small portion 
of sulphuric acid may also be formed, which would form a 
sulphate of the base : by this means the chlorine or chloro- 
compound, remaining in the wet goods, is liberated, and per- 
mitted to exert its bleaching action upon the goods. The 
patentee states that, in this process, certain chromates, man- 
ganates, hyper manganates,&c., may be occasionally substituted 
for the ordinary bleaching liquids. 

The second part of this invention consists in improvements 
in the preparation of materials from flax^ hemp^ and other 
plants for spinning and felting. 

The processes for preparing the materials, though possessed 
of some features common to the whole, vary according to the 
purposes to which the fibre is to be applied; — that is to say, 
according as the fibre is required to be long or short, fine or 
coarse, and the machinery, by which it is to be spun, is 
adapted for spinning one or other sort of fibre. The patentee 
states that by the term " fibre " he means that portion of 
each plant which is capable of being spun or felted ; and the 
invention applies to the fibre surrounding the stems of dicO' 
tyledonotts plants, and to that existing in the stems and leaves 
of monocotyledonous plants. In the following processes, flax 
or hemp is supposed to be the material under operation. 

If the plant is to be operated upon from the time of its 



Claussen's, for Impts. in Bleaching, ^c. 265 

being cut down or pulled for use, it is taken in the state of 
straw (after the seed has been separated from it) and subjected 
to the following process : — ^The straw is steeped in a solution 
of caustic alkali, of about 1° of Twaddle's hydrometer, for a 
suitable length of time : if despatch is required, the solution 
is employed in a boiling state, which renders an immersion 
of about six hours suiiicient ; but, if more time can be allowed, 
the solution may be used at a temperature of about 150° Fahr., 
and the immersion prolonged for twelve hours ; and the solu- 
tion may even be used at a lower temperature, with a corres- 
ponding prolongation of time ; but in no case need the im- 
mersion exceed a couple of days. The objects of this process 
are, first, to decompose, dissolve, or remove the glutinous, 
gummy, or other matters, which connect the fibre with the 
woody portions of the plant ; and, second, to discharge or de- 
compose any oleaginous, coloring, or extraneous matter con- 
tained in the straw, without permitting such discharged 
matters to stain the fibre. The patentee generally uses a 
solution of caustic soda for effecting these objects ; but other 
alkaline liquors (such as a solution of caustic potash or lime) 
will answer the purpose, as also will any substance having the 
like power of discharging, decomposing, or removing the glu- 
tinous, gummy, coloring, or other foreign matters contained 
in the straw. 

If the fibre is required to be long, like that commonly spun 
in flax-spinning machinery, the straw is now treated in the 
following manner, to get rid of any of the alkali still adhering 
to the straw or fibre, and to complete the removal of any glu- 
tinous, gummy, coloring, or other foreign matters: — The straw 
is taken from the alkaline solution, above mentioned, and 
steeped for about two hours in water acidulated with sulphu- 
ric acid, in the proportion of one part of the acid to from two 
to five hundred parts of water : some other dilute acids will 
answer this purpose, such as dilute muriatic acid ; but sul- 
phuric acid is preferred. Or the straw is transferred, while 
yet wet with the alkaline solution, to a suitable chamber or 
stove, wherein it is subjected to the action of sulphurous acid, 
or the fumes produced by the slow combustion of sulphur. 
In both cases, the acid combines with any free alkali, remain- 
ing on the straw or fibre, and forms a sulphite or sulphate 
thereof, according to the acid employed ; while an excess of 
either sulphuric or sulphurous acid will complete the discharge, 
decomposition, or removal of the glutinous, gummy, coloring, 
and other matters. The straw is next removed from the acid 



266 Recent Paterdg. 

batb or sulphur chamber^ and washed or otherwise treated 
with water, until all the soluble matters are removed. 

If the fibre is required to be decolorized, the straw may 
now be submitted to one of the above-mentioned bleaching 
processes, or to any of the ordinary bleaching processes ; and 
after this, it may be dried and made ready for breaking and 
scutching by the means commonly employed in the manufac- 
ture of long flax. In some cases, it will be found advan- 
tageous to pass the straw between rollers, or to break it 
roughly or partially, before subjecting it to the above process, 
in order to facilitate the action of the chemical agents upon 
it. It is stated that, by the above method, certain matters 
are removed from the straw which water alone cannot dis- 
charge ; the fibre, so prepared, is also freer to heckle, and the 
straw more easy to scutch, than fibre and straw treated in the 
common way ; much time and material are likewise saved ; 
while the noxious exhalations, attendant upon the water-retting 
system, are entirely prevented. 

If the fibre is required to be short — so that it may be felted 
or carded and adapted for spinning on cotton, silk, wool, 
worsted, or tow-spinning machinery, either alone or combined 
with cotton, wool, fur, hair, silk, or "shoddy'' — the patentee 
takes the fibre, after it has been treated in the manner just 
described, and divides it into proper lengths by a suitable 
instrument or machine. The straw or fibre is then, put into 
a bath, containing a strong solution of bicarbonate, sesqui- 
carbonate, or even carbonate of soda, or any similar compound 
(the first two being preferred, because they contain more car- 
bonic acid) ; and it is permitted to remam in such bath for 
three or four hours, in order that the fibre may become well 
saturated with the salt. It is then immersed for about a 
couple of hours in water, acidulated with sulphuric acid, in 
the proportion of one part of acid to two hundred parts of 
water ; or else the saturated straw or fibre is exposed, while 
wet, to the action of burning sulphur in a suitable chamber 
or stove. In this operation it appears that a certiun portkm 
of gas becomes developed in the fibrous tubes, and by its ex- 
pansive power it splits and divides them into filaments, having 
the character and appearance of fine cotton wool ; and in this 
state they may be dyed and manufactured like cott(m or wool. 

As the same means of effecting the splitting of the fibre 
may be employed in the preparation of long fibre, the patentee 
does not confine himself to the use of the same for preparing 
short fibre alone; but he states that, when the fibre is of its 



Claussen^s, for Impts. in Bleaching, SfC. 267 

original lengthy the solution takes a longer time to penetrate 
into the interior. He likewise states^ that the decomposition 
of the bicarbonate of soda^ or other suitable compound^ may 
be effected by electric agency ; — in which case a like evolution 
of gas and splitting up of the fibre will take place. After the 
fibre has been subjected to the splitting process^ it must be 
carefuUy washed^ to remove all soluble matters^ and dried. 
The splitting process may be applied to the plant either in 
the straw (the wood of which is afterwards to be removed by 
suitable means)^ or in the state of long fibre, whether pre- 
pared by the above or any of the usual processes. 

The third part of this invention consists in manufacturing 
yarns and felts of the following new combinations of mate- 
rials : — The patentee manufactures a yam, which he calls flax- 
cotton yam, partly of flax fibre, prepared and cut into short 
lengths, as aforesaid, and partly of cotton — varying the pro- 
portions at pleasure: this yam is stated to be stronger, 
whiter, and more glossy than yam composed of cotton alone ; 
while it is equally capable of being spun in the common 
cotton-spinning machinery. He also makes yarn partly of 
hemp fibre, or jute, or phormium tenax, or similar vegetable 
fibre (China grasd excepted), prepared and cut into short 
lengths, and partly of cotton : such yarn possesses like pro- 
perties to the flsQc-cotton yam. He likewise manufactures 
yam partly of flax, prepared and cut into short lengths, or 
any like vegetable fibre (except cotton and China grass), and 
partly of wool, or of that description of it called *' shoddy,^' 
or partly of fur or hair, or partly of any two or more of the 
said materials; — some wools also, which are too short to be 
spun by themselves, may, by being mixed with flax fibre, cut 
into short lengths, form a material very suitable for spinning. 
Yam is likewise proposed to be made partly of fiax or like 
vegetable fibre (except China grass), prepared and cut into 
short lengths, and partly of waste silk : that is, silk of the 
short lengths in which it exists before reeling ; or silk rags 
cut into short lengths and carded. 

Flax felts, of a fineness and softness equal to the best 
woollen felts, and superior to them in point of durability, are 
made by mixing flax fibre, prepared and cut into short 
lengths, with wool, fur, hair, or any other feltable material. 

The patentee states, that the part of the above invention 
which was communicated to him from abroad, was that which 
relates to the combination of flax, cut into short lengths, with 
shoddy; and he derived his knowledge of this from one 
Ahnesorge, of Holstein. He claims. First, — the method of 



268 Recent Patents. 

bleaching by double decomposition^ before described, whereby 
the various bleaching agents and compounds used may be 
recovered and economised. Secondly, — the method of bleach- 
ing by the combined action of chlorides, or carbonates, or 
chromates, or any other bleaching agent, with fumes of sul- 
phur, as before described. Thirdly, — the preparing of flax 
and hemp, and of all vegetable fibre capable of being spun or 
felted, from whatever description of plants obtainable, by 
steeping the plant from which the fibre is derived, while in 
the state of straw, stem, leaf, or fibre, first in a solution of 
caustic soda, or other solution of like properties, and then in 
a bath of dilute sulphuric or other suitable acid, as before 
described. Fourthly, — the preparing of the said vegetable 
fibre for spinning in cotton and silk machinery, and for 
being combined with cotton, wool, raw silk, or other materials 
of short staple, by first steeping the same in a solution of 
caustic soda, or other solution of like properties ; secondly, 
steeping them in a bath of dilute sulphuric or other suitable 
acid, or exposing them to the fumes of sulphur; thirdly, 
saturating them with a solution of bicarbonate of soda, or any 
other like agent, and then decomposing such salt, — however 
such decomposition may be efi*ected ; and fourthly, cutting 
them up into short lengths, as before described. Fifthly, — 
the employment generally in the preparation of flax, hemp, 
and other sorts of vegetable fibre, of the mode of splitting by 
gaseous expansion, as before described, — whether the fibre is 
long or short, and whatever may be the purpose to which the 
same is to be applied. Sixthly, — the manufacture of yams 
and felts from a combination of flax or like vegetable fibre 
(China grass excepted), prepared and mixed, as aforesaid, 
with cotton, wool, shoddy, fur, hair, and silk waste, all or 
any of them, as before described. — [Inrolled August y 1850.] 



To Robert Cotgreave, ofEccleston, in the county of Ches- 
ter, farmer, for certain improvements in machinery or 
apparatus to be used in draining land. — [Sealed 22nd May, 
1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in certain novel constructions 
and arrangements of machinery for forming trenches, to be 
subsequently supplied with pipes, stones, or other medium 
used in constructing drains; secondly, in an apparatus for 
filling in the earth which has been removed in the formation 
of such trenches ; and thirdly, in an arrangement of imple- 



Cotgreav^Sf for Tmpis, in Draining Land. 269 

ment for loosening the subsoil^ so as to effect an improved 
drainage thereof. 

In Plate XII.^ fig. 1^ represents^ in side elevation^ one 
form of the improved machine for cutting trenches ; and fig. 
2, is a cross section^ taken at about the line a^ b, of fig. 1 . — 
This implement may be called a drain-plough, a, a, is the 
beam, formed of two plates or bars of irou, between which 
there is attached a plate of metal b, b, extending downwards. 
To the bottom part of this plate is attached a bar c, c, form^- 
ing an inclined plane, which carries, at its forward end, a 
coulter or cutter d. The forward end of the beam a, a, is 
provided with two pendent arms e, e, to the lower ends of 
which is attached a block f, /. Beneath this there is placed 
another block ff, ff, to which are firmly attached pins h, h, h ; — 
these pins project into sockets, formed in the upper block 
f,f, and move loosely therein, so as to act as parallel guides 
for the moveable block g. i, i, are two upright rods, to the 
lower ends of which the block g, is jointed : they are suitably 
formed for moving in screw-sockets, placed within the beam 
a, a, and are provided, at top, with handles ; by turning which 
the block ff, ff, can be raised or lowered, as desired. Project- 
ing from the inclined plane is an angular mould-boardy,y, 
mounted upon a rod k, k, which passes through eyes attached 
to the board, and through other eyes affixed to the inclined 
plane beam. The mould-board y,y, has to be moved higher 
up occasionally, for the purpose hereinafter to be mentioned : 
this is accomplished by withdrawing the rod k, and then 
shifting the eyes of the mould-board, so as to bring them 
above the succeeding eyes on the inclined plane-bar c, c ; — 
the rod k, k, is then replaced. In order to enable the board 
J, to sustain the weight of earth which is to pass over it there 
are brackets A*, k^, extending from the framework of the 
machine, upon which it rests, n, is the draw-link, jointed to 
a bar o, attached, at the further end, to the beam of the im- 
plement, but capable of being raised or lowered, at its forward 
end, by means of a screw and nuts p, — the spring of the said 
bar being sufficient to admit of this motion. This means of 
adjustment is for the purpose of varying the height of the 
point at which motion is communicated to the machine. The 
action of this apparatus is as follows :— Upon the appUcation 
of horse or other power to the draw-link, the coulter or cutter 
df will be caused to advance into the earth, and the loosened 
soil will be forced up the inclined plane c; and thence falling 
on to the mould-board, will be thrown on one side of the 
trench that is being cut. The block ff, presses upon the 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 H 



270 ReceiU PatenU. 

soil where a alioe his been prerionsly removed^ and, by its 
plane nurtace, fonna a guide to keep the cutter from advancing 
ludduly into the earth. 

When the intended length of trench has been cnt, the 
machine must be raised, and, by working in the opposite di- 
rection, another slice wiU be removed ; the attendant drawing 
up the mould-board j, by the means above-mentioned, as the 
apparatus lowers into the increasing depth of the trench. 
Tlie thickness of the layer of soil removed will, of course, de- 
pend upon the height of the Uock ff, above the point of the 
cutter, and may be r^ulated by turning the screwed rods t, 
so as to raise or lower the Uock ff. As the machine sinks 
into the deepening trench it will be necessary to unscrew the 
eyes m, m, in order to cause a plain surface of the side of the 
inclined plane to move against the sides of the drain. 

In using this arrangement of apparatus, one or more may 
be employed for forming the entire depth of the trench : for 
example, one of light construction may be used for cutting 
the drain down to a portion of its extent, and another or 
others, of greater depth and strength, employed, as the cut- 
tings progress ; and they may, if desired, be furnished with 
ordinary wheels, to facilitate their being conveyed from place 
to place, — such wheels being capable of removal when required. 

Fig. 3, shews, in elevation, a similar machine to that already 
described, but with certain additions thereto, which are more 
particularly applicable when the earth is to be removed from 
the lower part of the trench. The beam and inclined plane 
are shewn, as before, at a, and c. To the upper part of 
the beam is, in this instance, attached a bar, provided with 
a bearing, which carries a short shaft q, forming the axle of 
a spike-roller, the teeth of which take into the sur&oe (tf the 
earth as the machine is drawn forward. On the same shaft is 
also mounted another roller s, —a series of spikes formed up<m 
which project into the slice of earth as it advances up the in* 
clined plane. By this arrangement, the shaft wiU be caused 
to revolve; and the roller, by the action of its teeth, will 
assist the severed soil in its passage up the inclined plane. — 
It will be understood that, as the opposite end of the bar to 
that which carries the shaft is fixed to the frame, the roller, 
in passing over any inequalities of the surface of the ground, 
will be enabled to yield a little, by reason of the bar acting as 
a spring. 

If it be desired to use this additional apparatus during se- 
veral successive operations, spike-rollers, of di£ferent diameters, 
should be employed, so as to run in contact with the surface 



CotgreaiO€?s,for Impts. in Draining Land. 271 

of the ground^ as the machine^ and^ consequently, the shaft q, 
falls lower down. 

Fig. 3, also shews another additional apparatus which may 
be employed to assist the passage of the earth up the inclined 
plane. At the under side of the bar c, is mounted in bear- 
ings a revolving disc t, upon the axis of which is a toothed 
pinion, taking into another mounted upon an axle, also car- 
ried by the bar c. Upon the latter axle is afSxed a thin 
spiked roller u, which projects through the inclined plane ; 
so that, upon the machine moving forward, the disc t, will 
be caused to revolve and communicate motion to the roller u ; 
thus lifting the slice of earth and tending to advance it to the 
top of the machine. In this figure the blocks/ and ^, are 
formed of hollow iron, — the upper one fitting into the cavity 
of the lower one, which is capable of being raised and lowered 
by means of screw-rods, as before. The lower block is, in 
this instance, provided with four circular knives, mounted on 
each side thereof; two of which are shewn at v, v. These 
knives are capable of turning upon centres, and are level with 
the faces of the block ff ; they operate so as to cut the sides 
of the earth intended to form the slice, and may (if desired) 
be employed in all forms of the guide-block ; or cutting sur- 
faces, to act similarly, may also be employed, but formed as 
stationary knives. 

Fig. 4, represents, in elevation, a modification of the above- 
described machine. In this instance, two inclined planes and 
cutters are employed, — the one calculated to remove the earth 
a thickness deeper than the other, so as to sever two slices at 
one advance of the machine. In like manner three or more 
may be employed, if desired; — the general arrangement of 
parts being the same as in the former cases, no further de- 
scription will be necessary; it being understood that but 
one mould-board, similar to that shewn at j, and placed on 
the lower inclined plane, will be necessary. Fig. 5, is a par- 
tial view, shewing a variation in the method of shifting the 
guide-block in front of the machine. In this instance the 
block/, is jointed upon arms e, e, which turn on pins passing 
through the beam a. To one of them is connected a seg- 
mental piece tv, which has a series of pin-holes formed therein, 
and passes through a mortice formed in the beam : by raising 
or lowering the upper end of this segmental piece, the blocks 
will swing upon the arms and be caused to rise or fall, and at 
the same time recede from or advance towards the cutting- 
tool, and be thus adjustable in both directions. The arms e, e, 
are also provided with several pin-holes, which may be used 



272 Recent Patents. 

to alter the level of the blocks when a great variation is re- 
quired. In order, however, to gain increased facility for 
regulating the thickness of slice to be severed; screw-rods i, i, 
similar to those before described, are employed. 

Fig. 6, represents, in a detached view, a plan for assisting 
the upward passage of the earth. Within the inclined plane- 
bar is placed a series of rollers x, x, Xy turning upon suitable 
centres ; and around these is passed a belt of cloth or other 
material, upon which the raised soil advances. 

Fig. 5, represents, in a detached view, an arrangement for 
governing the cut more accurately. Behind the cutting-tool 
is placed a block ^ affixed to an extended portion of the plate 
h \ and below this is placed another block, in a similar man- 
ner to those described with reference to the preceding figures : 
by raising or lowering the block g, through the intervention 
of the screws t, great accuracy of adjustment may be ac- 
quired. The cutter to be affixed to this description of ma- 
chines may be varied considerably in form; that, however, 
which is preferred for general purposes will be seen mors 
particularly by reference to figs. 1, and 2. There are two 
vertically cutting projections ^, y, which sever the sides of the 
slice \ if desired, however, discs, similar to those e^ewn at t?, r, 
fig. 3, may be employed. The shape of the tool may likewise 
be varied to suit the form which it may be desired to give to the 
bottom of the trench : for instance, in cases where sods are 
adopted instead of tiles, the cutter employed to remove the 
last slice may be so constructed as to leave a ledge on each 
side for the sods to rest upon. In some instances the top 
part of the drain, where such has been formed to a consider- 
able depth, may be wider than the lower part thereof; in 
which cases a spring is applied to the incline plane-bar, so as 
to press the plate 6, against the side of the dram ; and, to pre- 
vent the loose earth from falling into the trench between the 
machine and the side thereof where the spring is employed, a 
projecting piece is attached to the machine, so as to cover the 
aperture of the space. 

The mould-board y, is shewn in the drawings as in one 
piece; if desired, however, it may be made in two or more, — 
the one lapping over the other, so as to be capable of expan- 
sion, in order to gain greater breadth. 

The patentee remarks that, if desired, his improved drain- 
ing-machines may be made with two inclined planes, one on 
each of the plates h ; in which case the earth will be brought 
up in a similar manner to that already described, but thrown 
upon the surface of the ground on both sides of the drain. 



Ckdgreav€?9ffor ImpU. in Draimng Land. 273 

^. 8, shews an improved oonstniction of machine for fill- 
ing in the earth which has been thrown up in forming drains. 
To a beam a, is attached an angolar frame b^ which is pro- 
Tided with a nomber of tines c, Cy c, similar to those of an or- 
dinary harrow; and projecting downwards from the parts 
i*y i*, of the frame, are also plates or scrapers. The machine is 
used in the following manner : — ^The forward part of the beam 
a, extends below the bottoms of the tines c, c, c, and is placed 
so as to project into the formed trench, — the tines c, c, c, will 
then rest upon the earth intended to be filled in, and, on a 
forward motion being communicated thereto by horse or other 
power, will loosen the soil, so as to enable it to be drawn 
towards the centre part of the machine by the scrapers ex- 
tending from the frame b*, b*, when it will fall into the open 
trench. In some cases, where the groond to be cat is com- 
paratively dry, a series of rollers, moonted upon axles, may 
be placed at the bottom of the guide-block ff, as shewn in 
the detached fig. 7 : they may be of an^ convenient number, 
and formed of wood, or of metal, as desured. 

Fig. 9, is a side elevation, and fig. 10, a plan or horizontal 
view, of an implement for loosening the subsoil, so as to eflect 
an improved drainage. The frame or beam of the machine is 
shewn at a, to the front part of which is attached a block, 
similar to that described with reference to the foregoing figures. 
In this instance, however, there is but one block, which moves 
upon guide-pins A, A, and is capable of being moved up or 
down by means of screwed rods t , t ; but there is added another 
block Zy placed parallel with the first-mentioned, and connected 
thereto by means of arms ; its use being to move in the ad- 
joining fdrrow, and act as a parallel guide. A mould-board, 
of the ordinary construction, is shewn at b, and behind this 
is a coulter or stirrer c, (for loosening the subsoil) placed in a 
OMHTtice, formed in the beam or framework, and capable of 
being adjusted by set screws, so as to regulate the depth to 
which the subsoil shall be moved. By this arrangement of 
apparatus the upper soil is turned in the ordinary manner, and 
the subsoil loosened by the instrument c, which is prevented 
6rom advancing unduly into the earth by the plane surface g, 
which precedes it. 

The patentee claims. Firstly, — ^with reference to the forma- 
tion of drains or trenches, the use of an inclined plane or 
planes for conveying the severed soil to the surface of the 
ground, in combination with an adjustable flat guide-piece, 
with or without rollers attached thereto, acting as a regulator 
finr the depth of cut ; — and also (for the purpose above set 
forth) the spiked rollers and travelling-belt described^ with 



274 Recent Patents. 

refereDce to fig. 3. Secondly^ — ^tbe use of a machine, provided 
with tines, or spikes, or scrapers, disposed in an angular form, 
so as to draw the earth towards the central part, for the pur- 
pose above set forth. Thirdly, — the combination of a fiat 
guide-surface and instruments for returning the subsoil, for 
the purpose above set forth. Lastly, — the general arrangement 
and construction of parts shewn and described under the 
three divisions of his invention. — [Inrolled November j 1850.] 



To Moses Foolb, of the Patent BUI Office, London, Gent., 
for improvements in machinery for punching metals, and 
in the construction of springs for carriages and other 
uses, — being a communication. — [Sealed 1st June, 1850.] 

The first part of this invention consists in improvements in 
machinery for punching metals; which improvements are 
also applicable to a variety of purposes where force or pres- 
sure is required ; — the feature of novelty being the employ- 
ment of excentric wheels or sectors, in combination with a 
roller or rollers, operating in such manner as to reduce the 
friction, and produce what the patentee terms an antifriction 
press. 

In Plate XII., fig. 1, is a sectional elevation of an improved 
punching-machine. a, is the frame of the machine ; and b, c, 
are two excentric sectors, placed between the vertical standards 
of the frame. These sectors are represented upon an enlarged 
scale at fig. 4, where the space between the dotted arc and 
the edge of the sector serves to indicate the excentricity of 
the curve. The bearing points of the sectors terminate in 
acute angles, to prevent friction. The point of the sector by 
bears against a cross beam d; and the point of c, rests on a 
moveable piece or follower e, which works in guides, and is 

Erovided with a spring^ to raise it after it has been depressed 
y the action of the sectors. Between the sectors there is 
a roller ff, the shaffc of which works in vertical slots in the 
standards of the frame ; and to this shaft the lever h, is at- 
tached. A punch or die being put in the point of the fol- 
lower e, the roller ff, is turned (in the direction of the arrow) 
by means of the lever h ; at the same time, the roller, by 
acting upon the edges of the sectors, causes such sectors to 
move in opposite directions ; and such movement, by reason 
of the excentricity of the sectors, produces a depression of the 
follower e, to a distance equal to the sum of the excentricities, 
and, consequently, forces the punch or die through a plate of 
metal, or other material, placed on the bed of the machine. 
Fig. 2, is a sectional elevation of another punching ma- 



PooWSffor Impts. in Punching Metals, ^c, 275 

chine^ in which the roller e^ is made to act upon a pair of 
excentric wheels i^j, (shewn, on an enlarged scale at fig. 5^) 
the shafts of which work in vei'tical slots in the standards; 
such shafts are turned at each side of the excentric wheels, so 
as to act as rollers ; and at these points they rest upon sectors 
b^, c^y the edges of which are not excentric, — ^their use being 
to diminish friction. 

Fig. 3, represents another modification, in which, instead 
of the roller^, a double excentric g^, is used, acting upon 
sectors b^, d^, the edges of which are not excentric. 

Machines constructed according to this paii; of the inven- 
tion may be applied to other useful purposes, — such as press- 
ing moulds or dies, embossing, straightening, or curving iron 
rails or plates, cutting metals, raising weights, &c. 

The patentee claims. First — ^the combination of the central 
roller with two excentric wheels or excentric sectors, so as 
to operate upon opposite sides of said roller, as described. 
Secondly, — the combination of sectors, having their edges 
circular instead of excentric, to diminish friction, in the manner 
set forth — whether the same are combined with excentric 
wheels, as shewn at fig. 2, or with a central excentric roller, as 
shewn at fig. 3. 

The second part of the invention consists in forming endless 
metal springs for carriages and other uses by producing a 
variety of curves in a narrow strip of metal and then attaching 
the ends to the main body of the strip ; whereby the vibra- 
tions instead of running out at the ends, as in common 
springs, will pass to the points where they are joined to the 
main body, and re-act upon it with a certain intensity, tending 
to maintain the vibration : by compounding the curves great 
leverage is obtained, which will enable the spring to bear a 
much greater weight than common springs of the same weight 
of metal. 

Fig. 6, shews a simple form of spring : the axis for sup- 
porting tiie spring may be at a, and the weight applied at 6, 
or vice versd. Fig. 7, is another spring, somewhat similar 
to fig. 1 ; — the forms of the outer curves being varied to in- 
crease the leverage. Fig. 8, is a spring with an increased 
number of curves c, d, e,f, acting as levers. Fig. 9, exhibits 
another variation in the shape of the spring. 

The patentee claims the giving to the plate or strip of metal 
such forms and shapes as shall cause the ends of the strip to 
terminate upon and be united to the body of the same, for the 
purpose of forming an endless spring, as described. — [/n- 
roUed December 1850.] 



[ 276 ] 



THE PROVISIONAL REGISTRATION OF INVENTIONS. 

The political atmosphere having somewhat cleared^ there are 
now some hopes that the inventors' interests will not much 
longer be neglected. That the desire to effect somewhat on 
this head is possessed by the legislature there can be no doubt ; 
for, on the one hand we have the intentions of the government 
plainly expressed by Earl Granville's bill for the Provisional 
Registration of Inventions^ and his Lordship's promise of a 
bill for Patent Law Reform ; and^ on the other, we have a 
bill to amend the law touching Letters Patent for Inventions 
already introduced in the House of Lords by Lord Brougham; 
while, in the Commons, Mr. Ricardo has given notice of mo- 
tion for a committee to take the matter into consideration. 
If anything, other than political troubles, should arise to blight 
this fair prospect, we think it will come from the want of 
imanimity among inventors themselves, as to what would be 
a prudent and equitable adjustment of the interests at stake 
between themselves and the public. We trust, however, that 
the " ventilation" which the subject has recently undergone 
will have removed, in some measure, the obliquity of mental 
vision which patent reformers of the inventive class have so 
generally experienced when approaching this abstruse question. 
The bill for the Provisional Registration of Inventions (a 
copy of which was given in our March number) has, after 
undergoing some most important alterations in Committee in 
the House of Lords, been introduced in the Commons by the 
Attorney-General ; and will, doubtless, in the early pa^ of 
April, become the law of the land. On a cursory reading, 
the bill would seem to call for little comment, as its powers 
are intended to lapse with the current year; but, on a closer 
examination, some points present themselves which are not 
unworthy of attention, more especially as this may be looked 
upon as the precursor of a government Act for the amend- 
ment of the patent laws. It will be understood, that a regis- 
tration has hitherto been simply a certificate that on audi a 
day such a person appeared inproprid persond, or by deputy, 
before the Registrar, with money in hand, and desired pro- 
tection for a something which he was pleased to call a dengn; 
whether old or new, or (in the case of an article having refer- 
ence to utility) whether a fit subject for registration, or alto- 
gether beyond the scope of the Act, it mattered not; for 
if treated so as to meet the humour of the officials it was 



Scientific Notices. 277 

sure to receive the certificate. Now^ this practice^ although 
not altogether so foreign to the system of granting patents as 
we could have wished^ acts in direct hostility to that most 
valuable provision of our much decried patent system, — 
namely, the examination before the law oflScers of the Crown 
respecting contending claimants of an invention ; inasmuch 
as a party who has been refused a patent by the Attorney- 
General, on the ground that he has no right whatever, or, at 
least, no exclusive right to the invention, may avail himself 
of the Registration Office, where no enquiry is instituted, — 
whereby the award of the Attorney-General is virtually an- 
nulled. 

By the present bill, the duty of the Registrar is simply to 
register the grant of certificates of such inventions as are in- 
tended to be exhibited in Hyde Park ; but the power of issu- 
ing certificates is vested in the Attorney-General, or such 
person or persons as he may, from time to time, appoint ; 
provision is therefore made for the thorough examination of 
the papers which are sent in for registration, and for the re- 
jection of such as it may be found undesirable to register. 
To what extent this power of refusing certificates is to be car- 
ried will depend, in a measure, upon the judgment of the 
Attorney-General ; but, from the evidence taken by a select 
Committee of the House of Lords on the bill, we are inclined 
to think that the intention is to ensure the identity of the 
invention explained in the papers deposited with the Attomey- 
Greneral, and the invention to be described hereafter in the 
enrolled specification of the patent which is to follow the 
grant of the provisional registration. Here then we trace the 
initiatory step to the appointment of a board of examiners, 
for which we have so long contended, and by which alone the 
proper working of the deposit system (the adoption of which 
has been received with such evident satisfaction) can be in- 
sured ; and if the experiment (for the short term of the Act 
will render it nothing more) should prove satisfactory, we 
doubt not that so useful a provision will not be lost sight of, 
if any latitude is allowed, in the expected Patent Law Amend- 
ment Act, for making rules and orders respecting the granting 
of patents. In this bill we find the duties of the Registrar, 
for the first time, properly defined. We have hitherto been 
accustomed to see that ominous expression, ''the judgment 
of the Registrar,'* the dread power of which it has been the 
lot of many a luckless wight to feel : his business, as regards 
inventions, is assimilated to that of the Registrar of Births, 
not to assist at the delivery, but to certify to the existence of 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 I 



278 Scientific Notices. 

the ofFspring ; and perhaps this may be looked upon also as 
the recognition of an error in the framing of the former De- 
signs Registration Acts. 

A very important amendment of the Ornamental Designs 
Act is also included in this bill ; for by it the foreign manu- 
facturer of fancy goods will be protected from the disgracefal 
competition which he has had to encounter^ by reason of the 
most successful of his patterns (which cost him the price of 
artistic labor) being copied almost as soon as they appeared, 
and coming into the market at a lower price than he could 
profitably sell at. We commend this feature of the bill to 
the particular consideration of the ribbon weavers and paper- 
hanging manufacturers^ as their interests are likely to be 
seriously affected thereby. The following is a copy of the 
bill, as it passed the House of Lords ; and we have reason to 
believe that it will receive but little alteration before passing 
into a law : — 

Whereas it is expedient that such protection as hereinafter 
mentioned should be afforded to persons desirous of exhibiting 
new inventions in the Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all 
Nations in 1851 : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's most 
Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Par- 
liament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

L Any new invention for which letters patent might lawfully 
be granted may, at any time during the year 1851, but not after- 
wards, be publicly exhibited in any place previously certified by 
the Lords of the Committee of Pnvy Council for Tirade and Fo- 
reign Plantations, to be a place of exhibition within the meaning 
of the Designs Act, 1850, without prejudice to the validity of 
any letters patent, to be thereafter, during the term of the pro- 
visional registration, hereinafter mentioned, granted for such in- 
vention to the true and first inventor thereof: Provided always 
that such invention have, previously to such public exhibition 
thereof, been provisionally registered in manner hereinafter men- 
tioned ; and provided also that the same be not otherwise publicly 
exhibited or used, by or with the consent of the inventor, prior 
to the granting of any such letters patent, as aforesaid : Provided 
also that no sale or transfer, or contract for sale or transfer, of 
the right to or benefit of any invention so provisionally registered, 
or of the rights acquired under this Act, or to be acquired under 
any letters patent, to be granted for such invention, shall be 
deemed a use of such invention ; and the publication of any 
account or description of such invention in any catalogue, paper, 
newspaper, periodical, or otherwise, shall not affect the validity 
of any letters patent, to be, during such term, granted as afore- 
said. 



Scientific Notices. 279 

II. Her Majesty's Attorney-General, or such person or persons 
as he may, from time to time, appoint, to issue certificates under 
this Act — on heing furnished with a description in writing, signed 
by or on behalf of the person claiming to be the true and first 
inventor within this realm of any invention intended to be exhi- 
bited in such place of pnblic exhibition, as aforesaid ; and on being 
satisfied that such invention is proper to be so exhibited, and that 
the description in writing, so famished, describes the nature of 
the said invention so intended to be exhibited, and in what man^ 
ner the same is to be performed — shall give a certificate in writing, 
under the hand or hands of such Attorney-General, or the person 
or persons appointed as aforesaid, for the provisional registration 
of snch invention. 

III. The Registrar of Designs, acting under the Designs Act, 
1850 — upon receiving such certificate, and being famished with 
the name and place of address of the person by or on whose 
behalf the registration is desired— shall register such certificate, 
name, and place of address ; and the invention to which any cer- 
tificate, so registered, relates, shall be deemed to be provisionally 
registered ; and the registration thereof shall continue in force 
for the term of one year from the time of the same being so regis- 
tered ; and the Registrar shall certify, under his hand and seal, 
that such invention has been provisionally registered, and the 
date of such registration, and the name and place of address of 
the person by or on whose behalf the registration was efiected : 
Provided always that if any invention, so provisionally registered, 
be not actually exhibited in such place of public exhibition, as 
aforesaid ; or if the same invention be in use by others at the 
time of the said registration ; or if the person by or on whose 
behalf the said registration has been effected be not the first and 
true inventor thereof; such registration shall be absolutely void. 

IV. The description, in writing, of any invention so pro- 
visionally registered, shaU be preserved in such manner and sub- 
ject to such regulations as the Attorney-General shall direct ; and 
any invention so provisionally registered, and exhibited at such 
place of public exhibition as {foresaid, shall have the words 
*' provisionally regist^ed " marked thereon or attached theretOy 
with the date of the said registration. 

y. Such provisional registration as aforesaid shall, during the 
term thereof, confer on the inventor of such invention, with re- 
spect thereto, all the protection against piracy and other bene- 
fits which, by the Designs Act, 1850, are conferred upon the pro- 
prietors of designs provisionally registered thereunder with re- 
spect to such designs ; and so long as such provisional registration 
continues in force, the penalties and provisions of the Designs 
Act, 1842, for preventing tiie piracy of designs, shall extend to 
the acts, matters, and things next hereinafter mentioned, as fully 
and effectually as if those penalties and provisions had been re- 
enacted in this Acty and expressly extended to such acts, matten^ 



280 Scieniific Notices. 

and tilings ; — that is to say, to the making, using, exercising, or 
Tending the invention so proyisionally registered, to the prac- 
tising the same, or any part thereof, to the counterfeiting, imi- 
tating, or resembling the same, to the making additions thereto 
or subtraction from the same, without the consent, in writing, 
of the person by or on whose behalf the said invention was so 
provisionally registered. 

VI. All letters patent to be, during the term of any such pro- 
visional registration, granted in respect of any invention so pro- 
visionally registeredyshall, notwithstanding the registration thereof, 
and notwithstanding the exhibition thereof in such place of public 
exhibition as aforesaid, be of the same validity as if such inven- 
tion had not been so registered or exhibited ; and it shall be 
lawful for the Lord High Chancellor, if he think fit, on the grant 
of any letters patent to any inventor, in respect of any invention 
provisionally registered under this Act, to cause such letters pa- 
tent to be sealed as of the day of such provisional registration, 
and to bear date the day of such provisional registration, — the Act 
of the 18th year of King Henry VI., or any other Act, notwith- 
standing. 

VII. The third section of the Designs Act,''1842, giving the 
sole right to apply, as therein mentioned, any such new and 
original design, as therein described, to the proprietor of every 
such design * not previously published, either within the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or elsewhere,' shall be 
amended ; and such section, and the said Act, shall henceforth 
be read and take effect as if the words * or elsewhere ' had not 
been inserted in such section. 

VIII. All the provisions of the Designs Act, 1850, and the 
provisions incorporated therewith, relating or applicable to the 
designs to be provisionally registered thereunder, or to the pro- 
prietors of such designs, except the provision for extending the 
term of any such provisional registration, shaU, so far as the same 
are not repugnant to, or inconsistent with, the provisions of this 
Act, apply to the inventions to be provisionally registered under 
this Act, and to the inventors thereof ; and the said Designs Act 
and this Act shall be construed together as one Act. 



ON THE AMMONIACAL COMBINATIONS OF PLATINUM. 

BY M. CHARLES GESHABDT. 
[Translated for the London Journal of Arts and Sciences.] 

In reflecting upon the remarkable nature of the combinations of 
ammonia with the protochloride of platinum, the question could 
scarcely fail to arise in the mind, whether it would not be possi- 
ble to obtain, with the bichloride of that metal, a parallel series 
pf compounds, sufficiently stable to permit of that double inter- 



Scientific Notices. 281 

change of elements seen in the platinous compounds described by 
M. Reiset. 

There is, it is trae, the biammoniacal bichloride, the chloride 
of the interesting series of M. Gros, which comports itself like 
the ammoniacal protochloride ; but there exist certain difficulties, 
which seem, at first sight, to exclude all resemblance between the 
two series of ammoniacal compounds. All the salts of M. Gros 
are indeed chlorinated ; while the two bases of the salts described 
by M. Beiset do not contain any chlorine. Latterly M. Raewsky 
has further enriched the history of platinum by a new series of 
similar combinations; but they correspond with an unknown 
chloride of platinum ; and what is extraordinary, this is superior 
to the bichloride. 

What connection exists between these salts ? What relation 
do they present with the two ammoniacal series of the protochlo- 
ride? These are questions to be now determined. By simple 
reasoning an important vacuity has been filled up in the series of 
platinic combinations, in considering the mode of formation of 
M. Gros, by chlorine, and one of the chlorides of M. Reiset. It 
was thought that the mono-ammoniacal bichloride ought to be 
obtained from chlorine ; and the other ammoniacal chloride, of the 
same chemist's experiment, has fully confirmed this supposition. 
The new chloride, which forms octohedric crystals of a citron- 
yellow color, is as remarkable in its reactions as the ammoniacal 
protochlorides ; — ^it undergoes double decomposition with certain 
other salts, and does not disengage ammonia under the influence 
of boihng caustic potash. When treated with nitrate of silver, 
chloride of silver, and ammoniacal nitrate of platinum, in which 
the ammonia is as much masked as in the salts of M. Reiset, the 
ammoniacal nitrate gives similar salts by double decomposition. 
It was also possible to separate (in the free state and crystallizable) 
the platinated alkali contained in these new salts. It is precipi- 
tated by the addition of potash or ammonia to their solution. 

The researches were not limited to the first series of platinic 
salts. In order that the parallel should be complete between these 
salts and the compounds of M. Reiset, it was yet necessary to 
discover the salts of a second series, consisting of the same ele- 
ments ; and it was also necessary, in this respect, to point out the 
part played by the compounds of MM. Gros and Reiset. A great 
number of experiments have set this point at rest in a satisfactory 
manner. The nitrate of the second series was obtained by the 
action of nitric acid upon the corresponding nitrate of M. Reiset; 
and from the new nitrate were obtained other salts by double de- 
composition. The salts of MM. Gros and Raewsky are formed 
by the same base ; they are double salts, with two acids^ of which 
one is hydrochloric. It is easy to demonstrate this : — When hy- 
drochloric acid is added to the neutral nitrate, the chloride of M. 
Gros is precipitated. When this chloride is treated with nitrate 
of silver, the nitrate of M, Raewsky is formed. Lastly, if hydro- 



282 Scientific Notices. 

chloric acid be added to the latter nitrate, the chloride of M. Oros 
is again precipitated. The identity of the salts, produced in these 
changes, has been completely established by comparative exami- 
nation with a portion of nitrate, prepared by M. Raewsky him- 
self. 

It appears, then, from the above researches, that the new salts, 
as well as the series of MM. Gros and Raewsky, consist of com- 
binations of the binoxide of platinnm ; while those of MM. Beiset 
and Peyrone are compounds of the protoxide of that metal. All 
these salts contain particular forms of alkali, represented by am- 
monia, in which one part of hydrogen is replaced by a part of 
platinum. 

According to the theory of M. Laurent, the salts of platinum 
of M. Reiset contain ammonia, in which an equivalent of hydro- 
gen is replaced by an equivalent of platinum, rt, — ^that is to say, 
by the equivalent which is contained in the platinous salts, and 
which may be termed platinosum. 

In the new series of salts, two equivalents of the hydrogen of 
the ammonia are replaced by the equivalent of platinum which is 
contained in the platinic siuts, — an equivalent which weighs one 
half less than platinosum, and which may be termed platinicum. 
The following formula shew the parallelism between the two 
series : — 

Correapondinfl; to the protoxide of Oorreeponding to tlie binoxide of 

platinam. platinum. 

NHgPt. platosammine. Second se- N.HgPtg platinammine. New salt. 

ries of M. Reiset. NgH^Pgdiplatiiiaiiiinine. New salt; 

NgH^Pt. diplatosammine. First se- also tnat of MM. Gros and Ka- 

ries of M. Keiset. ewsky. 

\Campte9 RendusJ] 



ANALYSES OP TWO SPECIMENS OF BRONZES OP THE 

GALLO-ROMAN PERIOD. 

BT If. 8ALV£TET. 

Although numerous analyses of ancient metallic alloys have 
been already pubhshed, it still appears useful that the composi- 
tion of these two antique bronzes, found in a tomb in the cele- 
brated City of Lime, should be made known, as researches of this 
kind have an incontestible value for the industrial arts; and 
beyond this and the general interest they possess, they serve to 
give some idea of the state of chemical knowledge among the 
ancients. 

It is much to be regretted, that all analyses of a similar de- 
scription to those which form the subject of this memoir have 
not been accompanied by sufficiently precise details with respect 
to the circumstances which led to the discovery of the metallic 
alloy, and the epoch to which it is supposed to belong. These 
details would certainly throw considerable light upon ancient 



Scientific Notices. 283 

metallurgy ; for, although it is true that the application of the 
principles of art is well shewn in most subjects of ancient origin, 
without a knowledge of their period, our positive knowledge of 
the processes practised by the ancients in different ages of anti- 
quity can receive but little addition. Much time will yet doubt- 
less pass away before this question will be materially elucidated ; 
in the meantime, no opportunity should be lost of entering into 
investigations connected with the chemical part of the subject. 
It seldom happens that antiquaries are willing, from the love of 
another branch of science, to sacrifice the whole or part of that 
which chance has thrown into their hands, or which has cost 
them lengthened search, expense, and pains. The author of this 
paper was so fortunate as to have an opportunity afforded him 
by M. Feret, of Dieppe, of examining the chemical composition 
of two bronze rings, which he had himself found under circum- 
stances of the whole of which he has preserved a particular ac- 
count. In it he describes the locality whence the rings were 
obtained, and the people and period to which they are supposed 
to have belonged. 

One of these rings was in bronze, externally blackish, fragile, 
and with a greyish fracture; it was about 13^ millimetres in ex- 
ternal diameter, and was found in a state of complete preservation. 
Its composition was as follows : — 

Tin 23-52 

Copper 75-55 

Lead 0-47 

Loss 0*46 

100-00 



with traces of silver, nickel, and antimony, but no zinc. 

The other ring was less fragile than the first, and its fracture 
was slightly yellow. Its exterior was not of so dark a color ; 
and its diameter externally was 22^ millimetres. It shewed here 
and there points of alteration, in which carbonate of copper was 
formed of a green color. The composition of this ring was — 

Tin 15-73 

Copper 79-93 

Lead 3-60 

Loss 0-84 

100-00 



with traces of silver, without nickel or zinc. 

Both these rings were found in the same tomb. The following 
is an extract from a letter of M. Feret, in which he enters into 
the subject of the supposed origin of these bronzes : — 

''I found these rings in 1826, among others of the same kind, 
in a Grallo-Roman tomb, which, according to appearances, dated 
from the latter half of the fourth century. 



284 Scientific Notices. 

" Among the medals scattered aboat in the same monaraent, 
the latest in date was of the time of Fl. Valens, who died in 378. 
The pottery found near the skeleton, which the tomb enclosed, 
belonged, jadging from its character, to the same epoch. 

** It should be remarked, that this tomb, situated on the border 
of 2i/olaise, was in the City of Lime, a vast enclosure, surrounded 
by entrenchments about a league to the north-east of Dieppe ; 
and that in the soil of this enclosed space are found the remains 
of several periods of antiquity, differing much from one another. 
The epoch, purely Gallic, is frequently shewn by its remains; 
and, in the inferior strata of the soil of this tomb, are discovered 

Eottery, hatchets, and medals, supposed to be Celtic. I believe, 
owever, that the rings now analysed belong to the fourth cen- 
tury, as they resemble other objects of the same nature, which I 
have been able to class with other G^o-Roman antiquities." 

The absence of zinc in the compounds or alloys described 
above is not surprising. M. Goebel announced long ago, both 
from his own researches and those of Vauquelin and Klapsotb, 
that the bronzes of ancient Greece and her colonies, no matter 
whether found in Greece, Italy, Egypt, or Asia-Minor, are all 
composed essentially of lead, copper, and tin, or simply of copper 
and tin. The analyses of ancient Grecian medals, performed in 
the laboratory of M. Erdmann, also confirm this opinion. The 
analyses of M. Fresenius, of M. Knapp, made upon Celtic bronze 
weapons, those of M. Moessard, of ancient bronzes, found in the 
department of the Oise, belonging to the Roman period, and, 
lastly, those described in the present paper, tend to generalise the 
fact stated by M. Groebel, and to extend it to the Celtic, Gallo- 
Roman, and Roman epochs. 

The presence of nickel in one of the rings taken from the 
tomb of the Citv of Lime is not an isolated circumstance. M. 
Fresenius also detected its presence in a Celtic hatchet, found 
near Geissen ; and M. Knapp has likewise found it in a Celtic 
hatchet, which was buried in a peat-bog near Ceriguey-Druydon, 
in the Pays de Galles. 

• The excellent preservation of the rings described above is pro- 
bably attributable to the large proportion of tin which enters 
into the composition of the alloy of which they are made. — [Att' 
nales de Chemie et de Physique J\ 



ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF HYDROGEN IN THE ANALYSIS OP 

MINERAL COMPOUNDS. 

BT H. L. EL BTVOT. 

The reducing action of dry hydrogen gas, at a more or less ele- 
vated temperature, on many metallic oxides, may be usefully era- 
ployed in separating these oxides from other fixed bases, upon 
which hydrogen is incapable of acting at any temperature what- 
ever. 



Scientific Notices. 285 

By the employment of hydrogen, it is possible to separate with 
exactitude oxide of iron from the earths alumina, glucina, zircona, 
and also irom oxide of chromium, oxide of tin, and silica. 

Separation of oxide of iron from alumina, — The process for 
separating these, laid down in books upon chemical analysis, 
oonsists in treating a weighed mixture of the two oxides with 
potash, in the dry method, by fusion in a silver crucible, or by the 
solvent action of potash upon alumina after its precipitation from 
its solution in an acid. This process is tedious and not quite 
exact, unless the potash is perfectly pure. As the separation of 
the two oxides is a problem often presented to the chemist in the 
analysis of mineral substances and the products of manufacture, 
the substitution of some process, more certain and rapid than the 
above, has been a desideratum. A very exact result has been 
obtained by reducing, by means of dry hydrogen gas at a red 
heat, the iron in a weighed quantity of the mixed oxides, which 
had been previously precipitated from an acid solution by am- 
monia. The whole must be allowed to cool in the atmosphere 
of hydrogen ; and must afterwards be treated with cold dilute 
nitric acid, which will easily dissolve out the iron, leaving un- 
touched the alumina, which, after continued calcination, is quite 
insoluble in weak acid. It requires but little explanation to make 
the mode of operation quite clear. 

The oxides of iron and alumina are precipitated together by 
the ammonia. The precipitate ia dried, and separated ftt)m the 
filter; the latter is then burned, and its ashes added to the 
oxides. The whole is calcined in a platinum crucible at a bright 
red heat, and afterwards pulverized and weighed with accuracy ; 
it is then placed in a Httle porcelain vessel, which is also weighed, 
and afterwards introduced, with its contents, into a porcelain tube, 
placed horizontally across a furnace. To one of the extremities of 
this tube is adapted a tube of glass ; and to the other a tube lead- 
ing from a reservoir of hydrogen, dried by being passed^first through 
sulphuric acid, and afterwi^s over chloride of calcium. When 
the atmospheric air is completely driven out of the apparatus, the 
porcelain tube must be gently and gradually heated until it be- 
comes red hot; and this temperature must be maintained so 
long as it is seen that water condenses on the sides of the glass 
tube leading from the apparatus : upon the average, about an 
hour will be found sufficient to complete the reduction. Contin- 
uing the current of hydrogen, the tube is now allowed to cool, and 
the httle vessel containing the mixture is withdrawn and weighed. 
The loss of weight indicates the loss of oxygen from the peroxide 
of iron, and affords data for the calculation of the quantity of 
iron originally present. When the alumina is in very great excess, 
however, and die current of hydrogen has not been extremely 
slow, a small quantity of alumina may have been carried off by 
the gas ; — ^in that case, the loss of weight would be too great to 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 K 



280 Scientific Notices. 

indicate the eiact quantity of oxygen, and would lead to an over- 
estimation of the quantity of iron. 

The mixture of metallic iron and alumina, left after the opera- 
tion of the hydrogen, is digested in dilute cold nitric acid for 
twenty-four hours. Pure acid must be used for this purpose ; 
and mtric acid, of the ordinary strength, must be diluted with at 
least thirty times its volume of water. The solution of the whole 
of the iron is effected when the alumina assumes almost a white 
color. The alumina is separated from the solution of the iron 
by filtration ; — from the fluid, first heated, to ensure complete 
peroxidation of the iron, the latter is precipitated by ammonia : 
thus both oxides may be estimated directly. When the propor- 
tion of alumina is small, a very exact result can be obtained, by 
only estimating the iron from the loss of weight under the influ- 
ence of the hydrogen, — taking that loss of weight to represent the 
oxygen of the peroxide of iron. The following mixtures of per- 
oxide of iron and alumina were submitted to ansdysis by the above 
method. The results will be seen in the table : — 

1. 2. 3 

Alumina gr. 0-600 gr. 0-162 gr. 0-063 

Peroxide of iron „ 0600 „ 0*427 „ 0*626 

1. 2. .3 
Loss of weight in the hy- 
drogen gr. 0-166 gr. 0*132 gr. 0-161 

Corresponding to peroxide 
of iron „ 0-610 „ 0-431 „ 0*627 

Upon afterwards weighing the oxide of iron and the alumina, 
separated by dilute nitric acid, there was found — 

1. 2. 3 

Alumma gr. 0-492 gr. 0*148 gr. 0*062 

Peroxide of iron „ 0-498 „ 0*428 „ 0-624 

By these numbers, it will be seen that the separation of the oxides 
by the above process is very exact ; and that the two may be 
estimated accurately by weighing the peroxide of iron, and cfdcu- 
lating the alumina by difference. The loss of weight in the hy- 
drogen has led to a slight over-estimation of the peroxide of iron, 
when there is a considerable proportion of alumina present, owing 
to a minute quantity of that substance being carried off in the 
current of gas. On the other hand, when the quantity of alu- 
mina is small, the result is very exact. It ought to be remarked, 
that, if the mixture of alumina and oxide of iron, over which the 
hydrogen is conducted, be simply a mechanical one, instead of 
being obtained by simultaneous precipitation from solution by 
means of ammonia, the alumina is much more readily carried off 
by the hydrogen during its passage over the mass ; and, conse- 
quently, the accuracy of the experiment would, under such cir- 
cumstances, be somewhat vitiated. 

In calculating the quantity of peroxide of iron, from the loss of 
weight in the hydrogen gas, the equivalent of iron has been taken 



Scientific Notices, 287 

at 339. The author has taken this number in consequence of 
eiperiments of his own on the subject : for example, in two ex- 
periments, made with great care by reduction, in hydrogen gas, 
of one gramme of peroxide of iron, of great purity, the following 
numbers were obtained : — 

1. 2. 

Metallic iron gr. 0-6931 gr. 0*6935 

The mean of these two numbers, which are themselves almost 
identical, brings us exactly to the number 339, as the equivalent 
of iron . — [Ibtd.] 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

February 25th, 1851. 
WILLIAM CUBITT, Esq., PREaiDBNT,— in the Chaib. 

The paper read was, A description of the " Royal Border Bridge,*' 
erected over the river Tweed, on the line of the Yorkt New- 
castle, and Berwick Railway, by Mr. G. B. Brucb, M. Inst. C.E. 

This viaduct, the total length of which was 2,160 feet, and the 
extreme height 129 feet, consisted of twenty-eight semi-circular 
arches, — each 61 feet 6 inches span; and the whole constructed 
of stone, with the exception of the inner parts of the arches, which 
were of brick laid in cement. It was divided into two parts by a 
central abutment, which enabled the land arches to be completed, 
and, along with a temporary timber bridge, to be brought into 
use for public traffic before the completion of the river arches, 
which necessarily occupied a considerable period in execution, 
owing partly to very substantial coflfer-dams having been requisite 
for the river piers, but principally to its having been thought 
advisable to pile the foundations of most of those piers, as the bed 
of the river was liable to be scoured away by the rapid stream. 
The piles, both of the cofifer-dams and of the foundations, were 
mostly of American elm, as it was found that the heads of the 
Memel piles required to be frequently cut off and re-hooped when 
driven by Nasmyth's steam pile-driver, which was almost entirely 
used, both on account of expedition and of economy ; for it was 
proved that, whilst the hand-ram only gave one blow in four 
minutes, the steam pile-driver gave sixty blows in one minute ; 
and that the cost of the former was two shillings per lineal foot ; 
whereas -that of the latter was very little more than one shilling 
per lineal foot. It was also remarked, that the force was more 
advantageously employed in the case of the steam pile-driver; 
as, on account of the ram being heavier and the fall less, the 
piles were not so frequently split. 

The piers had an ashlar facing, and were filled in with well- 
grouted rubble, having occasional through courses of ashlar, and 
an ashlar tie in the centre of their width from top to bottom. 



288 Scientific Notices. 

Great care was taken in the preparation of the mortar and the 
grout used in this work ; and after a variety of experiments, the 
plan finally adopted was — in the case of setting lime for ashlar — 
to grind quicklime dry hy itself in a common mill, and then to 
mix it with coarse sharp sand, screened out of gravel taken from 
the hcd of the river, in the proportion of three of sand to one of 
quicklime ; this was then put under cover until required. Lime 
to be used for grout was also ground dry ; and along with it was 
ground slag from an iron furnace; then gravel from the river was 
mixed with it without being screened, — the proportions being, 
quicklime one, slag three-quarters, and gravel two and a quarter. 
The mortar when used had absorbed a sufficient quantity of 
moisture from the atmosphere and the sand to prevent its being 
too hot for use ; and yet, as it had not been previously mixed 
with water and wrought into a paste, it retained its original set- 
ting power. This mortar required to be used very soft, and the 
stones to be well wetted ; and as the sand was very coarse, thick 
joints were necessary ; but in a few weeks it set as hard as Roman 
cement. All the lime used in this work was firom the mountain 
limestone of the Scremerston and Lowich districts of Northum- 
berland. 

The centres, which were stated to have been of peculiar con- 
struction, were supported entirely from the piers, so as to prevent 
any accident happening if the scaffolding were injured, either by 
the heavy floods of ice, to which the river Tweed is subject in 
winter, or from the vibration caused by passing trains ; — as, when 
the idea was first entertained of having a temporary bridge, the 
intention was merely to add to the contractors' scaffolding, and 
to make it serve for both purposes. This intention was, however, 
abandoned ; and an entirely separate timber bridge was erected 
on the east side of the stone bridge, at a cost of ^14,340. 

The total cost of the Royal Border Bridge was ^120,000 ; and 
of the whole contract, one mile in length, in which it was com- 
prised, ^207,000, including an embankment, which had to be 
made entirely from side cutting, and which contained probably 
760,000 cubic yards. 

Some valuable and interesting experiments and obvervations 
were given on the velocity and regimen of the river Tweed, and 
the results compared with the theories generally laid down rela- 
tive to running waters by Buat and Eytelwein ; and it appeared 
that, although both approximated closely to actual experiment, 
Buat's formula gave the best result. 



March 4ih, 1851. 

In the renewed discussion upon Mr. Brace's paper, descriptive 
of the ''Royal Border Bridge," at Berwick, the question was 
raised as to the propriety of using ashlar and rubble, in combina- 
tion, for works of this nature. Some of the speakers considered 



Scientific Notices. 289 

that it was preferable to use either the one or the other alone, to 
prevent unequal settlement from the different character of the two 
kmds of work ; and instances were cited of the piers of large 
viaducts having been entirely constructed of rubble with the most 
perfect success. On the other hand it was urged, that if in 
quarrying stone those blocks only were used which were suitable 
for ashlar work, much waste would arise, and great extra expense 
be incurred ; also, that in the piers of the Royal Border Bridge, 
the back of the casing of ashfar was vertical ; so that although 
externally the piers had offsets, the internal face of the ashlar did 
not follow that line, and therefore none of the weight which the 
ashlar ought to bear was brought upon the rubble. It was 
thought that good rubble, formed of large flat-bedded stones, well 
bonded, and set in good mortar, was preferable for dock waUs, or 
in other situations where a head of water had to be supported or 
lateral pressure sustained, — but that ashlar was better adapted 
for bearing vertical pressure or weight, as in the piers of a via- 
duct. An important question was raised as to what weight various 
kinds of stone were capable of sustaining without crushing, and 
also what weight could be placed with safety on different kinds 
of artificial foundations ; and the discussion was adjourned for 
further information on these points. 



A description of a turn-table, 42 feet in diameter, in use on the 
Bristol and Exeter Railway, by Mr. I. J. Macdonnell, M. 
Inst. C.E., was read. 

This table, it was stated, worked on a ball-pivot, and consisted 
of two central cast-iron arms or brackets, which carried at their 
extremities hollow wrought-iron transverse girders for supporting 
the longitudinal timber beams, forming a framing on which were 
placed the rails — the outer ends being supported by other girders 
attached to the traversing wheels, which were 3 feet in diameter. 
It afforded a perfect and equal bearine throughout its entire length ; 
not being depressed more than half-an-inch when the leading 
wheels of the engine struck the table ; and an engine and tender, 
together weighing 40 tons, were turned by the driver and stoker 
in three minutes. Tables on this principle had been erected both 
at Bristol and Exeter, and the cost, with the foundation, did not 
exceed ^00 each. 



After the meeting Mr. Penrose exhibited the spiral instruments 
recently invented and registered by him, called Peiwose's screw 
helicograph, or logarithmic spiral compass, and Penrose and Ben- 
netfs sliding helicograph. 

In the latter instrument, with which volutes, and other forms 
of the logarithmic spiral were drawn, a tome sliding upon a 
smooth bar was supported by a wheel, the axis of which being 



290 Scientific Notices. 

•et at any given angle to the bar, produced by its obliquity the 
converging motion in a spiral arc. 

The " Screvr Helicograph," used for drawing a more limited 
series of these curves, received its spiral action from a nut fixed 
in the centre of a revolving disc, which communicated motion to 
a screw ; — carbonic paper being used for obtaining an impression 
of the path of the disc. 

March llth. 

The paper read was — A description of the mode of working an 
inclined plane of 1 in 27 i, on the Oldham Branch of the Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire Railway, by Capt. J. M. Laws, R.N., 
Assoc. Inst. C.E. 

The mode of working this incline was by a combination of 
locomotive power and gravity. It was at first proposed to be 
worked by a horizontal wheel, rope, and pulleys, with a locomo- 
tive engine and train at each end of the rope, so that one train 
might descend while another ascended the incline ; but as this 
method appeared liable to many contingencies, by which the re- 
gular traffic would have been deranged, and the expense of loco- 
motive power increased, a balance-weight was substituted for the 
descending locomotive,— one line of rails being appropriated to it, 
and the other retained for the goods and passenger traffic. The 
balance-weight consisted of a heavy brake-van, and a number of 
ballast waggons filled with sand ; but in place of the latter, loaded 
coal waggons were frequently used, as there was a coal pit at the 
top of the incline ; and this was found to be a most economical 
and advantageous way of working the coal traffic. When the bill 
was in Parliament, it was stated in evidence that there would be 
great danger in descending so steep an inclination ; but the ex- 
perience of seven years (during which period the rope had broken 
several times, and the brake-van had once been allowed to run 
down by itself, without doing any serious injury) had proved this 
opinion to be erroneous. The ordinary passenger trains ascended 
and descended the incline at &om 20 to 25 miles per hour, the 
mode being — to stop at the foot of the incline to attach the rope, 
— then to back the engine so as to draw the balance train ofi^ the 
scotch at the top, when the steam was put on, and the train as- 
cended. This mode of working had been attended with the most 
perfect success ; and it was thought that if more attention were 
paid, in the construction of railways, to what could be accom- 
plished by gravity and impetus, in combination with locomotive 
power, a great saving in the original cost of the line would be the 
result. 

The wire ropes which had been used were manufactured by 
Messrs. R. S. Newall and Co. ; each rope was rather more than 
1^ mile in length, 3^ inches in circumference, weighing 126 cwts., 
and costing ^316. Their average duration was about two years 
and four months. 



Scientific Notices. 291 

March 18th, 1851. 

The paper read was — An account of the Sea Walls at Penmaen 
Mawr, on the line of the Chester and Holyhead Railway, by 
Mr. H. Swinburne. 

These walls were described as extending over a length of one 
mile and a quarter, sustaining a terrace beneath the steep slope 
of Penmaen Mawr, through the rocky headland of which the 
railway was carried by means of a tunnel, about one-eighth of a 
mile in length. This terrace was partly cut out of the cliff on 
the east side of the headland ; and on the west side, for a distance 
of 550 yards, it was wholly formed of embankment; beyond 
which, there was a cutting, about 110 yards in length, followed 
by 220 yards of terrace ; then another cutting, about 350 yards 
in length, succeeded by an embankment, retained on the seaward 
side by a wall, about 260 yards of which was within the reach of 
high tides The original design for these walls consisted of a 
plain retaining wall, nearly triangular in section, 3 feet thick at 
the formation level, with a straight face battering, 3 inches per 
foot, — ^the back being vertical. The parapet was to have been 
formed of a small breast wall, 3 feet higher than the level of the 
rails, and 2 feet thick. The masonry was specified to be " coursed 
walling," squared with the pick ; and the face to consist of one 
header and two stretchers alternately. 

The works were commenced in the autumn of 1845 ; but, after 
two months' experience on the coast, it was thought advisable to 
deviate from the original design of a straight face to the wall, 
and to substitute an arc of a circle of 60 feet radius, with a 
slightly overhanging parapet ; and to prevent the great increase 
of masonry which would have resulted from this alteration, the 
back of the wall was also curved. This was afterwards found to 
be impracticable ; and the section was therefore materially altered. 
The nature of the materials not admitting of the coursed walling 
being executed with facility, it was determined to introduce an 
ashlar facing of limestone, procured from the north coast of An- 
glesea, and set in cement for a depth of eighteen inches from 
the face. The main sea wall, immediately to the westward of the 
headland, was now commenced ; and as the embankment behind 
it was dependent on the completion of the tunnel, and the wall 
was unavoidably built in many detached lengths, it was necessary 
to increase the width of the base, by reducing the batter of the 
back of the wall. This wall had advanced very briskly during 
the summer of 1846, and was within 9 feet of the level of the 
rails, with all the lengths joined, excepting the two openings 
through which the materials were carried from the beach, when, 
on the 22nd of October, the coast was visited by a severe gale, 
with a 17-feet tide, which completely destroyed the central por- 
tion of the wall between the two openings, besides damaging the 
other portions, and sweeping away the beach in front of the 



292 Scientific Notices. 

centre of the wall. In consequence of this lowering of the beach, 
it was decided to substitute for the central portion of the wall an 
open viaduct, consisting of thirteen openings, each 36 feet in 
clear width, and spanned by ten cast-iron girders, two for each 
rail, resting on solid ashlar piers, 32 feet in length, 6 feet thick 
under the impost, and 6 feet 8 inches thick at the footings, with 
semicircular ends next the sea. The remaining portions of the 
wall were completed with the limestone ashlar facing, taken from 
the destroyed length of wall, set in cement, and in many cases 
backed with brickwork, also set in cement ; they were also built 
more upright, and nearly straight on the face. In order to pre- 
serve the foundations of those parts of the wall which remained 
uninjured by the storm, it was resolved to form a breakwater and 
terrace in front, by driving a zigzag row of piles in bays at right 
angles to each other, and to back Uiese piles with planks, behind 
which an artificial beach was formed. 

The parapet of the first length of wall, immediately to the 
eastward of the headland, was built for a length of 130 yards, 
from 8 feet to 1 1 feet higher than the level of the rails, for car- 
rying one end of a slanting roof or " lean-to," formed of whole 
timbers, set close together, as a protection against stones and 
debris falling from the face of the clifi*. 

In spite of the great difficulties encountered during the pro- 
gress of these walls, arising from the peculiar locality, and &om 
the violent action of the sea, the viaduct last constructed proved 
perfectly satisfactory ; — it was, however, shewn that, in point of 
expense, it would probably have been as cheap to have pierced a 
longer tunnel, and had a less extent of sea wall ; as the contingent 
expenses incurred in contending with the waves were very great, 
and were of a nature scarcely to be foreseen and provided for by 
engineers. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS. 



February 12ih, 1851. 
CAPTAIN IBBETSON, F.R.8.,— in the Chaib. 

The laws of color ^ as applied to the effective arrangement of colored 
fabrics in the Great Exhibition o/* 1 85 1 . By F. CbaciS Galyebt, 
F.C.S., &c., &c., of the Royal Institution, Manchester. 

The Professor, in opening the subject, stated that he bad three 
objects in view. The first was to make known the laws of color, 
as discovered by his learned master, M. Chevreul ; the second, to 
explain upon what basis those laws are fixed ; and, thirdly, to 
point out die application of those laws in the effective arrangement 
of colored fabrics in the Exhibition of 1851. 

To understand the laws of color, it is necessary to know the 



Scientific Notices, 293 

oomposition of light. Newton was the first to inyestigate this 
suhject. He said, that light consisted of seven colors — ^red, 
orange, yellow, green, hlue, indigo, and violet. Bat it has heen 
distinctly proved that four of these seven colors are produced hy 
various proportions and comhinations of the three colors now 
known as the primitive colors, viz., red, hlue, and yellow. Thus, 
blue and red combined produce purple or indigo ; blue and yellow, 
green ; while red and yellow produce orange : these facts being 
known, it is easy to prove that there are not seven, but three 
primitive, and four secondary or complementary colors. 

One of the most simple proofs that light is composed of three 
colors only is obtained by placing pieces of blue, red, and yellow 
papers on a circular disc, and rotating it rapidly ; — ^the effect to 
the eye being to produce a disc of white light. If, therefore, the 
eye can be deceived so readily while the disc travels at so slow a 
rate, what must necessarily be the case when it is remembered 
that light proceeds at the rate of 190,000 miles per second. 

Newton was not, however, satisfied with such an experiment 
as this ; he made several others ; and found that when a ray of 
light underwent a refraction or deviation from the straight line 
equal to an angle of 60° (as is the case when it is passed through 
a prism), it was decomposed into what he considered to be seven 
primitive colors. But it may be said that this is no proof that 
light is composed of those colors — do they not result from the 
influence of the prism itself? Newton satisfactorily resolved 
this question. He found that if, instead of allowing the rays of 
decomposed light to travel far enough to form the spectrum, he 
passed them through what is termed a double -convex lens, and 
then received them on a mirror or reflector at a certain distance, 
a white instead of a colored spectrum was seen, the decomposed 
ray being restored to its original condition. There is, therefore, 
no doubt that light is composed of seven colors, three of which 
are primary, and four complementary or completing. 

Before entering into the laws of color, Mr. Calvert stated, that 
it might be interesting to know what scientific minds had devoted 
attention to the laws of colors. 

Buffon followed Newton ; and his researches had special refer- 
ence to what M. Chevreul had called the '* successive contrasts " 
of colors. 

Father . Scherffer, a monk, also wrote on the laws of color. 
Goethe, the poet, also brought his mind to bear upon the subject, 
and studied it to a great extent. Count Romford, a Scotch phi- 
losopher, about the end of the 18th century, published several 
memoirs on the laws of colors. He explained very satisfactorily 
the '' successive " contrast, and arrived at some insight into the 
*' simultaneous " one ; — still he did not lay down its real laws. 

Piieur, Leblanc, Harris, and Field, were also writers of most 
interesting works on this subject. The reason that they did not 
arrive at the definite laws of color was because they had not 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 L 



294 Scientific Notices, 

diWded those laws into successive, simultaneous, and mixed con- 
trasts. These form the basis of the practical laws of color, and 
the honor of their discovery is due to M. Chevreul. 

The reason why a surface appears to us white or brilliant is, 
that a large portion of the light, which falls on its surface, is 
reflected on the retina, and in such a quantity as gives to the 
surface a brilliant aspect; whilst, in plain wMte surfaces, the 
rays of light being diffused in all directions, and a small portion 
only arriving to the eye, the surface does not appear brilliant. 
The influence of colors on these two kinds of surfaces is very 
different. When rays of light, instead of being reflected, are 
absorbed by a surface or substance, they appear black : therefore 
white and black are not colors, as they are due to the reflection 
or absorption of undecomposed light. It is easy to understand 
why a surface appears to us to be blue ; — that is due to the pro- 
perty which the surface has to reflect only blue rays, whilst it 
absorbs the yellow and red rays ; and if a certain portion of light 
is reflected with one of the colored rays, it will decrease its in- 
tensity : thus red rays with white ones produce pink. On the 
contrary, if a quantity of undecomposed light is absorbed, black 
is produced, which, by tarnishing the color and making it appear 
darker, generates dark reds, blues, or yellows. The secondary 
colors are produced by one of the primitive colors being absorbed 
and the two others reflected : for example, if red be absorbed, 
and blue and yellow reflected, the surface appears green. There 
are two reasons why we can never see a perfect blue, yellow, red, 
&c. The first is, that surfaces cannot entirely absorb one or two 
rays and reflect the others. The second is, that when the retina 
receives the impression of one color, immediately its comple- 
mentary color is generated : thus, if a blue circle is placed on a 
perfectly grey surface, an orange hue will be perceived round it ; 
if an orange circle, round it will be noticed a blueish tint ; if a 
red circle, a green ; if a greenish-yellow circle, a violet ; if an 
orange-yellow circle, an indigo ; and so on. 

The next point was that of the different contrasts of colors. — 
The ** successive " contrast has long been known ; and it consists 
in the fact, that if you look stedfastly, for a few minutes, on a 
red surface fixed on a white sheet of paper, and then carry 
your eye to another white sheet, you will perceive on it not a red 
but a ffreen one ; if green, red ; if purple, yellow ; if blue, orange. 

The *' simultaneous " contrast is the most interesting and use- 
ful to be acquainted with. When two colored surfaces are in 
juxtaposition, they mutually influence each other, — favorably, 
if harmonizing colors, or in a contrary manner if discordant ; and 
in such proportion, in either case, as to be in exact ratio with the 
quantity of complementary color which is generated in the eye : 
for example, if two half-sheets of plain tinted paper — one dark- 
green, the other red — are placed side by side on a grey piece of 
cloth, the colors will mutually improve in consequence of the 



ScietUific Notices. 295 

green, generated by the red surface, adding itself to the green of 
the juxtaposed surface ; thus increasing its intensity, — ^the green, 
in its torn, augmenting the beauty of the red. lliis effect can 
easily be appreciated if two other pieces of paper, of the same 
cc^rs, are placed at a short distance from the corresponding in- 
fluenced ones, as below ; — . 



RED-OREBN OBEEN. 

It is not sufficient merely to place complementary colors side 
by side to produce harmony of color, since the respective inten- 
sities have a most decided influence : thus pink and light-green 
agree — red and dark-green also ; but light-green and dark-red, 
pink and dark-green, do not ; and thus, to obtain the maximum 
of effect and perfect harmony, the following colors must be placed 
side by side, taking into account their exact intensity of shade 
and tint. 

HABMONIZINO COLORS. 

PrimiiiTe Colon. Seoondarj Colon. 

C Light-blue 
Red Green ... J Ydbw. 

(Bed. 

(Bed. 
Blue Orange - - i Yellow. 

(Blue. 

(Blue. 
TeUow-onmge - - Indigo - - K Ked. 

(YeDow. 

(Bed. 
Greenish-yellow - - Violet - - - K Blue. 

( Yellow. 

(YeUow. 
IKsck White - - -< Blue. 

(Red, 

If respect is not paid to the arrangement of colors, according 
to the above diagram, instead of their mutually improving each 
other, they will, on the contrary, lose in beauty. The great im- 
portance of these principles to every one who intends to display 
or arrange colored goods or fabrics at the Great Exhibition was 
convincingly shewn by Mr. Calvert, fi^m a vanety of embroidered 
silks (kindly lent by Mr. Henry Houldsworth), calicoes, and 
paper-hangings ; which demonstrated that if these laws are neg- 
lected, not oidy will the labor and talent expended by the manu- 
facturer to produce on a given piece of goods the greatest effect 
possible be neutralized, but perhaps lost ; and also, if the goods 
of two contiguous exhibitors be injudiciously placed, the bril- 
liancy of their colors will be materially affected, and, consequently, 
the principal object of the exhibition would be frustrated — that 
of affording fair play, and of producing, with the goods sent, the 
best effect possible. It was clearly demonstrated, that these 
effects are not only produced by highly-colored surfaces, but also 
by those whose colors are exceedingly pale ; as, for example, 
light-greens or light-blues with buffs. From the '' mixed con- 



296 Scientific Notices. 

trast" arises the rale, that a brilliant color should never be 
looked at for any length of time, if its true tint or brilliancy is 
to be appreciated ; for if a person looks, for example, at a piece 
of red cloth for a few minutes, green, its complementary color, 
is generated in the eye, and adding itself to a portion of the red, 
produces black, which tarnishes the beauty of the red. This 
contrast explains, too, why the tone of a color is modified, either 
fiiYorably or otherwise, according to the color which the eye 
has previously looked at. Favorably when, for instance, the 
eye first looks to a yellow surface and then to a purple one ; and 
unfavorably, when it looks at a blue and then at a purple. 

Mr. Calvert also shewed, that black and white surfaces assume 
difierent hues, according to the colors placed in juxtaposition 
with them : for example, black acquires an orange or purple tint 
if the colors, placed beside it, are blue or orange ; but these 
eflects can be overcome, in the case of these or any colors, by 
nving to the influenced color a tint similar to that influencing it. 
Thus, to prevent black becoming orange by its contact with blue, 
it is merely necessary that the black should be blued, and in 
such proportion that the amount of blue will neutralise the orange 
thrown on it ^by influence. As an instance : — to prevent a grey 
design acquiring a pinkish shade through working it with green, 
give the grey a ^preenish hue, which, by neutralising the pink, 
will generate white light, and thus preserve the grey. 



February 19th, 1851. 



The discussion which followed the reading of Mr. Grace Cal- 
vert's paper, at the last meeting, was resumed by his recapitulating 
the main divisions of the subject. In the course of this he ex- 
pressed his opinion, that the common division of colors into 
primary, secondary, compounded of the primary, and tertiary, com- 
pounded of the secondary, was erroneous. Tertiary colors, in 
that sense, did not exist, and were, in fact, nothing but secondary 
colors, "lowered" or "toned down" by the addition of the 
black which would inevitably be generated by their mixture. 

This opinion was combatted by several members, as contrary 
to fact ; as olive, for example, wluch is one of the so-called ter- 
tiary colors, obviously contains a portion of red, and cannot be 
alone formed by blue, yellow, and black, as maintained by Mr. 
Calvert. 

It was suggested, that an illustrated manual, containing the 
laws of contrast and harmony of colors, might be found particu- 
larly useful to our exhibitors. 



x^ 



Scientific Notices. 297 

Description of the Cottager^ s Stove, By John Grant, Esa. 

This stoYe is designed solely for the benefit of the working 
classes, from a conviction that a simple and efficient cooking- 
stove, combined with comfort and economy, was much wanted 
by them. It is arranged for either a close or an open fire, and 
the fire-pots are adapted to every description of fuel; — the con- 
sumption of which is about 1 lb. of coal or coke per hour in the 
circular fire-pot (which is the most economical form) ; and the 
open fire-pot consumes nearly l^lb. per hour. The square fire- 
pot, for wood or turf, makes a cheerful fire, and is adapted for 
emigrants and countries where coal is not to be procured ; for, 
as this stove requires no fixing, it will cook well in any situation 
with a good draught, whether placed in a room or on the moun- 
tain-side. 

It had been said that the stove would cook sufficient for a family 
of a dozen persons, with a consumption of 1 lb. of coal or coke 
per hour ; but the inventor had no hesitation in stating, that it 
was capable of roasting, baking , boiling, and steaming 200 lbs. of 
meat and 100 lbs. of potatoes, with a consumption of 15 lbs. of 
coal, at a cost of twopence. 

On this point the members had an opportunity of satisfying 
themselves, as the stove was in action the whole evening. 

In this respect, it forms a strong contrast to the ordinary 
kitchen ranges, with their wasteful consumption of fuel, sending 
the greater part of the heat up the chimney. If the principles 
of this stove were carried out upon an extended scale, it is con- 
ceived that it might be found efficient for club-houses, hotels, and 
other large establishments. 



February 26ih, 1851. 



On his improvements in the application of electro-magnetism to 
clocks ; with a description of the clock which he is constructing 
for the Building for the Chreat Industrial Exhibition. By Mr. 
Charles Shepherd, jun., Member. 

In all the electro-magnetic clocks which have hitherto been 
made, the attractive and repulsive forces of magnets have been 
applied directly to the pendulum ; and, consequently, any vari- 
ation in the intensity of the electric current will produce a cor- 
responding variation in the motion of the pendulum, which, as it 
Tibrates, has to move the hands of the clock, as well as the slide- 
break at the end of its vibrations. 

Now, in all these cases, we have an unequal power ; and the 
pendulum having to overcome resistance at the end of its vibra- 
tion, could not be made isochronous ; — consequently, such a clock 
could never be made to measure correct time. 

But if, instead of applying the magnetic power directly to the 



298 Scientific Notices. 

pendulum, it were employed (on the principle of the Remontoir 
escapement) to heod a spring to a certain fixed extent during 
each vibration (which spring, in unbending, should give the ne- 
cessary impulse to the pendulum), the pendulum would thus be to- 
tally independent of variations in the electro-magnet, — that power 
being simply employed to bend the spring. In the author's first 
application of this principle, the pendulum is suspended from a 
triangular framing, and vibrates through a hole in the bed-plate, 
on the opposite end of which is fixed a steel spring, reaching along 
the bed-plate to the side of the pendulum. This spring is limited 
in its motion by two screws. On one side of the bed-plate is se- 
cured an electro-magnet, its poles approaching very near to one 
another ; and on the spring, opposite the poles of tne magnet, is 
fixed a piece of iron, on which the attractive force of the magnet is 
exerted, when it is required to bend the spring. The spring, when 
bent by the magnet, is held by a detent, and cannot return until 
the detent is lifted out of the way. Through the pendulum-rod 
are passed two screws, — one with a fiat termination, to receive 
the pressure of the impulse-spring ; the other having a conical 
termination, to act as an inclined plane to lift the detent : the 
former is the impulse-pallet ; and the latter the discharging pallet. 
A dehcate spring, insulated on ivory, is so situated that, at each 
vibration to the right, its point shall touch the side of the pen- 
dulum-rod, close up to the centre of motion. 

Suppose the pendulum to be in the course of its vibration to 
the left, the discharging pallet lifting the detent releases the im- 
pulse-spring, which immediately falls against the impulse-pallet. 
The pendulum, having arrived at the extent of its motion, returns ; 
the impulse-spring following it, presses it forward by its elasticity 
until stopped by the banking-screw. As the pendulum continues 
its motion to the right, it completes the circuit through the coils 
of the electro-magnet, by contact with the insulated spring before 
mentioned. The electro-magnet attracts the piece of iron attached 
to the impulse-spring, which is, in consequence, bent, and passes 
the end of the detent. The pendulum, commencing its motion to 
the left, breaks contact with the insulated spring ; and the electro- 
magnet no longer attracting the piece of iron attached to the 
impulse-spring, the latter would return if not prevented by the 
detent, which holds it until raised by the discharging pallet. 
When the pendulum receives another impulse, the spring is again 
bent ; and so on for each vibration of the pendulum. 

This pendulum was found to vary in time, on account of the 
residual magnetism holding back the impulsenspring. 

To overcome this difficulty, a second spring was fixed to the 
same bracket, beneath the impulse-spring, and paraUel with it ; — 
the armature which the magnet attracted was attached to this^ 
spring, instead of to the impulse-spring. In the end of the stem 
of this spring a brass pin is fixed, rising up by the side of the 
impulse-spring. The electro-magnet attracts the piece of iron 



Scientific Notices. 299 

attached to the lower spring ; hut, in consequence of the hrass 
pin in its point, it cannot be bent without bending the impulse- 
spring at the same moment. On the cessation of the power of 
the magnet, the elasticity of the lower spring overcomes the resi- 
dual magnetism, and returns with the iron attached to its original 
position, leaving the impulse-spring locked upon its detent, ready 
to give the impulse, uninfluenced by either the power of the 
magnet or its residual magnetism. 

The main advantage of this method of actuating a pendulum 
over all previously proposed is, that an excess of power may be 
employed, which is absolutely necessary with electro-magnetism ; 
while, at the same time, the pendulum receives a perfectly regular 
accession of power each vibration. 

The method preferred for moving the hands of small clocks is 
that of attraction and repulsion. A pair of pallets, taking into 
the teeth of the escape-wheel, are fixed upon an axis, on which 
are also fixed two bar-magnets ; beneath the poles of which are 
placed two electro-magnets. These are caused alternately to at- 
tract and repel the bar-magnets, — thereby imparting an oscillating 
motion to the pallets, which act in the teeth of the escape-wheel 
and drive it forward : the motion thus produced is carried through 
a train of wheels in the ordinary manner. In producing the 
required electric currents, two contact-springs and two batteries 
are employed; — the contact-springs are mounted on an ivory 
bracket, one spring on each side of the pendulum-rod, with which 
their points make contact close up to the centre of motion, at the 
end of the vibrations of the pendulum each way. The batteries 
are arranged in connection with these springs, so that the circuit 
of each battery shall be in a contrary direction to the other. 
Consequently, as the pendulum vibrates to the right, it completes 
the circuit of one battery ; — the electricity passing through the 
coils of the electro-magnets, they cause one oscillation of the bar- 
magnets. On the opposite vibration of the pendulum, it makes 
contact with the opposite spring ; and the battery in connection 
with this being arranged in a contrary direction to the former, 
the electricity passes through the coils of the electro-magnets in 
a contrary direction, — causing an opposite oscillation of the bar- 
magnets, and consequently of the pallets, which, operating on 
the teeth of the escape-wheel, drive it forward. 

The application of the electro-magnetism to the striking part 
is thus effected :— The escape or seconds-wheel is furnished with 
a projecting pin, which is thus carried round once in a minute. 
The minute-wheel, carrying the minute-hand, has a similar pin, 
which only completes its circuit once in the hour ; in consequence 
of which the two pins are in conjunction only once in that time, 
namely, exactly at the hour. On an arbor, in the frame of the 
clock, is fixed an elastic arm, which is insulated from the arbor 
by an ivory bush. • This arm carries, at its extremity, a small 
pad or table of platinum, on which, if it be sufficiently raised. 



SOO Scientific Notices. 

the pin of the escape-wheel rubs in passing. The arbor also car- 
ries a rigid arm in such a position that the pin in the minute- 
wheel lifts it as it passes each hour ; but the arm cannot be raised 
without the elastic arm, also carried by the arbor, being lifted, 
by which the platinum table, at its extremity, comes into contact 
with the pin in the seconds-wheel, — an occurrence which takes 

5 lace at the hour ; the hands being properly adjusted to that end. 
iy so doing, it completes the circuit of a battery, which has one 
pole connected with the clock-frame and the other with the coils 
of the electro-magnet. Now, the only break which exists in this 
circuit is at the small platinum pad ; when, therefore, at the 
completion of each hour, the pad and the pin are in contact, the 
circuit will be rendered complete. The magnet is thus rendered 
active, and, by its attraction, draws down the armature. The 
armature is situated at one end of a leyer, the other end of which 
carries a detent, which is received into the notches of the locking- 
plate. When the armature is drawn down (in other words, when 
the circuit of the battery is completed at the end of each hour), 
the detent is drawn out of the notch, and the locking-plate left 
free to revolve. The raising of this detent forms a contact be- 
tween a wire from another battery and the clock-frame. This 
battery actuates a magnet, which works the actual striking appa- 
ratus. The circuit is completed through the clock-frame and 
through the bar-magnets, formerly described as oscillating once in 
every second ; one end of each of which, as it rises, touches a stud 
immediately over it at the end of the other wire of the battery. 
This magnet, being therefore rendered active once in every two 
seconds, while the locking-plate is free, alternately attracts and 
repels one end of a lever, to which is attached the hammer ; — the 
other end taking into a ratchet and click arrangement, which 
allows the striking to continue as long as the locking-plate is 
free. 

A point of great importance is the method of making and 
breaking contact for the electric currents. When the circuit is 
broken, a spark is seen to pass between the points of contact. 
The continued action of this spark causes the points, between 
which it passes, to become oxidized ; and as the metallic oxides 
are non-conductors of electricity, it follows that the passage of 
the electricity will be thereby interfered with and prevented. 

In the author's first clock he employed a piece of steel wire as 
a break-spring, touching against the side of the pendulum-rod ; 
but the points of contact oxidized so rapidly, that the clock would 
not go for more than a few days without stopping. The steel 
spring was then removed, and one of gold substituted ; and a 
small plate of gold was soldered to the side of the pendulum-rod. 
The difficulty now appeared to have been entirely overcome ; but, 
in six weeks, the quantity of electricity passing was considerably 
reduced, and, at the end of two months, the clock stopped. 
Platinum was next tried, in the same manner as the gold, in a 



Scientific Notices. 801 

new clock, completed in July, 1848 ; and the points of contact 
have never yet required cleaning, — the circuits being completed, 
at the present time, with as much certainty as when the clock 
was first put together. 

In a clock to be set up by Mr. Shepherd in the Great Exhibi- 
tion, it was proposed by Mr. Owen Jones that the figures should 
be arranged in a semicircle ; because a circular dial would greatly 
interfere with the design of the building. 

In order to indicate the time on a dial of this construction, it 
was necessary that the hands should be double, projecting equally 
on both sides of the centre. The minute-hand revolves once in 
two hours ; and as one end leaves the right side of the dial at 
six o'clock, the opposite end commences at six on the left. The 
minute-hand is 16 feet long, and the hour-hand 12. 



INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 

BIRMINGHAM. 

(ConiinuedfrompcLge 204 J 

The next paper read was, — On the workshops for the locomotive 
carriage and waggon departments of the Manchester^ Sheffield^ 
and Lincolnshire Railway, by Mr. R. Peacock, of Manchester. 

These works are erected at Gortoti, about two miles from Man- 
chester. 

The site was fixed upon, and land purchased, to construct 
workshops for the Sheffield and Manchester Railway only ; but 
subsequently to the amalgamation of that Company with the net- 
work of Lincolnshire lines, and which now form the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railways, more land was purchased, 
and the workshops increased in size to meet the wants of the joint 
Companies. The total quantity of land purchased is nearly 20 
acres, about 9 of which is occupied by the workshops and store- 
yard, and the remainder is being used for the construction of 
reservoirs for supplying the works with water, and for erecting 
cottages upon for the workpeople in the Company's service. 

The plot of land, which contains shops, cottj^es, reservoirs, &c., 
is bounded on the south by the railway, on the east by the Peak 
Forest and Macclesfield Canal (also belonging to this Company), 
and on the north is adjacent to the Manchester and Ashton-under- 
Lyne high road. The reservoirs are calculated to hold a month's 
consumption of water, and are supplied from the adjoining canal ; 
the water passing through filter beds in its course &om the canal 
to the reservoirs. These reservoirs supply the water directly into 
the tenders upon the railway and throughout the workshops ; 
their position being sufficiently high to do this, and the canal 

VOL. XXXVIII, 2 M 



802 Scientific Noticei. 

high enough to supply the reservoirs. The cottages are 140 in 
number, and are arranged in four blocks ; and between the cot- 
tages, reservoirs, and ^workshops, is a plot of vacant land that 
may be used for increasing the number of cottages, or for any 
other purpose that may be hereafter required. 

The plan of the works is nearly that of a square, — the watch- 
house or entrance being situated towards the cottages, on the east 
side of the works ; as also is the rail entrance ; and adjoining are 
the offices and general stores. 

The engine-house or shed for working engines (see fig. 1, 
Plate X.,) is a rotunda of 150 feet in diameter inside, and will 
hold seventeen engines, with their tenders — ^leaving the entrance 
and exit lines clear. The advantage in tbis description of building 
over the ordinary polygon is in the absence of pillars for support- 
ing the roof, tbere being but one in the rotunda, while in the 
polygon, — say of twelve sides, — there would be twelve ; and the 
number of pillars would determine the number of lines, and con- 
sequently the number of engines it will hold: while, in the 
rotunda, the number of lines is, with the number of engines, in- 
fluenced only by the clearance required for each other ; thus, the 
polygon would hold eleven engines with the entrance clear, while 
the rotunda will hold seventeen. 

To the left of the entrance is a furnace for lighting up the en- 
gines from ; and the points for the two lines to the table are set 
so that the engines will (on entering) go upon the right hand side 
of the pillar ; and thus, supposing them to enter engine first, they 
must be backed into each hne, which will cause the smoke box, or 
chimney end of the engines, to be always nearest the table, and 
consequently in a right position for the tubes, &c., being cleaned. 

The turn-table in the centre is 40 feet in diameter, with two 
lines of rails upon it, one upon each side the centre pillar, around 
which it moves. The centre pillar is of cast iron, the base form- 
ing the bed for the inner roUers of the turn-table to revolve upon : 
the top of the pillar is sufficiently large to receive the shoes for 
carrying the principals of the roof; and to it they are secured by 
bolts ; each principal radiating from the centre of the pillar, ana 
its opposite end resting upon the outer wall of the budding. A 
collar is cast upon the pillar, about 8 feet from the top, which 
was intended to carry one end of a circular travelling frame. 
This frame was intended to revolve round the pillar, and to he 
supported at its opposite end by a carriage, running upon a cir- 
cular rail-beam, sustained by the pilasters built on the inside of 
the walls ; the frame being surmounted by a travelling crane, in 
the usual way : this, however, has not yet been carried out. The 
roof is of wrought-iron, surmounted by a louvre (see fig. 2,), the 
top of which is glazed ; — the whole forming a well-lighted and 
ventilated building. 

To the left of the rotunda are workshops, with engine-house, 
boiler^ &c. I'he fitting and tool shop is 120 feet by 60 feet, and 



Scientific Notices. 303 

oontaine the whole of the tools^ with the exception of the 
panching and shearing machines. Two rows of fitters' benches 
are erected near the far end ; the lathes, drills, &c., are placed 
down each side, and have their counter shafts carried by wall- 
plates, built into the side walls, and the planing machines are 
placed in the centre ; the whole being driven from two lines of 
main shafting passing longitudinally down the shop, one over the 
vertical shaft from the engine, and the other equidistant from the 
opposite wall. This shafting is continued over the shop stores, 
and passes over the travelling platform into the carriage shed, for 
driving the hoist therein. The smiths' shop is next to the fitting 
shop, and is of the same dimensions, — 120 feet by 60 feet ; it 
contains a fan and sixteen smiths' fires, eight of which are placed 
upon each side of the shop, and if necessary three more can be 
placed at the ends. Next to this is the boiler shop, the same 
size as the smithy, in which are erected eight smiths' fires, on the 
aide next to the smiths' shop : four boiler fires are placed upon 
the opposite side ; and the punching and shearing machines at 
the entrance end ; — these and the fan. being driven by a shaft 
passing from the engine transversely across the ends of the shops. 
Adjoining to the left and at right angles with these is the erecting 
shop, which is 150 feet by 60 feet. In this shop are nine trans- 
verse lines of rails, each line holding two engines ; and down the 
centre and each side are pillars supporting longitudinal beams 
for carrying the travelling cranes, one upon each side: both 
these cranes traverse the fall length of the shop, and are each 
calculated to lift an engine and move it to any part of the shop, 
if necessary. 

To the left, and bounding the west side of the works, are the 
waggon and carriage shops, — the waggons being on the ground- 
floor, and the carriages above : the carriages are lifted up and 
down by a self-acting worm-hoist, worked by the shop engine. 
These rooms are 320 feet by 70 feet ; the carriage shop will hold 
thirty-eight carriages, and the ground-floor about fifty waggons : 
at the end of these are the lifting room below, and the trimming 
and saddlery room above, — each 60 feet by 70 feet. The lines 
in the lifting and waggon shops are served in common with the 
erecting shop by a travelling platform, 20 feet by 12 feet, run- 
ning upon three rails at right angles with the lines in the shops. 

Opposite the lifting shop, and forming part of the south boun- 
dary, is a paint shop, 60 feet by 40 feet, and in continuation of 
this is a shed for working stock not required for present use. 
This shed is 165 feet by 40 feet, and may be used for working 
engines if necessary. In a line with this and at the south-east 
comer of the works is the coke shed, 100 feet by 40 feet; — ^the 
coke waggons are on one side of the shed, and the engine on the 
other, — the coke being filled into baskets upon a platform between 
the engines and waggons, and transferred from thence to the en- 
g^es. The waggon line side of the shed is closed ; as also the 



804 Scientific Notices. 

ends ; but the engine line inside of the shed is open, — the roof 
merely projecting over the engines, where they are being coked. 

The author remarked, that no difficulty had arisen with respect 
to the turn-table in the rotunda, or the two lines, daring the two 
years that they had been at work. There was no danger arisiDg 
from a want of balance on the turn-table when only one line was 
loaded with an engine, because each line of rails was carried by 
an independent pair of girders, supported by rollers, and joined 
together in the centre. They could turn an engine upon the 
table in about a minute, with three men ; and it was sometimes 
done by two cleaners. The object in the arrangement had been 
to get as many engines in as small a space as possible, and they 
coiUd find no other shape so well adapted for the purpose, or 
into which so many engines could be got in proportion to the 
area, with the same conyenience and room for getting about 
them. The total area of the floor of the building is a little over 
17>000 square feet, which is equal to 1000 square feet of shed 
surface per engine accommodated, wi^ ample room to get con- 
Yeniently around each, and leaving the entrance and lines clear. 

A member stated, that a gain by the oblique arrangement was 
not very obvious. At Camden -town the rotunda was 160 feet in 
diameter, and held 24 engines on the old arrangement, — ^the 
space allowed for an engine and tender being 50 feet in the 
centre to turn. If the columns in that arrangement were placed 
sufficiently far back to get a clearance between the engines, he 
considered they would not lose any space. 

The author observed, that although the columns might be put 
so far back as to clear the lines, columns were always very ob- 
jectionable and inconvenient at the side of the engines, and he 
thought the central column much preferable. 

It was suggested, that with a roof of only 150 feet span, the 
columns might be entirely done away with without increasing the 
cost more than £1 per square. 



The next paper read was — On an improved vacvmm-gauge for 
condensing engines, by Mr. F. BkamW£LL. 

In the ordinary long vacuum-gauge, the mercury is contained 
in an uncovered cast-iron cup, in which is immersed a glass tube, 
open at the bottom end, but sealed at the top. A small iron 
pipe, with a stop-cock and connection to the condenser, passes 
through the mercury, and up the glass tube nearly to the top. 
By this pipe the air is exhausted from the glass tube, and the 
mercury rises in it in proportion to the difference between the 
pressure of the atmosphere and of the uncondensed vapour in 
the condenser. The objections to this gauge are, firstly — that it 
does not indicate the real pressure of the uncondensed vapour 



Scientific Notices. 805 

remaining in the condenser, unless there is an opportunity of 
comparing it with a harometer ; and, secondly — that the mercury 
is frequently driven out and lost, by the stop-cock heing left 
open, while blowing through previous to starting. These gauges 
are tdso of necessity cumbrous, as they must be nearly 3 feet 
long, to shew the higher vacuums of 29 and 30 inches. 

Fig. 3, Plate X., represents the ordinary short vacuum gauge, 
where a small glass tube, closed at the top, contains the mercury, 
and at the bottom is bent upwards, ending in a bulb, which has 
a small orifice on its upper side. This tube is carefully filled in 
the same manner as the ordinary barometer, and is then attached 
to a scale entirely enclosed in a glass case, which is cemented to 
a brass cup, terminating in a stop-cock and a pipe, by which the 
connection is made witb the condenser, so that the air in the 
interior of this case is always at the same density as that in the 
condenser ; and as the mercurial tube is only from 8 to 10 inches 
long, it is evident that the mercury will be held up in it by the 
pressure of the air in the glass case, until the density of it is 
reduced below that which is equal to sustain a column equivalent 
to the height of the tube. By this means, when it is required to 
shew only the higher degrees of rarefaction, as in steam engines, 
the gauges may be made extremely short and compact ; and it is 
evident that they will always indicate the total pressure of the 
uncondensed vapour, irrespective of the state of the atmosphere. 
For these reasons this gauge has been very extensively used, and 
no doubt its employment would have been universal, had it not 
been for two objections. The first and gravest is, that the vapour 
from the condenser deposits frequently on the inside of the glass 
case, and forms a mist so dense as not only to render it impos- 
sible to observe the height at which the mercury is standing, but 
even to see the scale itself. The second objection is, that if the 
stop-cock is not shut off previous to blowing through, the inside 
of the glass becomes filled with steam or hot water, and is very 
liable to be broken thereby. The joint between the glass case 
and the brass seat generally leaks, and this to such an extent 
that the gauge is almost always shut off, to prevent the vacuum 
being injured by the passage of air into the condenser. 

Fig. 4, represents the improved short vacuum gauge! The 
principle is precisely similar to that of Fig. 3, the difference 
being merely in the arrangement. Instead of immersing the 
whole of the tube and scale in a glass chamber connected with 
the condenser, the bulb only is enclosed in a brass cup, with a 
screw lid (on which the scale is cast) ; and the rest of the mer- 
curial tube is passed through a stuffing box in the middle of this 
lid ; protecting it from injury by sinking it in a depression in the 
scale like a common thermometer. On the bottom of the brass 
. cap is the stop-cock with the pipe, by which connection is made 
with the condenser ; — ^the same density is always preserved in it 
and the cup ; and thus, the pressure being removed from the 



306 Scientific Notices. 

surface of the mercary in the bulb, it of course falls according to 
the rarefaction, — a fall that can be always observed, as the tube 
containing the mercury is totally uncovered. By this means the 
first and great objection to the short vacuum gauge is done away, 
and likewise the second, which is common to both long and 
short, viz., the risk of the stop-cock being left open while blowing 
through ; as with this gauge it is a matter of perfect indi£Ference 
whether it be open or not, as the only thing that takes place if it 
is open, is, that the brass closed cup is filled with steam ; but this 
can neither blow out the mercury, nor damage the gauge. In 
fact, those that the author has at work under his own control 
are never shut ofi*. As regards their leakage, he has been taking 
every pains to get them as tight as possible ; and in this he has 
so far succeeded, that the first one put to work, nearly two years 
since, on one of the pumping engines, at the Grand Junction 
Water Works at Brentford, retained the mercury at 29 inches for 
a week after the engine stopped, and no doubt would have re- 
tained it to the present day had it not been opened. The stop- 
cock is made with a hollow plug ; this is done for neatness, and 
also to diminish the risk of leakage — as one end of the plug is by 
this arrangement contained in the pipe leading to the condenser. 
This could not conveniently be done with any other gauge, as 
there are none, it is believed, sufficiently light and compact to be 
carried by one point of support only, and t£at the plug of a cock. 
The author first had these gauges made in January, 1849, and 
since then about thirty or forty of them have been adopted^ and 
it is understood are all giving satisfaction. 



A paper was next read — On an improved axle-box /or railway en- 
gines and carriages f by Mr. Barkans. 

The attention of the writer was first drawn to the present sub- 
ject by the wearing of the axle bearings at their ends, and the 
great number of brasses that were in consequence thrown aside as 
useless before being half worn through, the expense of repairing 
such as were retained for work, and the loss of time, as well as 
expense, incurred by the necessity of lifting both engines and 
carriages for the purpose of either renewing or repairing, and re- 
placing the bearings so worn ; and in the consideration of this 
subject it becomes evident that some portion of the accidents, and 
a large amount of expense, are to be attributed to this great source 
of mischief. 

The engines and carriages, in the early part of their work, 
whilst the journals and wheels as well as the road are true, run 
steadily without deviating from the line' of their course, whether 
straight or curved ; but the friction of the shoulder and collar of 
the journals against either end of the bearings causes wear upon 
the latter which increases in proportion with the amount of wear. 
A new motion endways of the axle takes place« which^ aided by 



Scientific Notices. 807 

the superincumbent weight, causes the shoulders and collars to 
strike as well as revolve, and to beat up the metal, which is then 
peeled or turned off by the subsequent revolution of the shoulder 
or collar against the bearing : hence a twofold cause of destruction 
is created and actively in progress, — the rate accelerating with the 
progress. This work of destruction goes on until, to avoid danger 
to the passengers or rolling stock, or complaints of discomfort, it 
becomes necessary to put a stop to it either by fittine in new 
bearings, or by turning np, or otherwise repairing the old ones. 
The turning up of the wheels of both engines and carriages is a 
work of frequent occurrence, occasioned by the rubbing or grind- 
ing of the tire, and striking of the flanges of the wheels against 
the rails, which observation and experience has proved to originate 
in the endway motion of the axles. 

The excess of endway motion being once commenced, its effects 
are ere long shewn in the derangement of the permanent way and 
of the engines and carriages running thereon. 

The improved axle-box designed by the author, having so re- 
cently been described in this journal (p. 97), a brief rSsum^ of its 
peculiarities will suffice. The box is fitted with an end bearing- 
piece, and is capable of being adjusted to any required distance 
from the end of the axle, so as to allow the latter to revolve with- 
out friction, and at the same time prevent any excess of endway 
motion. The end of the axle is a little rounded, and is lubricated 
through a hole immediately above it : the bearing-piece acts ex" 
eentrically against the end of the axle, when in contact with it, 
for the purpose of ensuring its constant lubrication. The adjust- 
ment is effected by pushing up the bearing-piece to the end of 
the axle, and then withdrawing it a short distance, so as to leave 
merely a slight working clearance between the two ; it is then 
fixed in its place by a set-screw entering one of a series of holes 
arranged in a spiral form round the bearing-piece, so as to allow 
of its being adjusted to l-32nd inch ; and the set-screw is kept 
in its position by a jam-nut. 

This plan of steadying the axle may be readily applied to exist- 
ing axle-boxes of railway stock, by bolting a boss, which is to 
receive the bearing-piece, on to the front of the axle-box. 

The improved boxes were first applied upon the leading and 
trailing wheels of the Brighton express engine, which was worked 
with them upwards of 10,000 miles; and also upon a carriage 
on the South Eastern Railway, where the bearings were purposely 
made half an inch too short, to resemble worn bearings ; by which 
means, iu a journey from London to Dover and back, the fact of 
its oscillation was first manifested ; and in the course of the re- 
turn to London, during a short stoppage at Ashford of the train 
in which it ran, the end bearing-pieces were adjusted, and the 
oscillation consequently ceased : — one of the axle-boxes from this 
carriage was laid before the meeting. The engines to which the 
improved boxes have been applied, have become, in consequence^ 



808 Scientific Notices. 

BO macb steadier in ranning, that the full speed can be safely 
maintained over bad parts of tbe road, where before it was neces- 
sary to slacken speed. An important advantage is the facility 
with which the adjustment can be effected whenever required, 
without taking the engine or carriage out of the train. 

The next feature is to prevent the grit or dust that is thrown 
up by the wheels or by the wind, finding its way between the 
journals and their bearings. A circular ring is attached to the 
inner face of the axle-box, and the corresponding ring is keyed 
upon the axle and revolves with it : the flanges of these rings in- 
terlock with each other without touching or causing any friction, 
and prevent any grit or dust from passing between them and 
getting to the journal. This grit-shield is not applicable to en- 
gines under the present form of their wheels and axles. 

The object of the remaining portion of the invention is to pre- 
vent the waste of the lubricating material used for the journal 
bearings, that occurs in the ordinary axle-boxes, and to save the 
tallow and oil used for this purpose, and work it over and over 
again. For this purpose an under cap is slipped up into the 
lower part of the ordinary boxes, and fixed there by bolts passing 
through the sides : this cap (which, in new axle-boxes, is cast 
in one with the box) forms the receptacle for a cast-iron grease- 
drawer, which slides in the lower part of the axle-box, and is 
secured by a spring-catch. The lubricating material, passing 
over the journal, falls into the drawer, and may, whenever neces- 
^17) by turning over the contents of the drawer into the top of 
the box, be used again and again, until its lubricating properties 
have become deteriorated ; when, by heating it gently in a vessel 
with a small quantity of water, the extraneous matter will sink 
to the bottom, and the grease and oil will become purified, and 
again fit for the purpose of lubrication. By this means the large 
amount of saving has resulted in practice of from 5-6ths to 7-8ths 
of the tallow and oil passed over the journals, — the material 
proving afterwards even of a better lubricating quality than at 
first, from the ingredients becoming more amalgamated. 

There is another material advantage attending this part of 
the invention, inasmuch as oil, which is generally admitted to 
be a better lubricator, and more certain in its action than grease 
of any kind, has been mostly kept out of use, by reason of the 
great waste attending it in ordinary axle-boxes, and its being 
inapplicable in others ; but in these improved boxes — ^the whole 
material being caught in the grease drawer, and again returned 
into the box — oil may be applied with great economy and advan- 
tage ; always being ready, and keeping up its gradual and constant 
supply. An incidental advantage attendant on these improved 
boxes is, that by merely taking out the grease drawer, a conve- 
nient means is at once afforded of examining the state of the 
journals and boxes, which, with the ordinary boxes, it would 
require lifting to accomplish. 



Irish Patents, 309 

Mr. Adams remarked, that he had found that waggons and 
carriages did not work well unless there was plenty of end-play 
in the bearings ; for if fitted up very close they were liable to 
heat. In the case of waggon bearings, he thought a play of 
-^ths of an inch was requisite. 

Mr. Wright was of opinion that the more play was left in the 
bearings, the more would be the wear; he thought -^^th inch 
was abundant. 

Mr. Henson observed, that he did not leave any end-play in 
waggon-bearings ; on the contrary, so accurately were they ad- 
justed, that red lead, or something of the kind, was employed to 
ascertain the complete fit; in fact, they too soon acquired the 
play in the course of work. The only thing of importance was 
the grit, but with reference to that they had scarcely any trouble ; 
and in a stock of 2,500 waggons they very rarely had cases of 
hot journals. He used a very large grease chamber, and hence, 
although there was a large quantity of grease present, the bearing 
was kept so cool that there was very little demand for it. 



of iPatrntjS 

That have passed the Great Seal of IRELAND , from the 1 7 th 
January to the 17 th March, 1851, inclusive. 



To William Thomas Henley, of Clerkenwell, in the county of 
Middlesex, philosophical instrument maker, for certain im- 
provements in telegraphic communication, and in apparatus 
connected therewith; parts of which improvements may be 
also applied to the moving of other machines and machinery. 
— Sealed 18th January. 

William Edward Newton, of the Ofiice for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improve- 
ments in obtaining, preparing, and appljdng zinc and other 
volatile metals and the oxides thereof, and in the application 
of zinc or ores containing the same to the preparation or ma- 
nufacture of certain metals or alloys of metals, — being a foreign 
communication. — Sealed 22nd January. 

John Eansom St. John, of the City of New York, in the United 
States of America, engineer, for improvements in the construc- 
tion of compasses, and apparatus for ascertaining and register- 
ing the velocity of ships or vessels through the water. — Sealed 
24th January. 

James Young, of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, manu- 
facturing chemist, for improvements in the treatment of certain 
bituminous mineral substances, and in obtaining products 
therefrom. — Sealed 1st February. 

Peter Claussen, of Cranboume-street, in the county of Middlesex, 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 H 



310 Irish Patents. 

Gent., for certain improyements in bleaching ; in the prepara- 
tion of materials for spinning and felting ; in yarns and felts ^ 
and in the machinery employed therein, — being partly a foreign 
communication. — Sealed Ist Febroary. 

John Clare, Jan., of Exchange-buildings, Liverpool, Gent., for 
improvements in the manufacture of casks. — Sealed 3rd Feb- 
ruary. 

Benjamin Rotch, of Lowlands, in the county of Middlesex, Esq., 
for a factitious saltpetre, and a mode by which factitious salt- 
petre may be obtained for commercial purposes, — being a 
foreign communication. — Sealed 4th Februaiy. 

John Corry, of Belfast, in the kingdom of Ireland, damask ma- 
nufacturer, for improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
weaving figured fabrics, which machinery or apparatus is also 
applicable to other purposes for which Jacquard apparatus is 
or may be employed. — Sealed 5th February. 

Zachariah Morley, of Regent' s-park, in the county of Middlesex, 
Esq., for certain improvements in the means or methods of, or 
apparatus or machinery for, decomposing water, and applying 
the products to useful purposes, — being a foreign communica- 
tion. — Sealed 7th February. 

Jasper Wlieeler Rogers, of Dublin, civil engineer, for certain im- 
provements in the preparation of peat, and in the manufacture 
of the same into fuel and charcoal. — Sealed 7th February. 

Edward Clarence Shepard, of Parliament-street, in the City of 
Westminster, Gent., for certain improvements in electro-mag- 
netic apparatus, suitable for the production of motive power, 
of heat, and of light, — being a foreign communication. — Sealed 
7th February. 

John Matthews, of Kidderminster, foreman, for improvements in 
sizing paper. — Sealed 8th February. 

Thomas Wicksteed, of Old Ford, in the county of Middlesex, 
civil engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of manure. 
— Sealed 26th February. 

Samuel John Pittar, of Church-lane, Clapham, in the county of 
Surrey, civil engineer, for certain improvements in umbrellas 
and parasols. — Sealed 5th March. 

Charles Xavier Thomas (de Colmar), Chevalier de la Legion 
d'Honneur, of Paris, in France, for an improved calculating 
machine, which he calls "arithmometer." — Sealed 10th March. 

Richard Archibald Brooman, of the firm of Messrs. J. C. Robertson 
and Co., of 166, Fleet-street, in the City of London, patent 
agents, for improvements in purifying water, and preparing it 
for engineering, manufacturing, and domestic purposes, — bcnng 
a foreign communication. — Sealed 11th March. 

Charles Bury, of Salford, in the county of Lancaster, manager, 
for certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for pre- 
paring, spinning, doubling, or twisting silk waste, cotton, wool, 
flax, and other fibrous substances. — Sealed 12th March. 



[ 311 ] 

mat of ipatrntjs 

Granted for SCOTLAND, subsequent to 22nd February, 1851. 

To Adolphus Oliyer Harris, of High Holbom, London, philoso- 
phical instrument maker, for improvements in barometers, — 
being a communication. — Sealed 26th February. 

Joseph Crossley, of Halifax, carpet-manufacturer ; George Collier, 
of the same place, mechanic ; and James Hudson, of Little- 
borough, printer, for improvements in printing yarns for and 
in weaving carpets and other fabrics. — Sealed 3rd March. 

George Smi&, of Manchester, engineer, for certain improvements 
in steam-engines ; and also improvements in feeding or sup- 
plying the boilers of the same ; part or parts of which im- 
provements are also applicable to other similar purposes. — 
Sealed 4th March. 

John Hetherington, of Manchester, machinist, for improvements 
in machinery for preparing, spinning, and manufacturing 
fibrous substances. — Sealed 4th March. 

Alfred Cooper, of Rumsey, in the county of Hants, grocer, for 
improvements in steam and other power engines, and in the 
application thereof to motive purposes ; also in the method of 
and machinery for arresting or checking the progress of loco- 
motive engines and other carriages. — Sealed 5th March. 

Henry Richardson, of Aber Hourant Bala, North Wales, for cer- 
tain improvements in life-boats. — Sealed 7th March. 

William Stones, of Queenhithe, London, stationer, for improve- 
ments in the manufacture of safety-paper, for bankers' cheques, 
bills of exchange, and other purposes. — Sealed 7th March. 

Joseph Baldwin and George Collier, mechanics, and Joseph 
Crossley, all of Halifax, for improvements in the manufacture 
of carpets and other purposes. — Sealed 12th March. 

Gkorge Roberts, of Selkirk, manufacturer, for an improved ma- 
nufacture of certain yams of linen, wool, silk, cotton, or other 
fibrous substances. — Sealed 13th March. 

Samuel Brisbane, of Manchester, pattern-maker, for certain im- 
provements in looms for weaving. — Sealed 14th March. 

Geoi^e Guthrie, of Appleby, chamberlain to the Earl of Stair, 
for improvements in machinery for digging, tilling, or working 
land.^Sealed 14th March. 

William Eccles, of Walton-le-Dale, in the county of Lancaster, 
cotton-spinner, for certain improvements in looms for weaving. 
— Sealed 17th March. 

Edward Lloyd, of Dee Valley, in the county of Merioneth, North 
Wales, engineer, for certain improvements in steam-engines ; 
which improvements are in part, or on the whole, applicable to 
other motive power. — Sealed 1 7th March. 

Richard Archibald Brooman, of the firm of J. C. Robertson & Co., 
No. 166, Fleet-street, London, patent agents, for improve- 
ments in purifying water, and preparing it for engineering, ma- 



312 New Patents Sealed. 

uufoctariug, and domestic purposes, — ^being a communication. 
— Sealed 1 7th March. 
Herbert Taylor, of 46, Cross-street, Finsbury, London, merchant, 
for certain improvements in the manafactore of carbonates and 
oxides of barytes, and strontia, solphur, or solphoric acid, 
from the sulphates of bar3rtes and strontia, and for consequent 
improvements in the manufacture of carbonates and oxides of 
sodaand potassa, — being a communication. — Sealed 1 9th March. 



SEALED IN ENGLAND. 

1851. 



To Thomas Ellis the elder, of Tredegar Iron Works, in the county 
of Monmouth, engineer, for certain improvements in machinery 
or apparatus to be employed in the manufacture of blooms or 
piles for railway and other bars or plates of iron. Sealed 27th 
February — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Millward, of Birmingham, plater, for certain improve- 
ments in electro-magnetic and magneto-electric apparatus. 
Sealed 28th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Charles Felton Rirkman, of Argyle-street, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, Gent., for certain improvements in machinery for spin- 
ning or twisting cotton, wool, or other fibrous substances. 
Sealed 28th February — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Willis, of Manchester-street, in the county of Middlesex, 
organ-builder, for improvements in the construction of organs. 
Sealed 28th February — 6 months for inrolment, 

James Leach, of Littleborough, in the county of Lancaster, cot- 
ton-spinner, for certain improvements in machinery or appara- 
tus for carding, spinning, doubling, and twisting cotton and 
other fibrous substances. Sealed 3rd March — 6 months for 
inrolment. 

William Milner, of Liverpool, in the county of Lancaster, safety- 
box manufacturer, for certain improvements in boxes, safes, 
or other depositories for the protection of papers or other ma- 
terials from fire. Sealed 3rd March — 6 months for inrolment 

William Edward Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improve- 
ments in portable bedsteads and in sacking bottoms, — being 
a communication. Sealed 4th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, Chancery- 
lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical draughtsman, for 
improvements in the preparation of materials for the produc- 
tion of a composition or compositions applicable to the manu- 
facture of buttons, knife and razor-handles, inkstands, door- 
knobs, and articles where hardness, strength, and durability 



New Patents Sealed. 813 

are required, — being a commimication. Sealed 4th March— 
6 months for inrolment. 

Peter Armand le Comte de Fontainemoreau, of South-street, Fins- 
bary, for improvements in compressing air and gases for the 
purpose of obtaining motive power, — being a communication. 
Sealed 10th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Victor Hyacinthe Libert Guillouet, of Cond6 sur Noirot Calvados, 
in the Republic of France, chemist, for certain processes for 
increasing on manufactured fabrics the several shades of indigo. 
Sealed 10th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Elijah Gblloway, of Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, in * 
the county of Middlesex, civil engineer, for improvements in 
steam-engines. Sealed 10th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Alfred Jowett, of Sawley, near Derby, engineer, for im- 
provements in railway brakes and carriages. Sealed 10th 
March — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Robins Booth, of Portland-place, Wandsworth-road, in 
the county of Surrey, for improvements in generating and ap« 
plying heat. Sealed 10th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

James Murray, of Canterbury, in the county of Rent, barrack- 
master and captain, for improvements in saddlery and harness. 
Sealed 10th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Horn, of Little Stanhope-street, Mayfair, upholder and 
decorator, for machinery or apparatus for cleansing carpets, 
matting, and similar fabrics. Sealed 10th March — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

Jean Baptiste Alphonse Brunet, of Paris, in the Republic of France, 
Gent., for improvements in the manufacture of coverings for 
roofs, walls, partitions, furniture, and other similar articles ; 
and in boxes, tubes, and other hollow articles ; and in the 
preparation or manufacture of materials to be employed for 
such purposes ; and also in machinery to be employed in such 
or similar manufactures, — being a communication. Sealed 
10th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Greorge Roberts, of Selkirk, in the Kingdom of Scotland, manu- 
facturer, for an improved manufacture of certain yams of linen, 
wool, silk, cotton, or other fibrous substances. Sealed 10th 
March — 6 months for inrolment. 

William Galloway and John Galloway, of Manchester, in the 
county of Lancaster, engineers, for improvements in steam- 
engines and boilers. Sesded 1 1th March — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Jesse Ross, of Victoria-terrace, Keighley, in the county of York, 
Gent., for certain improvements in machinery and other appa- 
ratus for combing wool and other suitable fibrous substances ; 
and in applying and working the same. Sealed 13th March — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Dawson, of Melton-street, Euston-square, machinist, for 
an improved method of constructing umbrellas and parasols. 
Sealed 13th March — 6 months for inrolment. 



314 Ntw Patents Sealed. 

George Little, of New Peckham, in the county of Surrey, electro- 
telegraphic engineer, for improvements in electric telegn^hs, 
and in variouB apparatus to be used in connection therewith ; 
part of which improyements are also applicable to other similar 
purposes. Sealed 1 4th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Herbert Taylor, of Cross-street, Finsbury, merchant, for certain 
improyements in the manufacture of carbonates and oxides 
of barytes and strontia, sulphur, or sulphuric acid, from the 
sulphates of barytes and strontia ; and for consequent improye- 
ments in the manufacture of carbonates and oxides of soda and 
potassa. Sealed 15th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Richard Archibald Brooman, of the Firm of J. C. Robertson & Co., 
of Fleet-street, in the City of London, patent agents, for an 
improved method of manufacturing screws. Sealed 1 5th March 
— 6 months for inrolment. 

Herbert Minton, of Harts HiU, in the county of Stafford, Gent., 
and Augustus John Hofibtaedt, of Bridge-street, Blackfinars, 
in the City of London, Qent., for improvements in the mann< 
facture of faces or dials for clocks, watches, barometers, gas- 
meters, and mariners' compasses, or other articles requiring 
such faces or dials. Sealed 17th March — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

James Hart, of Seymour-place, in the county of Middlesex, for 
improvements in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, and other 
articles made from plastic materials; and in the means of 
making parts of the machinery used therein. Sealed 17th 
March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Bessemer, of Baxter House, Old St. Pancras-road, in the 
county of Middlesex, engineer, for improvements in the manu- 
facture and refining of sugar, and in machinery or apparatus 
used in producing a vacuum in such manufacture ; and which 
last improvements are also otherwise apphcable for exhausting 
and forcing fluids. Sealed 20th March — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Alexander Robertson, of Holloway, in the county of Middlesex, 
engineer, and James Glover, of the same place, roller, for im- 
provements in the rolling and laminating of metab, and in the 
manufacture of metallic cases and coverings. Sealed 20th 
March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Matthew Herring, of Tonbridge-place, London, sugar-planter, for 
improvements in the manufacture of sugar and rum ; part of 
which improvements are applicable to evaporation generally. 
Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Frederick William Mowbray, of the borough of Leicester, Gent., 
for improvements in machinery for weaving. Sealed 24th 
March — 6 months for inrolment. 

George Guthrie, of Appleby, chamberlain to the Earl of Stair, 
and residing at Rephad, by Stranraer, in the county of Wig- 
town, for improvements in machinery for digging, tilling, or 
working land. Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 



New Patents Sealed. 815 

Thomas Hill» of Langside Cottage, near Glasgow, Scotland, Esq., 
for improyements in wrought-iron or malleable iron railway 
chairs. Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Peter Armand le Comte de Fontainemoreau, of No. 24, Boulevart 
Poissonniere, Paris, in France, and 4, South-street, Finsbury, 
London, patent agent, for certain improvements in mills for 

Cding wheat and other grain, — being a communication, 
ed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Henri et Alexandre Six, of Wazemme le LiUe, temporary, of 
Paris, France, G^nt., for improvements in bleaching flax and 
hemp. Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Hector Ledru, of 28, Faubourg Poissonniere, at Paris, in the Re- 
public of France, civil engmeer, for improvements in heating. 
Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

James Cheetham, jun., of Chadderton, near Oldham, in the county 
of Lancaster, cotton manufacturer, for certain improvements in 
the manufacture of bleached, colored, or party-colored threads 
or yams. Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

David Farrar Bower, of Hunslet, in the county of York, manu- 
facturing chemist, for certain improvements in preparing, rating 
(otherwise called rotting), and fermenting flax, line, grasses, 
and other fibrous vegetable substances. Sealed 24th March — 
6 moths for inrolment. 

Edward Dunn, of New York, in the United States of America, 
but now residing at MontpeUer-square, Brompton, in the county 
of Middlesex, master mariner, for improvements in recipro- 
cating and rotary fluid-meters, — being a communication. Sealed 
24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Samuel Holt, of Stockport, in the county of Chester, manager, 
for certain improvements in the manufacture of textile fabrics. 
Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Samuel Walker, jun., of Birmingham, manufacturer, for a cer- 
tain improvement or certain improvements in the manufacture 
of metallic tubes. Sealed 24th March — 6 months for inrol- 
ment. 

Thomas Hawkins, of Inverness-terrace, Bishop' s-road, Bayswater, 
oilman, for improvements in brushes. Sealed 24th March — 
6 months for inrolment. 

Henry Stephen Ridley, of Vincent-square, Westminster, surveyor, 
and James Edser, of St. James' s-terrace, in the same City, 
builder, for a safe^-hinge, and certain apparatus for the detec- 
tion of burglars and prevention of burglaries. Sealed 24th 
March — 6 months for inrolment. 

Thomas Woods, of Portsea, in the county of Hants, upholsterer, 
and Robert Walter Winfleld, of Birmingham, manufacturer, for 
certain improvements in bedsteads and couches, or articles for 
setdng, lying, and reclining upon. Sealed 25th March — 6 
months for inrolment. 



[ 316 ] 



CELESTIAL PHENOMENA roK Atku^ 18^1. 



D. a. 
1 



6 

10 

2 2 

IS 

S S 

4 10 
6 



6 

7 10 
15 



8 1 

9 7 
10 



12 
IS 




9 

2 

4 



14 



15 



6 
8 
7 

16 
19 



Clock before the 4m. 4s. 
> rises 6h. 2iii. M. 
]> pass mer. 
D sets 6h. 9iii. A. 
26 9 ui the desceoding node. 
34 § in conj. with the ]> diCof dec 

3. 51. N. 
S3 Ecliptic coDJ. <^ Q new moon 
8 9 in sop. conj. with the 
^ in conj. with die > diCofdec 
2.53.N. 
59 1^ in conj. with die ]> diC of dec 

4.49. N. 
41 Tl's first sat. will im. 
10 It's first sat. will im. 

Clock before the 2m. 53s. 
D rises 7h. 32m. M. 
D pass mer. 3h. 2m. A. 
D sets lOh. 43m. A. 
OccuL m Tanri, em. 8h. 11m. im. 
9h. 14m. 

16 J^ in conj. widi ^ diC of dec 

2. 23. N. 

2 J^ in the ascending node 
OccoL X^ Ononis, em. 8h. 8m. 
-im. 9h. 14m. 

17 1( in oppo. to the 

2 2> in O or first quarter 
Clock before the Im. 27s. 
2> rises llh. 39m. M. 
2> pass mer. 7h. 88m. A. 
2> sets 2h. 44m. M. 
45 T^'s second sat will em. 
15 J^ in conj. with ^ diC of dec. 

L 5. N. 
13 %** first, sat. will em. 
38 ^ in Perihelion 

OccuL b Virginis, im. lOh. 49m. 
em. 1 Ih. 59m. 
2> in Perigee 
41 %*B first sat will ein. 
49 1^'s third sat will em. 
28 }y in conj. with the 
10 % in conj. with the D diff. of dec. 

3. 31. S. 

Mercury R. A. 2h. 25m. dec. 

15. 51. N. 
Venus R. A. 23h. Cm. dec. 7. 

19. S. 
Mars R. A. 23h. 32m. dec. 4. 

17. 8. 
Vesta, R. A., 17h. 34m. dec. 16. 

4. S. 

Juno, R. A., 17h. 52ro. dec. 7. 
50. S. 



D. H. 

15 



8 
10 



17 



3 

18 8 

19 4 
20 



10 
13 

21 11 

22 11 
12 

23 6 
25 



4 

27 8. 

15 

20 

28 
4 

29 15 

23 



Pallas, R. A., Oh. SSm. dec 1. 

ILS. 
Ceres R. A. 2h. 27m. dec 9. 

20. N. 
Jupiter R. A. ISh. 5m. dec 5. 

18. S. 
Satmm R. A. Ih. 32m. dec 7. 
16. N. 
- Uranus R Jk.lh.52m. decl l.l.N. 
Mercury pass mer. Oh. 53m. 
Venus pass mer. 21h. 28m. 
Mars pass mer. 21h. 59m. 
Jupiter pass mer. llh. SIol 
Saturn pass mer. 23h. 5^nL 
Uranus pass mer. Oh. 20m. 
Clock before the © Om. 78. 
D rises 6h. 23m. A. 
D pass mer. Mom. 
D sets 5h. 21m. 
35 ^ in conj. with Ceres, diff. of 

dec 6. 44. N. 
35 Ecliptic oppo. or % full moon . 
OccuL n Libra, em. llh. 36in. 

im. 12h. 23m. 
OccuL • Libra, em. 17h. 17m. 
im. 18h. 20m. 
21 %*8 second tat will em. 
Juno stationary 
6 %*s first sat will em. 
Clock after the Im. 4s. 
. D rises Mom. 
2> pass mer. 3h. 43m. M. 
2> sets 7h. 56m. M. 
35 %*8 first sat will em. 
20 }^ in conj. with the 
.46 It's third sat will em. 

28 ^ in Perihelion. 

39 $ greatest hel. lat N. 
58 D in D or last quarter 

Clock after the 2m: 4s. 

]) rises 3h. 2m. M. . 

2> pass. mer. 7h. 48^1., M. 

D sets Oh. 40m. A. 

]) in Apogee • . ^ . ^ 

23 $ in conj. with the ]> di£Elofdec^ 

2.58. N. 
50 ^ in conj. with the ]> diff. of dec 

3. 27. N. 

56 g greatest elong. 20. 81. E. 

29 IJL's first sat will em. 
48 Vesta stationary 

44 }y in conj. with the J) di£ of 

dec. 2. 56. N. 
55 ^ in conj. with the ^ diff. of dec. 

4. 49. N. 

J. LEWTHWAITE, Rotherhithe. 



THE 



LONDON JOURNAL, 

AND 

REPERTORY 

OP 

avw, ^citnctti, anm iWanufacturcjaf^ 



CONJOINED SERIES, 



No. CCXXXIII. 



ADDRESS. 



Thirty years have now passed away since the commencement 
of this Journal, and sixty volumes of records of discoveries, 
appertaining to the arts and sciences, are the result of our 
labors. Of these discoveries by far the greater portion has 
found protection under letters patent, — the publication of the 
specifications of which was originally, and has, up to the pre- 
sent time, formed a prominent feature of the work. "We are 
now, however, on the advent of a period which, from its unex- 
ampled character, seems to demand of us a special recognition; 
inasmuch as it presents, in a marked manner, a landing place 
in our progress to the culminating point to which our labors 
have ever tended ; for, if we have done ought deserving remark, 
it has been to diffuse information respecting the many abstruse 
problems connected with the industrial arts, — the triumphant 
solution of which the assembled representatives of the world 
are about to commemorate. It is therefore our intention, for 
a short time, to depart from our usual practice of noticing the 
progress of invention, by reference to that unfailing source of 
information designated " recent patents,^^ and to devote our 
attention to an analytical examination of those triumphs of 
mind over matter, which will be displayed in the Great Exhi- 
bition of the Industrial Products of all Nations. In doing 
this we feel that not only shall we be strictly following put the 
original design of this work, but that we shall be performing a 
duty, which the support received for so long a period from the 
manufacturing community in a measure imposes upon us. 
With the view, therefore, of carrying out this Herculean labor 

2 o 



818 ADDRESS. 

in a manner commensurate with the expectations which the 
supposed facilities within our reach are calculated to give rise 
to, and, iudeed, to do honor to the host of exhibitors^ both 
British and Foreign, by putting on permanent record the state 
of the industrial arts in the year 1851, the services of several 
gentlemen, intimately acquainted with practical science, have 
been secured ; who, together with our ordinary staff of con- 
tributors, will each examine the department with which he is 
most familiar. By thus bringing many discriminating minds 
to bear on the several departments of the Exhibition, it is 
confidently expected that, besides ensuring accuracy of detail 
in whatever is described, an effectual bar will be put to the 
inadvertent or ignorant notice of plausible mediocrity, to the 
exclusion of intrinsic merit. A further advantage, which it is 
hoped may arise from this arrangement, will be, that — by the 
collation of observations emanating from different minds, di- 
rected to one and the same object — many valuable hints may 
be offered to manufacturers for the improvement of one branch 
of the arts, by the adaptation thereto of some plan or process 
employed in another. It is almost needless to add, that not 
only will the department Machinery find its qualified repre- 
sentatives, but that Chemistry as applied to the arts. Raw 
Materials, Decorative Art, and, in fact, every branch 
of industry, will also be fully and efficiently reported. 

The plan which, on mature consideration, has been adopted, 
will differ widely from that which is suited to, and generally 
pursued by, the daily and weekly press; for, inasmuch as 
such publications are not intended for a permanent place in 
the library, their notices, although often copious, and pre- 

[)ared by men of undoubted talent, assume a sketchy or popa- 
ar character; and are therefore serviceable only so far as 
they lead the reader to examine and judge for himself. Oar 
intention is, on the contrary, to note the steps which have 
led to the present advance in the various branches of practical 
science, and to illustrate our remarks by instancing such ap- 
propriate examples as the Exhibition may afford ; whereby we 
shall record the labors of the most meritorious exhibitors^ 
while, at the same time, we are offering a series of essays on 
the industrial arts, which it is presumed may afford instruction 
to the general public, and not prove altogether unprofitable 
to the skilful practitioner. 



RECENT PATENTS. 



To Charles Caobt, of Liqtwrpond'Street, in the county of 
Middlesex, piano-forte maker, for improvements in stringed 
mvsical instruments. — [Sealed 12th August, 1850.] 

This invention relates to a novel mode of adapting the sound- 
board to piano-fortes ; and also to a mode or modes of re- 
lieving the sound-board from the downward pressure of the 
strings ; and it is equally applicable to all the various con- 
structions of piano-fortes^ and to other stringed musical 
instruments. 

The ordinary mode of adapting the sound-board to piano- 
fortes is by glueing it to the heavy wooden framing of the 
instrument ; and the effect of this is to destroy that brilliancy 
of tone which the strings are capable of producing. This 
defect the patentee considers to arise from the fact that the 
sound-board is not strained tight ; and he has therefore de- 
vised a plan of effecting this object. According to this new 
arrangement, the sound-board is secured to the framework 
solely by metal clamps, in such a manner as to admit of its 
being strained or tightened when desired, and removed from 
the instrument when required. This is the case with the 
most approved construction of instruments; but, in the 
cheaper kinds of instruments, where economy is an object, the 
patentee glues the sound-board, at one end or throughout a 
portion of one end, to the wooden framing, as formerly, 
and sustains it at the opposite end by clamps, which admit of 
its being strained tightly, as in the former instance. 

In Plate XIII., fig. 1, represents a front view, and fig. 2, a 
back view of the internal part of a cabinet piano-forte, con- 
structed according to the present invention, a, is the sound- 
board, which is free all round, and is suspended at both ends 
by the clamps a, a, a. All the clamps at one end of the 
board, and some of them at the opposite end, are connected 
by screws and screw-nuts to metal bars b, b, b, which are 
bolted to the main framing. The remaining portion of the 
clamps a, a, a, are secured to the wooden framing, as at c, c, c. 

When the sound-board is strained tight, an increased 
brilliancy of tone is the result. The clamps a, a, are shewn 
detached, and upon an enlarged scale, at figs. 3, and 4; — ^fig. 

2 o 2 



820 Recent Patents. 

S, being a partial sectional view of one of the clamps used at 
the lower or bass part of the sound-board^ and fig. 4^ a par- 
tial section of another form of clamp^ such as is shewn in fig. 
1 , at the upper or treble part of the instrument. They are 
precisely similar in principle of construction^ although some- 
what different in form. The clamp shewn at fig. 3^ consists 
of two lugs 1^ 1, which are connected to one end of a flat bar 
of steel 2 ; the opposite end of which terminates in a round 
pin 3^ which is screwed and furnished with a nut A, and 
washer. The two ends of the sound-board^ whereby it is 
suspended, are provided, both above and below, with thin 
strips of wood b, b, b, as strengthening pieces. These pieces 
are firmly glued to the sound-board, and are embraced by 
the lugs 1, 1, of the clamps, and are further held by the 
screw or screws 6, which pass through the strengthening 
pieces and sound-board. The clamp shewn at fig. 4, being 
very similar in construction to that shewn at fig. 3, no de- 
tailed description thereof will be required. Both these clamps 
are furnished with screws and nuts, which admit of the sound- 
board being strained or tightened to any desired amount. 
The clamps a*, a*, a*, at the part c, c, are not adjustable: 
they merely consist of lugs attached to flat pieces of steel, 
which are secured to the main wooden framing, by screws or 
otherwise, as shewn at fig. 1. The sound-board is therefore 
held firmly by these clamps, while the straining or tightening 
process is effected by means of the tightening screws at the 
opposite side. It will be easily understood that, by means of 
these tightening screws, an immense strain can be put, not 
only on the sound-board, but on the framing, which has to 
resist the pressure of the bars b, b ; and as this strain is all 
on one side of the framing, it has been found desirable to 
counteract the strain of the clamps a, a, a, by means of rods on 
the opposite side of the framing, as shewn at d, d, d, fig. 2. 
The ends of these rods are screwed and furnished with nuts d, 
and pass through holes made in the end upright posts of the 
wooden framing ; so that by screwing up the nuts d, J, -a 
counteracting strain, in opposition to that of the sound-board, 
is put on the framing, which will therefore preserve its original 
form. The rods o, are also made to rest upon the bridge- 
pieces e, e, By which keep them back from the wooden fram- 
ing, and allow the ends of the rods to have a fair pull, in 
opposition to the strain of the clamps. Vertical tie-rods £, e, 
are also employed to counteract the tension of the strings; 
but .this forms no part of the present invention. 
. At fig. 5, the improved suspension principle is shewn, ap- 



Cadbt/'Sy for Impts. in Stringed Musical Instruments, d2I 

plied to the sound-board of a grand piano-forte. It will be 
seen^ as in the former instance^ that the sound-board is free 
or open all rounds and is suspended at the two ends by clamps, 
with adjusting screws for straining it tight when required. 
The difference between this figure and those above described, 
being principally in form, it will not be necessary to enter 
into a detailed description thereof. 

When the patentee permanently attaches the sound-board 
to the wooden iraming, by means of glue or otherwise, in 
order to effect an economy, and yet retain the advantages re- 
sulting from his invention, it is the curved part marked c, c, c, 
fig. 1, which he permanently attaches to the wooden framing. 
A beneficial effect is produced, and the straining or tightening 
operation may be effected even when the sound-board is only 
semi-detached, as above explained ; but in all superior instru- 
ments it is preferred to completely detach the sound-board, 
and merely suspend it from the framing by metallic attach- 
ment. 

Instead of employing clamps with adjustable screws for 
suspending the sound-board, the inventor sometimes uses 
simple lugs, to the hinder part of which small pulleys or an- 
tifriction wheels 7, 7, are adapted, as shewn in the detached 
views, figs. 6, and 7. 

In place of the adjusting screws and nuts of fig. 3, the in- 
ventor employs straight pins 8, 8, such as those used for holding 
the strings of the instrument. These pins are inserted in a 
wooden bar or beam e, which forms part of the framing, and 
a strong wire 9, is secured to these pins, and is made to pass 
round the antifriction wheels or pulleys 7, of the lugs; so 
that, by turning the pins 8, 8, the wire 9, is wound thereon, 
and, by pulling back the lugs, the tightening or straining of 
the sound-board is effected. 

The sound-board is sometimes suspended at one end by 
non-adjustable metallic attachments, such as those shewn at 
c, c, figs. 1, and 2, or by connecting it to one single bar, ex- 
tending the whole length of one end of the sound-board, — the 
adjustable clamps being all placed at the opposite end thereof. 

It has been found by experience that the strain of the strings 
or wires, if not counteracted, will affect the sonorousness of 
the suspended sound-board. This deterioration in the quality 
of the tone of the instrument is due to the heavy pressure of 
the strings on the bridge-pieces, which are glued or secured 
on the upper side of the sound-board. To obviate this is the 
object of the second part of the invention. 

It is well known that the strings of a piano-forte pass from 
the pin-plate to the bridge-piece on the sound-board^ and 



822 Recent Patents. 

from thence across the sound-board to the tuning-pins at 
the opposite side. Now the bridge-piece is usually shghtly 
elevated, so that, when the strings pass over it, they are bent 
out of a straight line ; and, when the number of the strings is 
taken into consideration, it will be easily conceived that the 
amount of downward pressure on the sound-board is very 
considerable, and tends very much to restrict the freedom of 
its action. This objection the patentee meets, by causing 
every alternate string, or set of strings, to pull the sound- 
board upwards, inst^id of allowing all the strings to force or 
press it downwards. Several plans of effecting this object are 
shewn in the drawings ; but reference to one will serve to ex- 
plain the principle of action of all the arrangements. 

Fig. 8, shews in section a part of the sound-board of a 
piano-forte, and some of the other parts adjacent thereto, a, 
IS the sound-board ; and 6, is the bridge-piece for supporting 
the strings. This bridge-piece is, as usual, glued down on the 
face of the board ; but, instead of all the strings passing over 
the top, and pressing it downwards, as is now the case, the 
bridge is made a little higher than usual, and the strings are 
passed through holes u^ade therein, and from thence to the 
tuning-pins at the opposite end. One end of the strings is 
secured, as usual, to pins 77, p, in the pin-plate e, and they 
are passed through holes made in T-pieces ^, which are screwed 
into the plate s. The holes in the T-pieces are not on the 
saipe level, that is, one is higher than the other; so that when 
the strings or wires are passed through these, they reach the 
bridge at an angle, as shewn in the figure. It will therefore 
be seen that the lower wire will press the bridge b, downwards, 
while the upper wire will have a tendency to draw it upwards ; 
and these two opposing forces being equal, the injurious 
downward pressure, above refeired to^ will be in a great measure 
prevented. 

The patentee claims. First, — suspending the sound-board 
of piano-fortes, or other stringed musical instruments, by 
means of adjustable clamps,, screws, or other equivalent 
mechanical contrivances, whereby the sound-board may be 
strained or tightened when desired, and the brilliancy of the 
tone may be thereby increased. He also claims the use of 
the rods n, d, for the purpose of counteracting or resisting 
the tension of the strained sound-board on the wooden or 
other framing of the instrument. And, Secondly, — he claims 
the method shewn at fig. 8, or any mere modification thereof, 
for relieving the sound-board of piano-fortes or other stringed 
instruments from the downward pressure of th^ strings. — 



[ 323 ] 

To Cyprien Theodore Tifpereau, of Paris, in the Re- 
public of Prance, Gent., for certain improvements in Ay- 
draulic clocks. — [Sealed 3rd October, 1850.] 

This inycDtion relates to certain improvements in hydraulic 
clocks, the principal feature of which consists in the use of a 
syphon, set on a float or '^ floating board,^^ for the discharge 
of the water, whereby the passing of time is indicated. 

In Plate XIV., fig. 1, is a vertical section of one of the im- 
proved hydrauUc clocks, a, is the vessel containing the water, 
which is to be gradually discharged therefrom by means of 
the syphon b. One end of this syphon is affixed to a float c, 
which rests on the water in the vessel a; and the other end 
of the syphon descends into a tube d, in the centre of the 
vessel a, through which the water is discharged into the vessel 
e, that forms the base of the clock. By this means, the posi- 
tion of the discharging end of the syphon, relatively to the 
level of the water in the vessel a, will always be the same ; 
and thus a uniform discharge will be ensured. A small cup 
or bowl /, is attached to each end of the syphon, in such 
manner that the same can be raised or lowered, for the purpose 
of regulating the quantity of water discharged in a given 
time, ff, is a case which encloses the upper part of the sy- 
phon. A glass tube is attached to and communicates with 
the interior of the vessel a, so that the level of the water 
therein can always be seen ; and the continual depression of 
auch water-level (by the discharge of water through the syphon) 
may be caused to indicate the lapse of time by fixing a suitably- 
graduated scale at the side of the glass tube. Or the passing 
of time may be indicated by connecting a needle or index to 
the upper part of the syphon b, in such manner that, as the 
syphon descends, the needle will pass in front of a graduated 
scale on the exterior of the case g. Or a rack may be affixed 
to the top of the syphon and gear into a toothed wheel, the 
spindle of which carries an index or hand, placed in front of 
a circular dial, having the hours and minutes marked thereon ; 
and thereby the descent of the syphon will cause the hand to 
travel round the dial and point out the time. 

In order to refill the vessel a, when nearly the whole of the 
water has been discharged therefrom, it is removed from the 
vessel e, and placed on a suitable stand; and the water is then 
poured from the vessel e, into the vessel a, through an opening 
in the top of the latter, until it is level with the same hour or 
graduation at the upper part of the scale as that with which it 
previously coincided at the lower part of the same. The 



324 Recent Patents. 

water which is discharged throagh the syphon daring the 
process of refilling must also be poured into the vessel a ; and, 
after it has been observed to what extent it elevates the water 
level, double such quantity (as ascertained by referring to the 
graduations of the scale) must be drawn off by a small cock 
from the vessel a; as otherwise the time indicated by the 
apparatus would be proportionably behind the real time. 

Fig. 2, is a front elevation of another improved hydraulic 
clock, and fig. 3 is a vertical section thereof, taken at right 
angles to fig. 2. a, is the vessel that contains the water to 
be discharged, b, is a syphon (shewn separately at fig. 4), 
one end of which passes through the top of the vessel a, and 
is fixed to the float c, and the other end descends into the 
tube d : in this case, the cups or bowls are dispensed with ; 
and the quantity of water discharged by the syphon is regu- 
lated by a cock at h. The lower end of the tube d, is of a 
conical form ; and from it the water drops into a funnel-shaped 
syphon i, carried by a lever /, which is provided at the oppo- 
site end with a counterbalance weight k. As the water accu- 
mulates in the syphon i, its weight depresses that end of the 
lever y, until it rests on the support / ; .then, on the level of the 
water in the cup of such syphon rising above the bend in the 
stem thereof, it will be caused to act in the ordinary manner 
of a syphon and discharge the whole of the water which it 
contains ; and the weight at that end of the lever being thereby 
reduced, it will be raised again by the weight k. The alter- 
nating-movements of the lever y, are communicated, by means 
of a cord or rod m, to a lever n, which turns on a pivot at o, 
and carries a click or driver p, that takes into the teeth of a 
ratchet-wheel q ; so that such wheel will be caused to turn by 
intermitting impulses, corresponding with the oscillations of 
the lever/, (being prevented from running back by a pawl r,); 
and the motion of this wheel will be communicated by a smt- 
able train of clockwork to the hands s, t, by which the time is 
pointed out upon the dial u. 

It is stated that apparatus, constructed according to this 
invention, may be used for measuring the flow of liquids and 
the contents of vessels of different forms. 

In conclusion, the patentee says, '' I claim, as secured to 
me by the said recited letters patent. First, — the application 
and use of the syphon set on a floating board, producing a 
constant and regular flowing out of liquor, adapted to give 
the proper motion to an hydraulic chronometer or time-piece. 
Secondly, — I claim the application and use of the syphon- 
bowl, [i, figs. 2, and 3,] which is set flowing by the peculiarity 



Newtof^Sy for Impts. in Cutting Types, 8fC. 825 

of its configaratioiiy and gives directly a swinging motion by 
filling up and emptying itself, producing uniform intermitting 
strokes as hereinbefore described — ^which . apparatus is also 
employed in the construction of another species of hydraulic 
time-piece. Thirdly, — I claim the application and use of the 
bowls or cups, which I adjust to both branches or arms of the 
syphon, and which, at the same time that they regulate the 
flowing oat, keep up constantly the running-off action of the 
syphon. And, lastly, — I claim the application and use of all 
the several applications hereinbefore described.^' — [Inrolled 
April, 1851.] 

To Alfred Vincent Newton, of /A« Office for Patents, 66, 
Chancery-lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical 
draughtsman, for improvements in cutting types and other 
irregular figures, — being a commuidcation. — £Sealed 29th 
August, I860.] 

This invention relates to an improved arrangement of machi« 
nery whereby large types or letters may be cut or formed, in 
wood or other materials, with greater faciUty and expedition 
than is now the case. The machine whereby this is effected 
ean also be employed for cutting various other kinds of ir« 
regular forms, either in wood or stone, and will be found pe- 
culiarly appUcable for cutting tracery and gothic work, and 
all kinds of curved or excentric mouldings. It is also capable 
of catting letters, forms, and figures, of various sizes, from the 
same pattern : that is, it may not only be employed, for pro- 
ducing an article of the same size as the pattern, but also fac- 
similes thereof on a reduced scale. 

In this improved machine the cutting-tool is mounted in a 
stationary bearing, which is capable of adjustment in a vertical 
direction, to bring the tool to the proper position for operating 
apon the wooden block below. By this means the rotary 
motion of the cutting-tool is rendered much more steady and 
accurate than in the ordinary carving machines, wherein an 
exoentric traversing motion is given to the cutter. The block 
of wood to be operated upon is secured upon a bed, which has 
a compound traverse motion imparted to it, for the purpose 
(rf enabling any part of the block which it carries to be brought 
under the cutting-tool. Besides this compound horizontal 
motion, the bed is, for some purposes, mounted in such a 
manner that it may be moved vertically in guides ; as will be 
necessary for cutting or carving bas-reUefs, or figures with 
uneven Gt irregular surfaces ; but this vertical motion is not 



826 RecefU Patenii. 

Tery freqaently required for cuttiDg such simple forms as types 
or letters. All the requisite motions are communicated to the 
bed by a rectangular frame, oonstmcted upon tbe principle of 
the pentagraph, and consisting of four or more bars, jointed 
together, and connected at one comer to the bed, and carrying 
at the opposite end a tracer or point, which, when moved over 
the Burraee of the pattern, communicates a corresponding 
motion to the bed and Mock at the opposite end of the 
pentagrapb. In addition to the horizontal pentagraph, above- 
mentioncxl, there is also a second pentagraph, which, being 
placed vertically, and connected to tbe same centre, and the 
same part of the bed, as the horizontal pentagraph, will com- 
municate to the bed and block a vertical motion, corresponding 
to tbe motion of the tracing-point at the opposite end of the 
pentagraph. 

In Plate XIV., is exhibited a machine, which is applicable 
not only to the cutting out of types or letters, in wood or other 
materials, but also to the producing of various other irregular 
forms, such as gun-stocks, saw-handles, bas-reliefs, and other 
figures with irregular surfaces. Fig. 1, represents, in side 
elevation, the improved machine complete, and in the opera- 
tion of cutting out a wooden type or letter ; fig. 2, is a plan 
view ; and fig. 3, is an end elevation of the same, a, a, is a 
table, to which the framing of the machine is firmly secured. 
An upright standard b, carries the bearing-frame c, in which 
the rotary stock c, of the cutting-tool d, is mounted. The 
bearing-frame c, is capable of a vertical motion in the guides 
e, e, of the standards; but its lowest position during the 
cutting or carving of any piece of work, is determined by a 
regulating-screw h, which works in a lug in the upper part of 
the standard b. The frame c, is capable of being raised (to 
lifk the cutting-tool out of contact with its work) by means of 
a hand-lever/, which has its fulcrum at ff: this hand-lever is 
connected to the frame c, by the screwed connecting-rod h*. 
The block of wood e, to be operated i:qK>n, is secured to the 
sliding- bed n, by a screw-clampj, whidi presses it tight against 
a shoulder or raised part of the bed. The bed d, has a hori- 
zontal motion longitudinally on the guides ifc, k, and a trans^ 
verse motion on the guides /, /; so that, by this comlnnation^ 
a horizontal motion in any direction can be obtained. The 
moveable bed d, with its guides, is mounted on the upper end 
of a vertical T-piece m, m, which slides in vertical guides n, n; 
and the weight of the bed and its appendages is counter- 
balanced by a weighted rocking-lever o, o, the shorter end of 
which is inserted in ar dot made in the T-pieoe m. The pat- 



Newton^ s, for Impts. in Cutting Types, SfC, S27 

tern to be copied is secared by clamps and screws on an 
adjustable bed or plate e, which may be secured at any point 
along the long iron frame f. Four bars p, p, p, p, of equal 
lengthy and two shorter bars p*, p*, constitute a horizontal 
pentagraph-frame; which has its centre of motion at G,and is 
connected at one end by a compound or universal joint to the 
sliding-bed d^ and at its opposite end carries a tracing^point f^ 
fig. 1 : which pointy as it is moved over the ^irface of the 
pattern, ccnnmunicates a corresponding motion to the bed n, 
and block under the cutting-tool. In order that the tracing** 
point may be moved over the pattern with facility, the tracer- 
end of the pentagraph-frame is furnished with a band-lever r, 
which is jointed at one end to the horizontal arm or lever s. 

It will be seen that the rotary stock c, of the cutting-tool 
is furnished with a band-wheel or pulley, and that motion is 
communicated thereto by a band or strap t, from any prime 
mover. When the cutting operation is to be performed, the 
cutting-tool is caused to rotate ; and, by means of the luind- 
lever/, it is brought down into contact with the block;-— the 
proper distance for the frame c, to descend, having be«i 
previously regulated by the screw h. The tracing-point ia 
now drawn round the edges of the pattern (supposing it to 
be a letter that is to be cut), and the pentagraph-frame is 
thereby caused to move the bed and block about under the 
tool in a corresponding manner ; and thus a counterpart or 
copy of the pattern letter will be cut out on the block. For 
very simple work, only the above motions will be required; 
but for more elaborate work, such as bas-reliefs, gothic tracery^ 
and similar articles, it is necessary that the bed n, and block 
should be capable of receiving a vertical as well as horizontal 
motion ; and, for this purpose, the vertical pentagraph-frame 
u, u, tt, is combined with the horizontal pentagraph-frame 
above described. This frame u, u, u, is connected to the 
same centre of motion* o, as the frame p, p, and is also con*^ 
nected at one end to that joint of the frame p, which carries 
the tvac^, and at the opposite end to the joint whereby the 
frame p, is connected to the sliding-bed d. It will be seen 
that the centre o, of the two frames p, p, and «, tt, is so 
mounted as to allow, these frames to rock when the tracer is 
moved over an uneven or undulating surface oi the pattern* 
By this means the block on the bed d, at the other end of 
the pentagraph-frames, is not only moved horizontally, but is 
raised or lowered in a degree corresponding to the vertical 
motions of the tracer. It has been found, by experience, that 
in cutting out letters or flat surfaces it is most convenient to 



828 Eecent Patents. 

follow the outline of the pattern; but, for bas-reliefs or 
irregular candug, it will be found advisable to trace straight 
across the pattern in horizontal parallel lines. In order to 
facilitate this operation^ an adjusting screw v, is adapted to 
the back of the hand-lever r, fig. 2 ; and^ by turning this 
adjusting screw an eighth, a quarter, a half, or a whole turn, 
after every traverse of the tracer across the pattern, the dis- 
tance between the parallel lines traced by the point over the 
pattern, and those cut by the tool on the block, is regulated 
with facility and accuracy. A weight nr, is connected by 
means of a cord to the end of the lever r, for the purpose ol 
facilitating the working of this part of the machine. It will 
be evident to all persons conversant with the construction and 
use of pentagraphs, that by merely altering the position of 
the working joints i, 2, 3, 4, and 5, along the bars of the pen- 
tagraph-framesy and placing the pins in other holes, the size 
of the article to be produced by the cutting-tool may be varied, 
without changing the pattern ; and that, therefore, one large 
pattern of, for example, a wood letter, is all that is required 
for all sizes, from the largest to the smallest, of that particular 
letter. The mouldings or edges round the letter may also be 
considerably varied in appearance by merely changing the 
form of the cutting-tool. Athough, for the purpose of avoid- 
ing complexity in the drawings, but one cutting-tool is shewn, 
yet it will be obvious that two or more cutting-tools may be 
employed ; as it will only be necessary to lengthen the bed, 
so as to receive an additional number of blocks, which will all 
be moved simultaneously by the same pentagraph-frame. 

The patentee states that he does not intend to confine him- 
self rigidly to the above arrangement or construction of parts, 
as they may be varied without departing from the nature and 
object of the invention. He claims. First, — the adaptation to 
the moveable bed d, (which carries the block or blocks to be 
operated on by the cutting-tool or tools) of an arrangement 
of levers constructed on the well-known principle of the pen- 
tagraph ; whereby the motions of the said bed under the 
cutting-tool or tools may be made to correspond ta the motions 
of a point or tracer over the surface of a pattern placed at the 
opposite end of the frame. Second, — the combination of the 
horizontal and vertical pentagraph-frames with a bed mounted 
in vertical as well as on horizontal guides, whereby not only 
a horizontal but a vertical motion may be communicated to 
the bed and block. — [Inrolled February, 1861.] 



i 829 ] 

To Jacob Connop, of Hyde-park, in the county of Middle^ 
sex, Gent., for improvements in melting, moulding, and 
casting sand, earth, and argillaceous substances, for paving, 
building, and various other useful purposes, — [Sealed 10th 
July, 1850.] 

At the commeDcement of the specification of this patent, the 

fatentee says, '^ whereas, since obtaining the said letters patent^ 
have ascertained that the earth and argillaceous substances, 
mentioned in the title of the said letters patent, is not of suf- 
ficient utility to induce me to retain the exclusive use to the 
same under my said letters patent ; and it is my intention, 
therefore, to obtain leave to enter a Disclaimer and Memo- 
randum of Alteration of so much of the said title and letters 
patent as is expressed by the words earth and argillaceous 
substances/' He proceeds to state, that the melting of sand 
with fluxes for making glass, and the casting and moulding 
of the same into various articles (chiefly for holding liquids 
and solids and for ornament), are well known ; but the appli- 
cation of sand, when fused or melted with the other ordinary 
materials for glass-making, and when cast into suitable moulds 
and annealed, as hereafter described, as a manufacture appli- 
cable to the same purposes as the ordinary paving and build- 
ing materials — such as paving slabs, bricks, blocks of various 
shapes, steps, shelves, and slabs, suitable for use in building 
houses or other works, where bricks or stones and marbles are 
now used ; and such as rings, arches, inverts, or pipes, for 
drains and sewers and conveying liquids along streets and 
land— is new, and is the invention of improvements in melt- 
ing, moulding, and casting sand for paving, building, and 
various other useful purposes, which he claims. The anneal- 
ing process partially re-melts the moulded article, and converts 
the same into an opaque substance, of sufficient tenacity and 
freedom from brittleness to render it applicable to and useful 
for paving and building purposes. 

The sand and accompanying fusing materials, used in car- 
rying out this invention, are of a coarse and cheap descrip- 
tion, — such as are suitable for making the commonest kind 
of glass ; and the proportions thereof are those usually adopted 
in the manufacture of coarse glass of a dense character. The 
furnaces and pots are the same as those employed in making 
bottle-glass. The process of melting, both as regards time 
and fuel, is conducted as usual in manufacturing coarse glass. 
The implements for removing the melted materials from the 
pots, and for casting and pressing the same into moulds^ are 



830 Recent Patents. 

to be of the ordinary description. The moulds are made of 
Baitable shapes ; and the melted materials are cast and pressed 
therein in the manner commonly practised in the manufacture 
of glass. The articles thus formed are to be carefully and 
thoroughly annealed in a suitable annealing oyen. The pa- 
tentee states^ that he has conducted the annealing process in 
the following manner : — ^The articles^ while yet in a soft and 
ductile state, are placed in an oven or kiln, heated to the same 
degree as the articles themselves ; and they are surrounded 
with white sand, pounded chalk, or other cementing sub- 
stance, in a heated state, — each article being kept separate 
from its neighbour. The articles are subjected to the action 
of a strong heat, approaching a white heat, for several hours; 
and when, on inspection, the glass is found to have changed 
in color to a dull drab, or brown, or white, the oven is gra- 
dually and carefully cooled down, — which will occupy about 
twenty-four hours. The oven should be of the shape and 
nature of a potter's oven, having only one chimney or outlet 
for the smoke : the patentee finds this form of oven to be 
best adapted to keep up an equal heat in all parts, and capable 
of being very gradually cooled down. When the articles are 
removed from the annealing oven, they will be found to be 
devitrified and fit for use as paving and building materials, 
and for sewers and drains, and for conveying liquids along 
streets and land. 

The patentee states, that he does not claim the exclusive 
use of the several processes hereinbefore described and referred 
to, when taken separately, or except when employed in and 
for the manufacture of articles suitable for paving, building, 
and similar purposes ; and he declares his invention to con- 
sist in the manufacture of articles, suitable for paving, build- 
ing, and other similar purposes, from sand, by melting, mould- 
ing, casting, and treating the same as above described. — 
[InroUed January, 1851.] 



To Thomas Hoskins Howels, of AmeUa-row, Landport, 
Portsea, in the county of Hants, ffunner, for improvements 
in gun-carriages. — [SeiJed 12th December, 1850.] 

This invention consists in certain improvements in gun-car- 
riages, for the purpose of mounting broadside guns, of any 
calibre or weight at present adopted in the royal navy, without 
the aid of slides. 
- In Plate XY., fig. 1, is a side view of a 68-pounder gan, 



HoweWjfor Impts. in Gun-carriages, 881 

mounted on a carriage constructed according to this invention ; 
fig. 2, is a plan view of the carriage ; and fig. 3, exhibits a 
rear end view of the carriage, with the rear trucks as they 
would appear when training the gun " muzzle to the right.^^ 
a, is the fore axletree of the carriage, provided with two trucks 
or wheels b. The rear axletree c, extends outwards to a 
greater distance beyond the sides of the carriage; and th« 
projecting ends thereof have each a cylindrical bole or socket 
formed through the same, to receive the spindle or stem of the 
forked piece d, that carries the pin or axis of each hind truck 
6. The top of each spindle or stem bears against the under 
side of a lever f, which is connected to the rear axletree by a 
hooked pin g ; so that when such levers are retained in the 
lowest position (as shewn at a, in figs. 1, and 2), by passing 
the same under the hook or catch h, the weight of the rear end 
of the carriage will rest upon the stems d, and consequently 
upon the trucks e ; but when such levers are caused to assume 
the elevated position shewn at b, in figs. 1, and 2, by releasing 
the same from the catch h, and placing the outer end of each 
on the hooked support i, the weight of the rear end of the 
carriage will no longer be borne by the trucks e, (which are 
now, as it is termed^ " detached,^') but will rest upon the 
friction -platesj, which will then come in contact with the deck. 

Gun-carriages^ of this improved construction, possess a 
decided advantage over the common gun-carriages, when 
training; for the spindles or stems^ revolving freely in the 
rear axletree, are instantly brought to the angle required to 
facilitate the training or running in or out (whereas the trucks 
of the old carriages impede the training) ; and they only re- 
quire to be " detached ^' when firing with high charges^ or in 
the case of weather guns, " when the ship has much heel,'^ 
which is easily done by Nos. 3, and 4, [two of the men en- 
gaged in working the gun] when the gun is nearly '^ laid '^ 
for the object. After the gun has recoiled on the friction- 
plates^ and is in the *' loading position,'^ at the order " load/' 
Nos. 7, and 8, bear down upon the levers f, and force them 
under the catches h ; and the weight of the rear of the gun 
will again be thrown on the rear trucks, ready for running 
out at the order. Should the levers, spindles^ or rear trucks, 
be shot away, the carriage can be easily worked on the fore 
trucks and friction-plates, — using, if necessary, a rdiler hand- 
spike to assist in running out, or a common pair of wheels 
and axle, as at present. 

The advantages resulting from constructing gun-carriages 
in the manner above described are. First, — that, as the ordinary 



332 Recent Patents. 

slides are dispensed with^ the gangway is left perfectly clear 
for working the ship, except when the gun is run in for load- 
ing ; Secondly, — that^ as the improved carriages are of less 
weight than the common ones^ the ports can be made closer 
together and more guns used in a broadside ; Thirdly, — the 
guns are worked with less tackling and gear than usual; and, 
Fourthly, — they cost less than the common gun-carriages and 
slides. — [Inrolled April, 1851.] 



To John Beattie, of Liverpool, in the county of Lancaster j 
engineer, for certain improvements in steering vessels, — 
[Sealed 5th September, 1850.] 

This invention consists in a peculiar construction of the 
rudder and some of its appendages, whereby the propeller 
may be placed beyond the rudder, by passing the shi^ of the 
propeller directly through the rudder and through the stem- 
post, in the common line of the centre of the vessel. 

The advantages proposed to be derived from this invention 
are a more free and perfect action of the rudder ; the relief 
of the stuffing-boxes of the propelling-shaft from lateral 
strain ; the prevention of the great noise and tremor which 
usually takes place from the rotation of what are called 
" screw propellers f and the more efficient action of the pro- 
peller. This arrangement also admits of propellers of differ- 
ent diameters being adapted to the vessel. 

In Plate XIV., fig. 1, represents, in side view, the rudder, 
with the propelling-shaft carried through the same, a, and 
B, indicate the rudder, formed in two parts, which are con- 
nected together by being firmly affixed to the rudder-post 
c, c. Through the middle of the rudder-post a hole is made, 
of the form shewn at fig. 2 ; which allows of the free action 
of the rudder when the propelling-shaft d, is passed through 
the rudder-post. A strong iron frame e, e, e, affixed verti- 
cally to the keel at the stern of the vessel, embraces and 
carries the rudder a, b, which is hung upon hinges or centres, 
and is worked by the ordinary apparatus above, attached to 
the top of the ruader-post c. The propelling-shaft d, d, con- 
nected to the working parts of the steam-engine within the 
vessel, is to be carried straight in the line of the vessel through 
a stuffing-box in the fore part of the stem-frame, — ^through 
the divided parts of the rudder, — and through and some dis- 
tance beyond a bearing in the hinder part of the stem-frame. 
To the outer end of the propelliiig-shaift, the boss f, (carrying 



Bernard^ 8, for Impts. in Pneumatic Springs, 8fC. 338 

the vanes or paddles g, g,) 19 to be keyed ; and which (being 
altogether on the outside oiT the frame) may be attached or 
detached with the greatest facility. 

It will be understood that by this construction and ar- 
rangement, the rudder may be worked to any obliquity with- 
out interfering with the propelUng-shaft or the propeller; 
and the greatest effect of the propeller may be obtained under 
all positions of the rudder, — owing to the propelling-vanes 
being removed to a situation beyond the rudder and stem- 
post, — and thereby relieved from the friction and resistance of 
the water, which would otherwise be operating against their 
efficient propelling force. 

The patentee claims the so forming the rudder that the 
shaft of a screw or spiral propeller may be passed through 
the rudder and rudder-post, for the purpose of placing the 
rudder before the propeller, and thereby effecting an improve- 
ment in steering vessels. — [Inrolled March, 1851.] 



To Julian Bernard, of Btu;hanan-street, in the City of 
Glasgow, N.B,, artist, for improvements in pneumatic 
springs, buffers, pumps, and stuffing-boxes. — [Sealed 4th 
October, 1850.] 

This invention relates to the application of a flexible tube or 
tubes in the construction or formation of springs, buffers, 
pumps, stuffing-boxes, and other mechanism ; and it consists 
in the adaptation of such flexible tubes so that one or both 
ends of the tube shall fold inside or outside the remaining 
length of tube, in such a manner as to offer peculiar facilities 
for expanding or contracting the space within the tube, when 
used as a transmitting cylinder or for other purposes. 

Two examples are given of the application of this invention 
— ^first, to a hydrostatic press, and, secondly, to a buffer for a 
railway carriage. 

In Plate XIII., fig. 1, is a vertical section of a hydrostatic 
press, constructed according to this invention, a, is a metal 
cylinder, which is used, with the flexible tube b, in place of 
the ordinary cylinder of a hydrostatic press. It is cast open 
Ht the ends ; at the top there is a flange c, which rests upon 
two beams or bearers d, that form the base of the 'press ; and 
at the bottom, which is also flanged, the cylinder is enlarged 
eonically. The flexible tube b, is made, by preference, of vul- 
caiuzed India-rubber. It is securely held at the lower end 
li^tween the inner surface of the cylinder and the exterior 

▼OL. ZXXYXII. 2 P 



834 Recent Patents. 

surface of the conical piece e, (shewn separately at fig. 2,) 
which is formed with a flange/, whereby it is bolted to the 
lower flange of the cylinder a : grooves are formed around the 
conical piece e, and around the inner conical surface of the 
cylinder a, for the purpose of obtaining a firmer hold of the 
flexible tube. The other end of the tube by is drawn over the 
conical end of the ram g, and a ring h, with a conical inner 
surface, is placed over it ; and then, by applying the set screw 
i, and conical washer j, the end of the tube is securely fastened. 
k, is a pipe, by means of which water is forced into the tube b, 
through an opening in the conical piece e, provided with a 
valve 7. 

In fitting the parts together, the end of the ram is passed 
through the tube b, until it reaches the end of the tube ; and 
such end is then attached to the ram by means of the ring h, 
screw t, and washer j^ The ram is now drawn back so as to 
turn the greater part of the tube inside out, as represented at 
fig. 1 ; and the other end of the tube is then secured between 
the conical part of the cylinder a, and the conical piece e. To 
put the press in operation, water is forced into the tube b, 
through the pipe k, and, by pressing against the lower end of 
the ram, and within the annular space formed by the bending 
of the tube ft, it forces the ram upwards. When it is required 
to relax the pressure^ the water is discharged by opening a 
second valve in the conical piece e. The use of the cylinder 
a, is to guide and support the tube b, which receives the 
water used for working the press ; and which tube, by pre- 
venting the water from coming into contact with the cylinder 
a, removes any chance of leakage, and renders it unnecessary 
to have a stuflSng-box on the cover a^, of the cylinder, for the 
ram to work through. 

Fig. 3, is a longitudinal vertical section of the improved 
buffing-apparatus, a, is a metal cylinder, which is affixed to 
the under framing of the railway carriage, behind the end rail 
thereof, b, is a flexible tube, which is fastened at one end to 
the cylinder by the conical piece e, and at the other to the 
conical end of the buflFer-rod m, by the ring h, set screw », and 
washer y, as at fig. 1 ; but in this case the screw t, is bored to 
receive a rod w, which is secured to the end-piece e, and pro- 
jects through the screw i, into the hollow buffer-rod, so as to 
serve as a guide to the buffer-rod in its movements. When 
the tube b, has been secured to the buffer-rod, that rod is 
moved back until the head of the screw t, nearly touches the 
end-piece e ; and then the annular space (produced by the 
folding of the tube b,) is filled with water or other liquid 



Newton^ s J for Impts, in Couplings for Carriages, ^c. 335 

through an opening in the piece e, furnished with a valve. 
The buffer-rod being now drawn out^ the water assumes the 
position shewn by the dotted line ; and air^ to fill the remain- 
ing space within the tube b, is admitted by the valve I, — ^the 
air being either at the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere, 
or at a higher pressure. The object of using the water or 
other liquid is^ that^ as the same is incompressible, the end of 
the buffer-rod can never be forced back so far as to come 
in contact with the end-piece e, — which might take place if 
the tube b, contained air only. 

Pneumatic springs may be made on this principle for various 
other useful purposes. Flexible tubes, turned or folded in the 
manner described, are also applicable, when fitted with proper 
inlet and discharge-valves, as air or water-pumps ; — ^the tubes 
being either enclosed in metal or other cylinders or cases, or 
left uncovered. When employed for air-pumps, water may 
be admitted into the tubes for the purpose of displacing any 
air contained therein ; so that, in its action in expelling air 
during pumping, the supply of air taken in at each stroke will 
be entirely expelled. In all the arrangements, the turning in 
or folding-over action of the flexible material of which the 
tubes are made allows them to act as substitutes for the ordi- 
nary stuffing-boxes ; and the same adaptation of flexible tubes 
may be used for a great variety of purposes where a rod or 
other body is to be passed air or fluid-tight through any other 
body. 

The patentee claims, as his invention, the application and 
use of flexible tubes, turned in or folded over, for the purposes 
hereinbefore described. — [Inrolled April, 1851.] 



To Alpred Vincent Newton, of the Office for Patents, 66, 
Chancery 'lane, in the county of Middlesex, mechanical 
draughtsman, for improvements in couplings for carriages, 
and in the attachment of wheels to axles, — being a com- 
munication. — [Sealed 28th May, 1850.] 

This invention consists, firstly, in a means of connecting the 
front axletree of a carriage to the parts to which the body is 
attached ; secondly, in an improved method of attaching the 
whipple-tree to the pole or to the shafts ; thirdly, in an im- 
proved manner of attaching and arranging the " bows,'' by 
which the top or " caleche'' of a carriage is raised or lowered ; 
fourthly, in an improved method of connecting the wheels to the 
axles ; and, fifthly, in an arrangement of the springs, by which 



336 Recent Patents. 

they are made to connect the parts of the wheels which receive 
the shocks, in moving onward, with those parts which play 
upon the axles. 

The first part of this invention consists of what the inventor 
terras a " fifth wheel/' for coupling the fore axle and the 
perch of a carriage ; and it is also adapted to connect the 
trucks of railway carriages with the body of the same, as well 
as for various purposes of like nature. 

In Plate XV., tig. 1, is a longitudinal vertical section of 
the axle, bolster, and connexions ; fig. 2, a transverse vertical 
section of the same ; fig. 3, a view of the face of the lower 
plate ; and fig. 4, a view of the face of the upper plate. This 
coupling is composed of two circular plates a, b, so formed 
that, by one movement, they can be interlocked and form an 
union, which admits of the '' ring-bolt '^ being dispensed witL 
The plate b, consists of a disc, having at its centre a recess or 
depression, as shewn ; and around its edge a rim is thrown 
up, terminating in a narrow fiange, projecting inwards, as 
shewn at c, c. The flange has likewise two notches cut into 
it, as seen at d,d; and the plate may have ears e, e, cast upon 
it, for the purpose of readily securing it to the bolster or other 
proper part of the carriage to which it may be applied. The 
under plate is also a disc a, whose diameter is such as will 
allow it to pass within the flanges c, c. In the centre of this 
is a recessed space a^, having a rim projecting a little above 
the surface of the plate. This forms an oil-cup for lubrication 
when the plates are joined, as shewn in section at fig. 1. Upon 
the plate a, two projections c^, c^, are cast, of a suitable size 
to pass into the notches d, d, of the flange in the upper plate. 
To make the connection, it is only necessary to pass the pro- 

i'ections c^, c^, through the notches d, d, and then turn the 
ower disc partly round, which will bring the projections under 
the flange, and secure the two discs together, until the pro- 

i'ections are again brought opposite to the notches. The 
ower plate is bolted, or otherwise firmly affixed, to the -upper 
side of the axle, in such position that the projections on it 
coincide with the notches on the upper plate, — when one of 
the wheels is taken off, and that end of the axletree is turned 
back under the carriage in a line parallel with the perch. In 
this position only can the two be separated or be made to in- 
terlock. 

The second part of this invention consists in so connecting 
the whipple-tree to the carriage, that, without interfering with 
the required freedom of motion, the danger which usually re- 
sults from a trace breaking or becoming unhitched is pre- 



Newton^ 8, for Impts. in Couplings for Carriages , 8[c. 837 

vented^ — the whipple-tree retaining its appropriate position 
when only one trace is attached, and thereby allowing the 
horse to continue drawing as before. On the under side of 
the whipple-tree/, (fig. 5,) is a plateor disc of suitable metal, g, 
having, near the outer edge a flange h, rising from it, and in 
the centre a circular projection i, rising to one-half the height 
of the flange. From this central piece to the flange there 
are pieces k, k, cast on the plate g, and opposite to each other. 
Each of these must occupy somewhat less than one-fourth the 
area of the plate within the flange, in order to allow the re* 
quired play or traverse of the whipple-tree. On the upper 
side of the cross-bar of the shafts, /^, fig. 6, is a plate or disc 
g^f having at the outer edge a flange h^, rising to the height 
of the flange h, and of such size as will enclose that within it. 
At the centre of this disc is also a projection i, of the same 
sise as that on the other plate ; and there are also two pieces 
A, k, cast on the plate and solid with it, of the same size as 
those on the plate g, and consequently extending only so far 
from the centre as will leave between them and the flange h^, 
a recess for the flange h, when the plates g, g^, are applied 
together. Through the centre of each plate a hole /, is made, 
for the bolt which attaches the whipple-tree to the cross-bar. 
When the plate, shewn at fig. 6, is properly connected with 
that shewn at fig. 6, the projections ky k, on the upper plate, 
will lie in the spaces between the projections k, k, of the 
under plate, and, vice versd, the surfaces i, i, come into con- 
tact, and the flange h}, encloses the flange h. A bolt may 
now be passed through the holes /, /, to secure the plates to- 
gether. The plates and wood-work attached may now have a 
vibrating motion on the bolt, by so much only as the projec- 
tions do not fill the entire area of the circle. If now one 
trace or tug be detached from the whipple-tree, the other will 
continue to draw by the bolt through /, and the interlocking 
of the projections on the upper plate against those on the 
lower plate. 

The third improvement in couplings for carriages consists 
in a method of connecting the bows, by which the moveable 
top or caleche is held in a raised position. By this means a 
person sitting in the carriage is enabled to lock or unlock the 
bows when the top is elevated. On the ordinary seat (fig. 7,) 
of a carriage, having the usual extension top, there is a shaft 
m, of metal, running along the back, behind the cushion, and 
extending, at each side, far enough beyond the seat to form 
the usual journals for the bows. This shaft is secured near 
each end in boxes m^j so that it may have a vibratory motion. 



838 Recent Patents. 

Bows n^of common construction are used ; but, instead of having 
the usual play on the journals m^, they are firmly keyed to 
the shaft m. Motion being now given to the bow on one 
side of the top, it is communicated through the shaft to that 
on the other side. To the shaft is attached, by welding or 
otherwise, a bar o, in such a position that, when the top is 
elevated, the bar shall lie along the side of the seat inaide of 
the leather covering of the top ; and by the use of this bar 
the occupant can lock or unlock the bows, at pleasure, from 
the inside. 

The fourth part of the invention consists in an improved 
method of connecting the wheel with the axle ; whereby the 
wheel may be readily taken off without the removal of any 
parts, such as nuts or linch-pins ; as the use of these in at- 
taching the wheel to the axle is dispensed with entirely. A 
hook, terminating in a spring (as seen at p, fig. 8,), is let into 
the axle : the inner end of the box has a groove g, cut around 
it, in which the hook at the end of the spring plays. The 
removal of the box cannot therefore be effected, unless the 
spring is raised, so as to withdraw the hook from the groove : 
this is to be accomplished, when desired, by pressing up a 
bolt p^, which passes through the axle. 

A modification of this part of the invention is shewn at 
figs. 9, and 10, in which the position of the parts is merely 
reversed, — the groove being cut on the axle, and the springs 
and hooks being placed on the inner end of the box. Fig. 9, 
is a longitudinal section of the parts combined ; and fig. 10, 
is a plan of the inner end of the hub. p, p, are hooks, 
hinged at one end of each to the box, and kept in place by 
springs, as shewn ; and, instead of the bolt for withdrawing 
them, a collar r, is put around the hub-band, having small 
projections, at opposite sides, on the inner face of the ring^ 
which projections engage each an end of one of the hooks. 
The whole is covered in by an annular plate r^, which admits 
of the axle being passed through it. When the collar r, is 
moved round in the direction of the arrow (fig. 10,) the pro- 
jections will cause the hooks to open, and the whed may 
then be drawn off from the axle. 

The fifth part of the invention relates to a mode of conneet* 
ing those parts of the wheels of all vehicles used for locomo- 
tion which encounter or receive the shocks, in moving onward> 
with those parts which play upon the axles. These oonnec* 
tions are so made as materially to arrest all shocks, received^ 
by the wheel at the circumference, before they reach the axle. 
This effect is obtained by inserting in the hub of the wheel 



Newton%for Impts. in Couplings for Carriages, 8fC. 339 

Bome permanently elastic substance, as India-rubber, or com- 
pounds of like character, or elliptical, spiral, or corrugated 
springs of steel. The hub is formed by making a ring s, tig. 
1 1 ; the inner circumference of which comes in contact with 
the elastic material, but its outer circumference (when the 
wheel is constructed with spokes) is furnished with a series 
of mortice holes, to receive the inner ends of the spokes. 
The box may be of any of the usual forms, but it must be of 
sufficient length to allow of a screw-thread being cut on its 
outer end. On the inner end of the box is a broad flange, 
forming a disc /, cast solid with it, and of a diameter nearly 
equal to that of the ring s. Another disc /^, of similar size, 
is attached to the box, at the outer end, by being screwed 
upon it, as shewn ; and these two discs are brought just so 
near to each other as to close upon the ring s, but not so 
tightly as to impede its free motion. The inner face of each 
disc is turned out to give them a dish-shape, for the purpose 
of affording room for the elastic substance within the ring to 
expand laterally, when subjected to a compressing force, u, 
is a ring of India-rubber, which surrounds the box v, and fits 
the ring s. A metal washer x, is inserted next to the ring of 
India-rubber, and between it and the back plate t ; — its use 
being to regulate the degree of elasticity in the elastic ring ; 
and for the purpose of operating upon the washer sn, and ad« 
justing its position, screws y, y, are provided, which pass 
through the disc t, as shewn. It will now be seen that the 
elastic material sustains the load and rotates with the wheel ; 
— thus interposing constantly a spring nearest to the plane 
where the concussions are given. 

The patentee claims — Firstly, in relation to the method of 
connecting the front axletree with the other parts of the 
vehicle, and for other purposes — the plate A, affixed to the 
lower side of the bolster, and made to interlock with the plate 
a, affixed to the upper side of the axletree by means of the 
flange c, the. notches dy d, and the projections c^ c^, in the 
manner set forth. Secondly — in relation to connecting the 
whipple-tree to the carriage — the stops or blocks A, A, A, i, 
cast upon or otherwise affixed to the plates ^, ^^, in such 
manner that, when the two are joined by a central bolt, they 
may interlock, with the privilege of a certain amount of play 
or traverse, as herein described. Thirdly — in relation to 
attaching the bows — the combination of the shaft m, and 
operating-bar o, with the bows n, for the purpose of locking 
or unlocking the said bows in the manner described. Fourthly 
-nin relation to connecting wheels to axles — the book p, with 



340 Recent Patents. 

its spring and bolt^ in combination with the groove q, on the 
axle, or the equivalents of either and all of them^ as before 
described. Fifthly — in relation to connecting those parts of 
wheels which receive the shocks with those parts which play 
upon the axles — ^the introduction, within the hub, of springs 
to resist and destroy the shocks and concussions caused by 
the rolling of the wheel on uneven surfaces ; also the combi- 
nation of the discs with the box or axle and the other parts 
of the wheel for forming the spring-chamber, and as a sup- 
port to the wheel ; and likewise the means of regulating the 
elasticity of the springs, in the manner herein set forth. — 
[Inrolled November^ 1850.] 



OP 

O 



To Selim Richard St. Clair Massiah, of Alderman-walk, 
New Broad-street, in the City of London, for improvements 
in the manufacture of artificial marble and stone, and in 
treating marble and stone. — [Sealed 10th August, 1850.] 

The patentee manufactures artificial marble and stone by 
subjecting the material known as 'gypsum, or sulphate of 
lime, or alabaster, to the following processes : — The material 
having been cut or prepared of the desired shape, it is placed 
in a drying-room, heated to from 80° to 100° Fahr. ; when 
thoroughly dry, it is immersed in a warm solution of borax 
and sal-enixum [supersulphate of potash], prepared by addin 
about one pound of borax and a quarter of an ounce of sal- 
enixum to each gallon of water ; and, on being removed from 
the solution, it is again placed in the drying-room. When 
dry, it is exposed to a temperature of 250° Ftdir., or upwards, 
until the watery parts are entirely driven off; after which, it 
is taken out of the oven or stove, and, to prevent decrepitation, 
it is permitted to cool till the hand can be borne on it for a 
few seconds ; and then it is immersed in a hot saturated solu- 
tion of borax, to which concentrated nitric acid is added, in 
the proportion of from a quarter of an ounce to an ounce 
thereof